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Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials. Next Generation Techniques and Applications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 3327995
  • Book
  • April 2021
  • 304 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

Discover this timely, comprehensive, and up-to-date exploration of crucial aspects of the use of nanomaterials in analytical chemistry  

Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials: Next Generation Techniques for Sample Preparation delivers insightful and complete overview of recent progress in the use of nanomaterials in sample preparation. The book begins with an overview of special features of nanomaterials and their applications in analytical sciences. Important types of nanomaterials, like carbon nanotubes and magnetic particles, are reviewed and biological sample preparation and lab-on-a-chip systems are presented.  

The distinguished author places special emphasis on approaches that tend to green and reduce the cost of sample treatment processes. He also discusses the legal, economical, and toxicity aspects of nanomaterial samples. This book includes extensive reference material, like a complete list of manufacturers, that makes it invaluable for professionals in analytical chemistry.  

Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials offers considerations of the economic aspects of nanomaterials, as well as the assessment of their toxicity and risk. Readers will also benefit from the inclusion of:  

  • A thorough introduction to nanomaterials in the analytical sciences and special properties of nanomaterials for sample preparation 
  • An exploration of the mechanism of adsorption and desorption on nanomaterials, including carbon nanomaterials used as adsorbents 
  • Discussions of membrane applications of nanomaterials, surface enhanced raman spectroscopy, and the use of nanomaterials for biological sample preparation 
  • A treatment of magnetic nanomaterials, lab-on-a-chip nanomaterials, and toxicity and risk assessment of nanomaterials 

Perfect for analytical chemists, materials scientists, and process engineers, Sample Preparation with Nanomaterials: Next Generation Techniques for Sample Preparation will also earn a place in the libraries of analytical laboratories, universities, and companies who conduct research into nanomaterials and seek a one-stop resource for sample preparation. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

1 Nanomaterials (NMs) in Analytical Sciences 1

1.1 Introduction 1 

1.2 Types of NMs 2

1.2.1 Graphene 2

1.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 3

1.2.3 Fullerenes (FULs) 4

1.2.4 Inorganic Nanoparticles 6

1.2.4.1 Gold and Silver Nanoparticles 6

1.2.4.2 Titanium Nanoparticles 7

1.2.4.3 Silica Nanoparticles 7

1.2.5 Magnetic Nanoparticles 7

1.3 Applications of NMs 8

1.3.1 NMs in Separation Processes 8

1.3.2 NMs in Biomedical Applications 8

1.3.3 NMs in Sensor Platforms 12

1.4 Conclusions 16

References 19

2 Special Properties of Nanomaterials (NMs) for Sample Preparation 27

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Mechanical Properties of NMs 28

2.2.1 Hardness and Strength 28

2.2.2 Ductility 30

2.2.3 Applications of Mechanical Properties 32

2.3 Thermal Properties of NMs 33

2.4 Electrical Properties of NMs 35

2.5 Optical Properties of NMs 36

2.6 Magnetic Properties of NMs 37

2.7 Adsorption Properties of NMs 38

2.8 Conclusions 39

References 40

3 Adsorption Mechanism on Nanomaterials (NMs) 47

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Adsorption Process 48

3.2.1 Adsorption Isotherms 48

3.2.1.1 Langmuir Isotherm 50

3.2.1.2 Freundlich Isotherm 50

3.2.1.3 Temkin Isotherm 50

3.2.1.4 Dubinin–Radushkevich Model 51

3.2.1.5 Harkins–Jura and Halsey Isotherms 51

3.2.1.6 Redlich–Peterson Isotherm 51

3.2.1.7 BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) Isotherm 52

3.2.2 Adsorption Kinetics and Thermodynamics 52

3.2.2.1 Pseudo-first-order Kinetics 52

3.2.2.2 Pseudo-second-order Kinetics 53

3.2.2.3 Intraparticle Diffusion Model 53

3.2.2.4 Thermodynamic Study 53

3.2.3 Adsorption Process on Nanoparticles 54

3.2.3.1 Silver Nanoparticles 54

3.2.3.2 Gold Nanoparticles 55

3.2.3.3 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles 56

3.2.3.4 Magnetic Fe3O4 Nanoparticles 56

3.2.4 Adsorption Process on Carbon Nanomaterials 58

3.2.4.1 Activated Carbon 58

3.2.4.2 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 59

3.2.4.3 Graphene Oxide (GO) 60

3.3 Conclusions and Future Perspective 63

References 63

4 Carbon Nanomaterials (CNMs) as Adsorbents for Sample Preparation 71

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 Carbon Nanomaterials (CNMs) 72

4.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) 72

4.2.2 Graphene 73

4.2.3 Fullerenes (FULs) 75

4.3 Adsorption on CNMs 76

4.4 Applications of CNMs 77

4.4.1 Extraction and Separation Applications 77

4.4.2 Chromatographic Applications 80

4.4.2.1 Chromatographic Stationary Phases Having CNTs 81

4.4.2.2 Chromatographic Stationary Phases Having FULs 83

4.5 Conclusions 84

References 84

5 Membrane Applications of Nanomaterials (NMs) 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Traditional Membranes 93

5.3 Carbon Nanomaterial-based Membranes 94

5.3.1 Graphene-based Membranes 94

5.3.2 Carbon Nanotube-based Membranes 97

5.3.3 Fullerene-based Membranes 100

5.4 Nanoparticle-based Membranes 101

5.5 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP)-based Membranes 102

5.6 Conclusions 105

References 108

6 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) with Nanomaterials (NMs) 117

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Theory of SERS 118

6.3 SERS Mechanisms 118

6.3.1 Electromagnetic Enhancement 119

6.3.2 Chemical Enhancement 120

6.4 Determination of SERS Enhancement Factor 121

6.5 Selection Rules 121

6.5.1 Image Field Model 121

6.5.2 Electromagnetic Field Model 122

6.6 Fabrications of SERS Substrates 123

6.6.1 Template-assisted Fabrication 124

6.6.2 Hybrid Fabrication 124

6.6.3 Fabrication by Using Colloids 124

6.6.4 Direct Deposition 125

6.7 Applications of SERS 125

6.7.1 SERS-Based Separation Applications 125

6.7.2 SERS-Based Sensor Applications 126

6.7.2.1 Environmental Analysis 126

6.7.2.2 Forensic Analysis 129

6.7.2.3 Biological Applications 131

6.8 Conclusions 133

References 133

7 Nanomaterials (NMs) for Biological Sample Preparations 147

7.1 Introduction 147

7.2 The Use of NMs in Diagnostic Platforms 148

7.2.1 The Optimization of NMs in Diagnostic Platforms 148

7.2.2 Biofunctionalization of NMs in Diagnostic Platforms 149

7.3 NMs-based Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) Platforms 150

7.3.1 Paper-based LOC Platforms 152

7.3.2 Centrifugal LOC Platforms 152

7.3.3 Droplet-based LOC Platforms 152

7.3.4 Digital LOC Platforms 152

7.3.5 Surface AcousticWave-based LOC Platforms 152

7.3.6 LOC Platforms for Biological Applications 153

7.4 Biomedical Applications of NMs 155

7.5 Sensor Applications of NMs 157

7.6 Conclusions 162

References 162

8 Magnetic Nanomaterials for Sample Preparation 173

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles 174

8.2.1 Thermal Decomposition Technique 174

8.2.2 Coprecipitation Technique 175

8.2.3 Sol–Gel Synthesis 175

8.2.4 Hydrothermal Synthesis 176

8.2.5 Microemulsion-Based Synthesis 176

8.2.6 Flow Injection Synthesis 176

8.2.7 Aerosol/Vapor-Phase-Based Synthesis 176

8.3 Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) 177

8.4 Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction (MSPE) 177

8.4.1 MSPE for Environmental Samples 178

8.4.2 MSPE for Food and Beverage Samples 183

8.4.3 MSPE for Biological Samples 185

8.5 Conclusions and Future Trends 186

References 187

9 Lab-on-a-Chip with Nanomaterials (NMs) 195

9.1 Introduction 195

9.2 Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) Concept 196

9.2.1 Paper-based LOC Systems 198

9.2.2 Centrifugal LOC Systems 198

9.2.3 Droplet-Based LOC Systems 198

9.2.4 Digital LOC Systems 199

9.2.5 Surface AcousticWave-Based LOC Systems 199

9.3 NM-Based LOC Platforms 199

9.3.1 NM-Based Transducers 199

9.3.1.1 Electrochemical Detection Systems 199

9.3.1.2 Optical Detection Systems 202

9.3.1.3 Other Detection Techniques 205

9.3.2 Nanoparticles as Labels in Microfluidics 206

9.3.3 NMs for Process Improvement 208

9.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 209

References 210

10 Toxicity and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials 219

10.1 Introduction 219

10.2 Hazard Assessment of Nanomaterials 220

10.2.1 Dermal Toxicity of Nanomaterials 220

10.2.2 Inhalational Toxicity of Nanomater𝚤als 221

10.2.3 Carcinogenicity and Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials 223

10.2.4 Neurotoxicity of Nanomaterials 226

10.3 Toxicity Mechanism of Nanomaterials 227

10.4 The Traditional Risk Assessment Paradigm 229

10.5 Strategies for Improving Specific Risk Assessment 230

10.5.1 Combining Life Cycle Methodology with the Risk Assessment Approach 230

10.5.2 The Support of Risk-Based Classification Systems 231

10.6 Conclusions 232

References 232

11 Economic Aspects of Nanomaterials (NMs) for Sample Preparation 241

11.1 Introduction 241

11.2 Toxicity Concerns of NMs 242

11.3 Global Market for NM-Based Products 243

11.4 Conclusions 245

References 246

12 Legal Aspects of Nanomaterials (NMs) for Sample Preparation 251

12.1 Introduction 251

12.2 Safety Issues of NMs 251

12.3 Regulatory Aspects of NMs 252

12.3.1 Ethical Concerns in the Environmental Effects of NMs 253

12.3.2 Ethical Concerns in Occupational Health and Safety ofWorkers 254

12.3.3 Ethical Concerns of NMs in Food 255

12.3.4 Ethical Concerns of NMs in Drugs, Cosmetics, and Human Health 255

12.4 Conclusions 256

References 257

13 Monitoring of Nanomaterials (NMs) in the Environment 261

13.1 Introduction 261

13.2 Toxicity and Safety Concerns of NMs 262

13.3 Main Sources and Transport Routes of Nanopollutants 264

13.4 Requirements of Analytical Approaches 266

13.5 Sampling of NMs in Environmental Samples 266

13.6 Separation of NMs in Environmental Samples 267

13.7 Detection Techniques for the Characterization of NMs 268

13.8 Conclusions 270

References 270

14 Future Prospect of Sampling 275

14.1 Introduction 275

14.2 Sampling 276

14.3 Sample Preparation 276

14.4 Green Chemistry 278

14.5 Miniaturization of Analytical Systems 280

14.5.1 Miniaturization of Separation Techniques 281

14.5.2 Lab-on-a-Valve (LOV) as a Powerful Tool to Meet Green Chemical Principles 283

14.6 Conclusions 283

References 284

Index 289

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), USA. Rustem Kecili Anadolu University, Turkey. Chaudhery Ghazanfar Hussain University of Lahore, Pakistan.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown