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Vehicle Dynamics: Transformation, Technology and Opportunity

  • ID: 3422628
  • Report
  • 141 pages
  • Autelligence
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Clear Understanding of a Fast-Moving Field: Evolution, Integration, Market Dynamics, Future Developments, Supplier Profiles


  • Advics
  • Bosch
  • Continental AG
  • Freescale
  • Magna
  • Nexteer
  • MORE
Nothing, not even the Toyota unintended acceleration crisis of a few years ago, has tempered the industry’s zeal for brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire and drive-by-wire technology.

X-by-wire is the wave of the future in vehicle dynamics, promising to make cars lighter, safer, easier to build and more fuel efficient.

But what does it mean for your company? What are the hidden opportunities?

“Vehicle Dynamics: Transformation, Technology and Opportunity” provides an overall understanding of a fast-moving field.

For more than two decades the take-up of electronically-controlled vehicle dynamics was held back by consumer reservations. But the situation has changed dramatically in the past two years.

OEM strategies — starting with braking systems — are taking shape so quickly that it is difficult to keep track of who is doing what – and where the opportunities lie. The report offers a clear analysis of the state of modern vehicle dynamics and the tactical steps OEMs are taking.

What’s clear is that the mandate for better fuel economy and the competition for emerging markets are stimulating the new interest by OEMs in X-by-wire systems. Not least among them is the new industry race for self-driving vehicles, which proponents say is impossible without X-by-wire.

In an era of platform commonality the management of vehicle dynamics has become a key differentiator for products — a trend that will clearly continue. The passage of the art of vehicle dynamics from the mechanical to the electronic creates enormous opportunities for suppliers.

The report evaluates cost benefit imperatives of vehicle dynamics technologies and consumer adoption, as well as detailing important research findings and exploring case studies in integrated systems.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • Advics
  • Bosch
  • Continental AG
  • Freescale
  • Magna
  • Nexteer
  • MORE
Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The evolution of vehicle dynamics

2.1 Rules governing ESC – the founding principle of vehicle dynamics
2.2 Software progression in electronics
2.3 Evaluating cost benefit imperatives of vehicle dynamics technologies and consumer adoption
2.4 Research findings

Chapter 3: Computer modelling and simulation of in vehicle systems

3.1 Monitoring safety
3.2 Uses of modelling to pretest designs in actuators, suspension, steering and tyres
3.2.1 Actuators
3.2.2 Suspension
3.2.3 Electric power steering
3.2.4 Tyres

Chapter 4: Integration of vehicle dynamics systems

4.1 Assistance from sensors
4.2 Case studies in integrated systems

Chapter 5: Design and specification of components – steering, suspension, brakes, traction control and tyres

5.1 Steering
5.1.1 Electro-hydraulic power steering
5.1.2 Electric power steering
5.1.3 Active steering
5.1.4 Steer-by-wire
5.1.5 Rear wheel steering
5.2 Suspension
5.2.1 Suspension geometry – front and rear
5.2.2 Kinematics and elasto-kinematics
5.2.3 Reducing weight
5.2.4 The progression from passive to active suspension
5.2.5 Passive suspension developments
5.2.6 Adaptive suspension systems
5.2.7 Semi-active suspension systems
5.2.8 Active suspension systems – hydraulic, air and electromagnetic
5.3 Brakes
5.3.1 Emergency brake assist
5.3.2 Automatic emergency braking
5.3.3 Brake-by-wire
5.3.4 Electromechanical brakes
5.3.5 Brake systems for hybrids and EVs
5.3.6 Electric parking brake
5.3.7 Lightweight materials
5.4 Stability control
5.5 Traction control
5.5.1 Differentials
5.5.2 All-wheel drive
5.5.3 Electronic traction control
5.5.4 Torque vectoring
5.5.5 Active all-wheel drive and torque vectoring
5.5.6 Electrified all-wheel drive and torque vectoring systems
5.6 Tyres

Chapter 6: Market dynamics and forecasts

6.1 Steering
6.2 Suspension
6.3 Brakes
6.4 Stability control systems
6.5 All-wheel drive
6.6 Tyres

Chapter 7: Roadmap for future developments

Chapter 8: Company Profiles

American Axle
BWI Group
Chassis Brakes
Continental AG
Denso International
KYB Corporation
Magneti Marelli
Mando Corporation
NHK Spring
ZF Friedrichshafen AG

Table of figures

Figure 1: Increasing number of ECUs per vehicle class, 2006–2018
Figure 2: The increasing number of vehicle model variants, 1970 to 2030
Figure 3: Step response of actuator models compared to actual measurement
Figure 4: Model descriptions for modelling elasto-kinematics in a double wishbone suspension
Figure 5: Influence of elastic component under longitudinal load
Figure 6: Influence of elastic component under lateral load
Figure 7: Steering system solutions for a range of model variants
Figure 8: Finite element, 3D tyre simulation with thermal gradient
Figure 9: Bosch Vehicle Motion Control
Figure 10: Bosch networked ESC and steering systems
Figure 11: ZF TRW electrically-powered hydraulic steering
Figure 12: Different EPS calibration possibilities, steering wheel torque vs assistance
Figure 13: Steering feedback maps – Porsche UKR vs conventional EPS
Figure 14: Honda EPS system
Figure 15: ZF Lenksysteme Active Steering
Figure 16: TRW Belt Drive Electrically-Powered Steering
Figure 17: Nexteer Pinion Assist Electric Power Steering
Figure 18: Bosch Servolectric EPS with servo unit on the steering column
Figure 19: Ford Adaptive Steering components
Figure 20: ThyssenKrupp Presta experimental steer-by-wire system
Figure 21: ZF Active Kinematics Control system
Figure 22: Transient lateral load build-up in rear suspension trailing arm, base vs modified
Figure 23: Driver ratings and preferences for five roll dynamics test cases
Figure 24: Typical front-wheel drive MacPherson strut suspension configuration
Figure 25: Double-wishbone front suspension configuration
Figure 26: Toyota robotic suspension schematic
Figure 27: Comparison of normal, wide and controlled suspension during cornering
Figure 28: Ford Fiesta twist beam rear suspension
Figure 29: Mercedes-Benz CLA multi-link rear suspension
Figure 30: ZF ultra-light suspension strut
Figure 31: Sogefi glass fibre-reinforced polymer coil spring
Figure 32: Mercedes-Benz pre-scan technology
Figure 33: Ford RevoKnuckle
Figure 34: HyPerStrut (left) versus MacPherson strut (right) geometry
Figure 35: Chevrolet Cruze Z-LinkTorsion Beam rear suspension
Figure 36: Ford Control Blade rear suspension
Figure 37: ZF Vario Damper internals
Figure 38: BWI MagneRide strut and damper
Figure 39: Magneti Marelli Synaptic Damping components
Figure 40: Tenneco Continuously-controlled Electronic Suspension
Figure 41: ZF Sachs CDC dampers
Figure 42: Mercedes-Benz Active Body Control in action
Figure 43: Bilstein B4 Air Suspension Strut
Figure 44: Continental Airmatic Suspension
Figure 45: Bose electromagnetic front suspension module
Figure 46: Braking distances with and without EBS
Figure 47: Continental MK C1 electro-hydraulic brake system
Figure 48: ZF TRW Slip Control Boost
Figure 49: Siemens VDO Electronic Wedge Brake
Figure 50: Continental spindle-actuated electromechanical brake
Figure 51: Bosch iBooster
Figure 52: Continental drum-brake EPB system
Figure 53: ZF TRW EPB and operating switch
Figure 54: Brembo carbon-ceramic brake module
Figure 55: Continental/Schaeffler Active Roll Stabilization
Figure 56: ZF Sachs ARS locking-unlocking device
Figure 57: GKN Electronic Locking Differential
Figure 58: GKN Electronic Torque Manager
Figure 59: GKN Dual Differential for transverse powertrain
Figure 60: BorgWarner FXD
Figure 61: GKN Electronic Torque Vectoring Module
Figure 62: Lexus RC F torque transfer system
Figure 63: Steering angle, yaw rate, brake pressures, engine torque and wheel slip under control strategy intervention
Figure 64: AWD demand on high-grip roads
Figure 65: Fuel economy: Getrag ECO -Twinster versus mechanical AWD
Figure 66: BorgWarner Torque-On-Demand Transfer Case
Figure 67: GKN ElectroMagnetic Control Device
Figure 68: Honda SH-AWD system
Figure 69: Magna ProActive AWD coupling
Figure 70: Schaeffler transverse, two-speed electric drive axle
Figure 71: Schaeffler 48-volt electric drive axle with torque vectoring
Figure 72: Michelin Active Wheel
Figure 73: Braking distance tests on high- and low-friction surfaces, 2000–2016
Figure 74: Rolling resistance, 2000–2014
Figure 75: Global automotive steering system market growth, 2013–2018
Figure 76: Global electric power steering market value by region (US$bn), 2014–2020
Figure 77: Electric power steering system shipments (millions), 2013–2018
Figure 78: Automotive suspension systems market value by region, 2013–2018
Figure 79: Global brake systems market value growth by vehicle type, 2014–2019
Figure 80: Automotive brake friction products market volume growth by region, 2014–2019
Figure 81: Global automotive ABS and ESC system market growth, 2014–2019
Figure 82: Automotive multi-wheel drive systems market volume by region, 2014–2020
Figure 83: Global tyre revenue 2014 by manufacturer
Figure 84: Global tyre value by vehicle sector
Figure 85: Bosch roadmap towards automated driving
Figure 86: Bosch Vehicle Motion Control inputs and outputs roadmap

Table of tables

Table 1: Safety incentives – dates and stages of fitment required by legislation
Table 2: Comparison of evasive distance for different velocities
Table 3: A new brand of steering – Ford’s Steering System Fingerprint
Table 4: Mergers and acquisitions driven by successful technologies

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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4 of 3
- Advics
- American Axle
- BorgWarner
- Bosch
- BWI Group
- Chassis Brakes
- Continental AG
- Delphi
- Denso International
- Freescale
- KYB Corporation
- Magna
- Magneti Marelli
- Mando Corporation
- Nexteer
- NHK Spring
- Ricardo
- Tenneco
- Thyssenkrupp
- Visteon
- ZF Friedrichshafen AG

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown