Self-healing Materials: Innovative Materials for Terrestrial and Space Applications

  • ID: 3288692
  • Book
  • 260 pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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The book reviews the concept of the self-healing processes, starting with their occurrence in nature, for example in plants, human skin and so on, and leading to the most recent scientific discoveries and industrial applications. 

It includes a description and explanation of a wide range of self-healing materials such as composites, polymers, anticorrosive smart paints, and coatings. Particular emphasis is given to the applications in the space environment, which is characterised mainly by vacuum, high thermal gradients, mechanical vibrations, and cosmic radiation. 

This book discusses the most recent and innovative results for controlling the self-healing materials for the mitigation of damages due to collisions with space debris and micro meteorites. 

It concludes with a comprehensive outlook into the future developments and applications. The book is supplemented by an extensive survey of the literature.
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1 Introduction

2 Natural Systems and Processes
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Growth and Functional Adaptation
2.3 Hierarchical Structuring
2.4 Natural Self-cleaning and Self-healing Capabilities
2.4.1 Self-cleaning
2.4.2 Damage and Repair Healing
2.4.3 Biological Wound Healing in Skin
2.5 Conclusions

3 Theoretical Models of Healing Mechanisms
3.1 The First Level Models
3.2 Example of Modelling with Finite Element Analysis (ANSYS)
3.3 Third Level Models

4 Self-healing of Polymers and Composites
4.1 Microcapsules
4.1.1 Effects of the Size and the Materials of Microcapsules on Self-healing Reaction Performance
4.1.2 Retardation of Fatigue Cracks
4.1.3 Delaminating Substrate
4.2 Choice of the Healing Agent/Catalyst System
4.2.1 Healing Agent
4.2.2 Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerisation Catalyst
4.3 Free Catalyst-based Epoxy/Hardener and Solvent Encapsulation Systems
4.3.1 Epoxy/Hardener System
4.3.2 Solvent Encapsulation
4.4 Hollow Glass Fibres Systems - Two Component Epoxies
4.5 Microvascular Networks Systems
4.6 Self-healing Coatings for Metallic Structures

5 Self-healing Evaluation Techniques
5.1 Methods with a Three- and Four-point Bend Test
5.2 Tapered Double-cantilever Beam
5.3 Compression after Impact
5.4 Combining the Four-point Bend Test and Acoustic Emission
5.5 Methods with Dynamic Impact
5.5.1 Indentation Test with a Dropping Mass
5.5.2 High Speed Ballistic Projectile
5.5.3 Hypervelocity Impact
5.6 Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors for Self-healing Detection

6 Review of Advanced Fabrication Processes
6.1 Ruthenium Grubbs’ Catalyst
6.1.1 Pulsed Laser Deposition Technique
6.1.2 Experimental Preparation of a Ruthenium Grubbs’ Catalyst-pulsed Laser Deposition Target
6.1.3 Experimental Results
6.2 Healing Capability of Self-healing Composites with Embedded Hollow Fibres
6.2.1 Detail of the Capillary Filling with Healing Agent
6.2.2 Hollow Fibres
6.2.3 Capillary ? lling with 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene Healing Agent Material
6.2.4 Healing with Hollow Fibres
6.3 Encapsulation of the 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene Healing Agent inside Polymelamine-urea-formaldehyde Shell
6.3.1 Stability of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene in Poly-urea-formaldehyde Shells
6.3.2 Preparation of 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene Microcapsules with Polymelamine-urea-formaldehyde Shells
6.3.3 Comparison of the Open-air Stability of the Poly-urea-formaldehyde and Polymelamine-ureaformaldehyde Shells Encapsulating 5-Ethylidene2-Norbornene Healing Agent
6.4 Integration of the 5-Ethylidene-2-Norbornene Monomer with Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes into a Microvascular Network Configuration
6.4.1 Experimental Details
6.4.2 Results and Discussion
6.4.3 Elaboration of the Three-dimensional
Microvascular Network and Self-healing Testing

7 Self-healing in Space
7.1 Challenges of the Self-healing Reaction in the Space Environment
7.2 Approaches to Space Applications
7.2.1 Self-healing with Microcapsules
7.2.2 Self-healing with Carbon Nanotubes
7.2.3 Self-healing of Ceramics
7.2.4 Self-healing for Re-entry Vehicles
7.2.5 Self-healing Foams
7.2.6 Integrating Sensing within Self-healing Structures
7.2.7 Self-healing Paints
7.2.8 Self-healing of Electrical Insulation
7.2.9 A Conductor Surrounded by a Foam Layer
7.2.10 Other Self-healing Products Photosil™ Graded Layer Self-healing using Polyethylene-co-methacrylic acid Self-repairing Shape-memory Alloy Ribbons Multifunctional Copolymers Self-healing Composites with Electromagnetic Functionality
7.3 Materials Ageing and Degradation in Space
7.3.1 Mechanical Ageing
7.3.2 Meteorites and Small Debris
7.3.3 Atomic Oxygen Effects
7.3.4 Vacuum Effect
7.3.5 Space Plasma
7.3.6 Thermal Shock
7.3.7 Outgassing

8 Measurement of Self-healing Capability using Impact Tests to Simulate Orbital Space Debris
8.1 Elaboration of Self-healing in Resin and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics
8.1.1 Preparation of Resin Sample
8.1.2 Validation of the High Velocity Impact Test on Epoxy-based Samples
8.1.3 Self-healing in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Samples under High Velocity Impact
8.2 Self-healing in Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Samples under Hypervelocity Impact Test
8.2.1 Sample Preparation
8.2.2 Hypervelocity Impact Test
8.2.3 Study of the Thickness of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer Samples after Hypervelocity Impact
8.2.4 Three-point Bending Test
8.2.5 Damping Effects of the Carbon Nanotubes Material
8.3 Hypervelocity Measurement with Fibre Bragg Grating Sensors
8.4 Summary of the Hypervelocity Impact Study

9 Conclusions and Future Outlook
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