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Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds

  • ID: 3429228
  • Book
  • 540 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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This book covers the progress of the last 10 years of studies on cocoa butter. Descriptions of several aspects, including physical characteristics such as rheology, hardness, melt profiles, etc., studied by new and advanced techniques are included. Similarly, the polymorphism of cocoa butter is reconsidered in light of studies done by synchrotron DSC, FTIR, and SAXS techniques. These data are complemented by new understandings on the cause of the crystallization and transitions of the polymorphs. Other aspects such as the effect of minor components, emulsifiers, and other fats are discussed in great detail in this book.

- Brings together all that is known about cocoa butter into one book- Describes physical characteristics of cocoa butter including rheology, hardness, and melt profiles- Reconsiders polymorphism of cocoa butter in light of recent studies by various analytical techniques- Presents new understandings on the cause of crystallization and transitions of polymorphs

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CHAPTER 1: Chocolate and Cocoa Butter-Structure and Composition
CHAPTER 2: Theobroma cacao-An Introduction to the Plant, Its Composition, Uses, and Health Benefits
CHAPTER 3: Cocoa Polyphenols
CHAPTER 4: Phase Behavior of Saturated Triacylglycerides-Influence of Symmetry and Chain Length Mismatch
CHAPTER 5: Molecular Composition Dynamics and Structure of Cocoa Butter
CHAPTER 6: Polymorphism and Mixing Phase Behavior of Major Triacylglycerols of Cocoa Butter
CHAPTER 7: Causes and Best Manufacturing Practices to Minimize Bloom in Confections
CHAPTER 8: Morphology of Chocolate Fat Bloom
CHAPTER 9: Effect of Minor Components on Cocoa Butter Polymorphism and Kinetics of Crystallization
CHAPTER 10: Noncocoa Ingredients on Cocoa Butter Crystallization
CHAPTER 11: Impact of Cocoa Butter Origin on Crystal Behavior
CHAPTER 12: Effect of Emulsifiers on Cocoa Butter and Chocolate Rheology, Polymorphism, and Bloom
CHAPTER 13: Methods of Studying Cocoa Butter and Bloom
CHAPTER 14: New Method to Study Molecular Interactions in Fats-Synchrotron Radiation Microbeam X-ray Diffraction
CHAPTER 15: Milk Fat and Cocoa Butter
CHAPTER 16: Molecular Interactions of Triacylglycerides in Blends of Cocoa Butter with trans-free Vegetable Oils
CHAPTER 17: Methods and Technologies Related to Shea Butter Chemophysical Properties and to the Delivery of Bioactives in Chocolate and Related Products
CHAPTER 18: Enzymatic and Other Modification Techniques to Produce Cocoa Butter Alternatives
CHAPTER 19: Confectionery Fats
CHAPTER 20: Future of Cocoa Butter Research
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Garti, Nissim


Nissim Garti obtained his B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has been a full professor since 1990 and holds the Ratner Chair of Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Applied Chemistry. He also serves as a Board Member Elect and Director of the Hebrew University Governors Executive Board since January 2011. Nissim is the recipient of numerous prestigious awards including the Rockefeller Award, the Israel President Award for one of the most innovative inventions in 60 years of the existence of the country, Life-Time Achievement Award of the Food Society, the Chang Award of the AOCS, the Corporate Research Achievement Award of the AOCS for 2011, and many others. His achievements include publishing over 380 original (research) refereed papers in peer reviewed journals; writing over 60 review chapters in scientific books; granted over 80 patents; edited 7 books and additional 4 in preparation; invited to over 180 conferences as keynote, session, and invited speaker; and educated and tutored 38 Ph.D. students and 84 M.Sc. students. Nissim is a member of the board of directors of several academic institutions in Israel and consults for several Israeli and global industries. Nissim's expertise, competence, and active research is in colloid chemistry, emulsion technology, dispersed systems, delivery new vehicles, microemulsions and lyotropic liquid crystals, crystallization phenomena, interfacial reactions and reactivity, amphiphilic proteins, hydrocolloids, dendrimers, nutraceuticals, and food science.


Nissim Garti is Professor of Chemistry at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. One of the founders of Adumim Chemicals Ltd., NutraLease Ltd.-a company focused on a nano-encapsulation technology for nutraceuticals, and LDS (Lyotropic Delivery Systems). He received B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel, in 1969, 1971 and 1974 respectively. Garti was awarded: Life Time Achievement of the Israeli Association for Food Research and Technology, Tel-Aviv, 2009; The Chung Scientific Award of the AOCS for Outstanding Scientific and Technology Achievements, Orlando, 2009; The Most Innovative Israeli Nanotechnology Award Winner of the CMNC Society, "Food Goes Nano- Liquid Nano Vehicles for Nutraceuticals solubilization and delivery,” Chicago, USA, 2005; The Japanese Award for the Promotion of Senior Foreign Scientists, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan, 2003; The Best Invention and Innovation of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem 1997; The Most Innovative Food Ingredient Award in Europe (FIE), London, 1997; and The Japan Oil Chemical Society Forum Award for Outstanding Achievement, "Polymorphism in Fats,” Nara, Japan, 1997. Professor Garti is the author of more than 400 publications and holds over 70 patents.

Widlak, Neil R.
Neil R. Widlak is currently the Director of Product Service and Development for ADM Cocoa in North America. Neil started his exploration into the wonderful world of fat crystallization after receiving his B.S. in Food Science from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, and working for Kraft Foods as a scientist in Kraft's shortening and margarine research labs. Neil earned a Master's in Food Science from the University of Illinois and Masters in Business Administration from Lake Forest Graduate School of Management, while continuing to work at Kraft. During this time Neil became active in the AOCS, serving as a board member for the North Central Section, Edible Applications Division and as a Member at Large, AOCS Governing Board. Neil chaired numerous AOCS symposia on crystallization of lipids for annual meetings, in addition to chairing three AOCS international conferences on the physical properties of fats and oils in 1997, 2000 and 2009. Neil received the AOCS Fellow Award in 2011.
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