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The Flagellar Mechanics of Spermatozoa: its Implication in Sperm Guidance

  • ID: 3505751
  • Book
  • November 2015
  • Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Experimental research using spermatozoa, a highly specialized cell with organelles involved in gene transfer, energy supply and cellular motility, has always occupied the forefront of studies in cell and reproductive biology. Several spermatological experiments have focused on the attraction of a spermatozoon toward the egg – sperm chemotaxis or sperm guidance. This process ubiquitously occurs in the reproductive system of many organisms. After its discovery in the late 19th century in plants, sperm chemotaxis is known to play a crucial role in fertilization success in both plants and animals. Spermatology has expanded in focus in recent years, as the structure of molecules relevant to sperm chemotaxis has been recently determined in several species of invertebrates and vertebrates, which promises remarkable progress for understanding events relevant to sexual reproduction. Reflecting upon these trends in the long history of sperm chemotaxis, Flagellar Mechanics and Sperm Guidance gathers leaders in the field of spermatology, who have presented their experimental research on the chemical cues behind flagellate behavior in a variety of organisms including bikonts and spermatozoa of marine invertebrates and vertebrates (fish, amphibians and mammals). Reviews presented in this monograph provide both basic and detailed information on the initiation and activation of sperm motility at spawning, sperm thermotaxis, and other mechanics such as mathematical models of a spermatozoon swimming. A comparison between features of sperm chemotaxis among different organisms is also given.

Flagellar Mechanics and Sperm Guidance will stir interest in spermatology research among a broad variety of readers including researchers, Ph.D. students studying reproductive biology and teachers involved in advanced biology courses.
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Chapter 1 The Flagellar Mechanics Of Spermatozoa And Its Regulation
Introduction
1. Structure, Biochemical Composition And Building Of An Axoneme
1-1. Structure
1-2. Biochemical Composition
1-3. The Structural And Biochemical Complexity Of The Flagellar Axoneme
1-4. The Building Of An Axoneme
2. Biophysical Parameters Of Beating Flagella That Govern Sperm Motility
3. Operation Of A Flagellar Micromotor
3-1. Cilia And Flagella Use Similar Elements For Their Functioning
3-2. Notion Of Sliding
3-3. Bending Engendered By The Sliding
3-4. Regulation Responsible Of Alternative Movement
3-5. Enzymological And Structural Data On The Flagellar Micro-Motor
3-6. Need For A Resistance To Sliding
4. Operational Models
4-1. Presentation Of The Main Models
4-2. Wave Propagation
4-2-1. Curvature-Controlled Model
4-2-2. Sliding-Controlled Switching Model
4-3. Predictions On The Mechanism For Regulation Of Waves And Its Consequences
5. Internal Versus External Regulation Of Axonemal Activity
5-1. Internal Regulation
5-2. Regulatory Complexes In The Axoneme
5-3. External Regulation
5-4. Initiation Of Flagella Activity: Biochemical Aspects
5-5. Mechanisms Underlying Motility Maturation And Activation Events
5-6. Initiation Of Flagella Activity: Phenomenological Aspects
6. Energetic Aspects
6-1. Source And Use Of Energy: Biochemical Aspects
6-2. Force, Power And Energy In The Flagellum: Mechanical Aspects
7. Evolutionary Considerations On The Axonemal Organelle And On The
Sperm Guidance Mechanisms
8. Conclusions About Sperm Motility And Its Activation
Conflict Of Interest
Acknowledgements
Notification
References

Chapter 2 Sea Urchin Sperm Chemotaxis
1. Introduction
2. Gamete Communication, Sensing Of Spatial Cues
2.1. Sperm-Activating Peptides And The Taxonomy Of Echinoids
2.2. Sap Receptors And The Membrane-Associated Guanylate Cyclase
2.3. Gradient Detection Constraints
3. Signaling
4. C Signals And Flagellar Dynamics
5. Current Efforts Of Modeling To Understand Chemotaxis
5.1. Modeling Focused On Signaling
5.2. Modelling Focused On Sperm Chemotactic Movement
5.3. Efforts For Comprehensive Modelling
Perspectives
Conflict Of Interest
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 3 Sperm Chemotaxis In Urochordates
Introduction
Features Of Ascidian Sperm Chemotaxis
Specificity Of Ascidian Sperm Chemotaxis
Signaling Of Sperm Chemotaxis
Sperm Attractants
Receptor Of Sperm Attractants
Species Specificity Of Sperm Chemotaxis Revisited: Discussion On The Molecular Basis Of Specificity
Sperm Attractants Induce Ca Bursts In The Spermatozoa
Control Of Sperm Flagellar Movement During Chemotaxis
[Ca] Controls Sperm Flagellar Movement
Molecular Components Of The Axonemes In Ascidian Sperm
Calaxin Is A Ca-Sensor Protein Of Outer Arm Dynein
Calaxin Drives Sperm Chemotaxis By Propagating Flagellar Asymmetric Waveform
Conclusions
Conflict Of Interest
Acknowledgements
References

Chapter 4 Sperm Motility Initiation In Pacific Herring
Introduction
Herring Sperm Motility: Molecules That Initiate Motility
Herring Sperm Motility: Extracellular Ion Requirements
Initiation Of Motility In Pacific Herring Sperm In The Estuary
Signal Transduction Events Associated With Sperm Activation
Motility Changes And Facilitation Of Micropyle Entry Via Increases In [Ca]
Conflict Of Interest
Acknowledgements
References
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