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Low and High Temperature Superconductor Wire: Beyond Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Electrical Equipment and Then Fusion Power - Global Markets, Technologies, Opportunities and Competitors: 2015-2020 Analysis and Forecasts

  • ID: 3505753
  • Report
  • December 2015
  • Region: Global
  • 323 Pages
  • Amadee & Company, Inc
1 of 3


  • ASG Superconductors SpA
  • Grid Logic
  • Luvata Pori OY
  • Oxford Instruments plc
  • SuperOx
  • MORE
Superconductivity-the absence of electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures-continues to be of great scientific, technological and commercial interest. The purpose of Superconductors is to generate high magnetic fields. And in terms of magnetic fields, Superconductors rule.

It has been 104 years since the initial discovery of superconductivity in 1911. Since then, only one, major commercial application has developed: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the 1980s. Even so, MRI along with other superconductor applications has developed into a global market worth billions.

A renaissance of superconductivity applications could appear in the next 3-7 years (2018-2023) and will be based not on incremental progress in the existing technologies but rather on a radical breakthrough in a different, highly attractive and rapidly growing industries, including clean energy and electric power equipment.

The primary focus of this report is Superconductor Wire-both Low Temperature and High Temperature. Superconductor Wire is what makes Superconductivity applications possible.

The secondary focus of this report is on applications for Superconductor Wire. The major application for Superconductor Wire to date is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. MRI technologies and markets are thus examined in detail in this report.

The question is: what will be the next generation commercial applications for Superconductor Wire? At present, the new applications are thought to be electrical equipment and nuclear fusion power. So, both these technologies and potential markets are discussed in detail in this report.

Included in the report are detailed analyses of:

- Global Market For Superconductivity: Existing vs. Emerging Applications by Type and Low Temperature vs. High Temperature Superconductors.
- Global Market for Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire.
- Global Superconductor Wire Market by Application.
- Producers of Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire.
- Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Sales and Market Shares by Producer.
- Global MRI Market, Metrics and Producers.
- Global Market for Utility Equipment Including Cables, Medium and High Voltage Transformers, Medium and High Voltage Switchgear and Motors.

The report also includes comprehensive evaluations of:

- The Seven Eras in Superconductor Technology.
- Existing and Emerging Superconductor Applications.
- Low Temperature Superconductor vs. High Temperature Superconductor Applications
- Opportunities Beyond MRI.
- Utilities Markets for High Temperature Superconductors.
- Future World Electric Energy Requirements.
- Nuclear Fusion and Superconducting Tokamaks.
- ITER Project: Conductor Procurement Companies, Procurement Costs by Product, Conductor Costs, LHC Conductor Costs.
- Installed Cost Goals for Fusion Power and the Global Power Generation Market.
- Fusion Entrepreneurs: Private Sector Companies Doing Fusion Power R&D and Capital Investments in These Companies.

Additionally, profiles of 24 leading foreign and U.S. Superconductor wire manufacturers are given, along with 30 tables and 115 figures.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 3


  • ASG Superconductors SpA
  • Grid Logic
  • Luvata Pori OY
  • Oxford Instruments plc
  • SuperOx
  • MORE
1. Executive Summary

2. Introduction
- Report Objectives
- Methodology and Sources
- Statistical Notes

3. Superconductivity: Science, Technology and Industry Overview
- Original Discovery
- Three Parameters Describing Superconductors
- 100+-Year History of Superconductivity by Era
- Era of Science and Discovery (1908–1961)
- Era of Technology and Innovation (1962–1970)
- Era of Entrepreneurship (1971–1981)
- Era of Products and Profits (1982–1990)
- Era of New Materials and Applications (1991–2003)
- Era of industry Consolidation (2004–2007)
- Future of Superconductivity Technology
- Kondratiev Waves and Technology Innovation
- Superconductivity Technology Waves
- Bust Phase of Technology Cycle
- Electrical Equipment and Fusion Energy

4. Superconductor Market
- Purpose of Superconductors
- Market Segments
- Existing Applications
- Emerging Applications
- Emerging Large-Scale Applications
- Emerging Electronic Applications
- Market by Existing Applications
- Market by Emerging Applications
- Low Temperature Superconductor vs. High Temperature Superconductor Applications
- Opportunities Beyond MRI
- Problems with HTS
- Government Projects Will Fund HTS
- Need for Young Minds

5. Superconductor Wire Market
- LTS and HTS Definitions
- Properties of Superconductors Used in Industrial Applications
- Low Temperature Superconductors
- Copper as a Matrix Material
- Production Flow for Technical Superconductors
- General Design of NbTi Conductor
- General Design of Nb3Sn (Bronz. Conductor
- General Design of Nb3Sn (Internal Ti. Conductor
- Properties NbTi vs. Nb3Sn
- NbTi Manufacturing Process
- LTS Present Applications
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
- High Energy Physics
- Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
- Nuclear Fusion
- Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer II (AMS II)
- Other Applications
- High Temperature Superconductors and Magnet Technology
- Magnesium Diboride
- MgB2-based MRI Magnets
- MgB2 Conductor Developments
- Columbus Superconductors PIT Technique
- MgB2 Challenges Remain
- OpenSky 0.5 T MgB2 MRI Scanner
- Development of HTS Conductors
- HTS Critical Parameters
- HTS Conductor Cost
- Stress Limitations
- Reliable Manufacturing
- Persistent Joints
- Quench Protection
- YBCO Conductor Manufacturers
- HTS YBCO Challenges
- YBCO Unlikely in MRIs
- First HTS MRI Scanner
- HTS Commercial Development Requirements
- Realization of Commercial HTS Industry
- LTS vs. HTS Price Trends
- Global Superconductor Wire Market
- Low and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Markets
- Superconductor Wire Market by Application
- Competitive Environment

6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Market
- MRI Overview
- MRI Technology
- MRI Commercialized Superconductivity
- Magnet Strength Measure
- Types of MRI Magnets
- Advantages/Disadvantages of Resistive-Magnet MRIs
- Advantages/Disadvantages of Permanent-Magnet MRIs
- Advantages/Disadvantages of Superconducting-Magnet MRIs
- MRI Uses Majority of Superconducting Materials
- Field Strength
- Advantages of Higher Field MRIs
- Challenges / Disadvantages / Limitations of Higher-Field MRIs
- Lower Field Scanners Fading Away
- 3 Tesla Scanners Now Predominant
- Changing Definition of High Field
- Magnet Shape and Orientation
- Design Issues
- Open Vs. Cylindrical Systems
- Magnet Design
- Compactness and Accessibility
- Uniformity and Persistence
- Stray Magnetic Field and Shielding
- Refrigeration
- NbTI vs. HTS Conductors
- Magnesium Diboride Magnets
- Global MRI Production: 2015-2020
- Upside Limits on MRI Production
- Global MRI Production by Type: 2015
- Superconducting Components Share of MRI Production
- Global MRI Installed Base
- U.S. MRI Installed Base by Type
- Cylindrical Vs. Open Installed Systems
- Bore Size in New Installations
- U.S. MRI Site Budgets for Systems
- MRI Procedures Done in the U.S. Annually
- U.S MRI Procedures Done Compared to Other Countries
- U.S. Sites Where MRI Procedures Are Performed
- U.S. MRI Procedures by Study
- MRI Procedures by Site
- MRI Scanners by Site
- MRI Producer Market Shares
- MRI Site Purchase Plans by System Type
- MRI Site Purchase Plans by Producer
- MRI System Global Producers
- Superconducting MRI Magnet Producers
- Japan MRI Market
- China MRI Market
- Russia MRI Market

7. Utilities Markets for High Temperature Superconductors
- HTS Barriers to Adoption
- HTS Wire Cost Must Be Reduced
- HTS Equipment Applications
- Cable
- Triaxial Cable
- Transformers
- Fault Current Limiters
- Motors and Generators
- Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES)
- Utilities Available Market for Superconductor Products
- Global Utility Cable/Lines Market
- Global Superconducting Cable Market
- Global Utility Transformer Market
- Global Fault Current Limiter Market
- Global Utility Switchgear Market
- Global Utility Motors Market
- Sakura Internet DC Power Transmission Project
- Sakura Cable Manufactured by SEI
- Superconducting Cable and DC Transmission Reduce Power Consumption by 30%
- New Addressable Market
- Technical Issues

8. Nuclear Fusion, Superconductivity, ITER Project and Power Generation Markets
- Promise of Near Limitless Energy
- Superconductivity the Key Enabling Technology
- Twice as Much Power Needed by 2050
- ITER Is the Largest Applied Superconductivity Project
- Sustainable Energy System Needed
- Future World Population
- Future World Electric Energy Requirements
- Huge Growth In Energy Demand Forecast
- Specific Energy of Available Fuels
- Scale of the Energy Problem
- Future Power Requirements Needed
- Carbon-Free Energy Sources
- Nuclear
- Carbon Sequestration
- Renewables
- Sustainable Energy Policies
- Nuclear Power
- Fusion vs. Fission Reactions
- Nuclear Fusion
- Nuclear Fusion Fuels
- Nuclear Fusion Products
- Nuclear Fusion Reactor
- Challenges of Fusion
- Plasma Confinement
- Tokamaks
- Conventional vs. Superconducting Tokamaks
- Advantages of Superconductivity
- Drawbacks of Superconductivity
- Superconducting Fusion Machines
- Superconductor Materials Development
- Superconducting Wire Production
- ITER Project Overview
- Project Management
- ITER Site Construction
- ITER Tokamak and Magnet System
- Feeders
- Largest Superconducting Magnet Built
- ITER Magnet System Supply
- ITER Conductors Overview
- TF and CS Conductors
- Conductor Manufacture
- Jacketing Lines
- Quality Assurance, Quality Control and ITER Conductor

- Features of ITER TF Coils
- Conductor Production Status
- ITER HTS Leads
- ITER Conductor Procurement Companies
- ITER Procurement Costs by Product
- ITER Conductor Costs
- ITER Conductor Costs vs. LHC Conductor Costs
- Installed Cost Goals for Fusion Power
- Global Power Generation Market
- Private Sector Companies Doing Fusion Power R&D
- Fusion Entrepreneurs
- Capital Going to Private Sector R&D

List of Tables:
1. Global Market For Superconductivity: Existing vs. Emerging Applications by Type and Low Temperature vs. High Temperature Superconductors: ($ Million): 2015-2020
2. Properties NbTi vs. Nb3Sn
3. Parameters of the ASG MgB2 Magnet Used in the Paramed OpenSky MRI System
4. Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire Prices by Critical Temperature and Type ($/kA-m): 2015
5. Global Market for Superconductor Wire ($ Million, Million Meters, Average Selling Price in $/kA-m): 2015-2020
6. Global Market for Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire ($ Million): 2015-2020
7. Global Superconductor Wire Market by Application ($ Million): 2015-2020
8. Producers of Low Temperature and High Temperature Superconductor Wire: 2015
9. Low Temperature Superconductor Wire Sales and Market Shares by Company ($ Million): 2015
10. Typical Parameters of Cylindrical MRI Magnets
11. Requirements To MRI Magnets
12. Global MRI Production Volume (Units), Value ($ Million), Average Selling Price ($/Unit): 2015-2020
13. Global MRI Production Volume by Type (Units), Value ($ Million), Average Selling Price ($/Unit): 2015
14. Superconducting Components Share of 1.5 T and 3+ T MRI Production ($ Million): 2015
15. U.S. MRI Scanner Installed Base by Type: 2013-2020
16. MRI System Producers: 2015
17. Global Market for Utility Medium- and High-Voltage Utility Cables and Lines ($ Million): 2015-2020
18. Global Market for Utility Medium and High Voltage Transformers ($ Million): 2015-2020
19. Global Market for Utility Medium and High Voltage Switchgear ($ Million): 2015-2020
20. Global Market for Utility Motors ($ Million): 2015-2020
21. World Energy Intensity: 1900-2000
22. World Energy Intensity: 1980-2030
23. World Renewable Energy Resources By Type (TW)
24. ITER Procurements by Product, Procurement Type, Investment (kIU. and Country
25. ITER Conductor And Magnets Procurement Costs by Type (kIUA)
26. Large Hadron Collider Conductors and Components Costs by Type (CHF Million
27. Global Installed Costs for Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Hydroelectric and Renewable Power Generation Plants ($/MW): 2015-2020
28. Global Power Generation Equipment Market by Product Class Including Coal, Gas, Nuclear, Hydroelectric, Renewables ($ Billion): 2015-2019
29. American Superconductor Income Statement: 2011-2014
30. Superconducting Technologies Inc. Income Statement: 2010-2014

List of Figures:
1. Superconducting Region
2. Production Flow for Technical Superconductors
3. Luvata OK 55 NbTi Conductor for NMR Cross-Section
4. Luvata OKSn 11600 Conductor Cross-Section
5. Nb3Sn Formation
6. Luvata Fusion Type Conductor Cross-Section
7. NbTi Manufacturing Process
8. Phase I of NbTi Wire Manufacture: Mono
9. Mono NbTi Rods: 25mm – 2.5mm
10. Phase II of NbTi Wire Manufacture: Multi
11. MRI System and LTS Conductors
12. NMR System and LTS Conductors
13. LTS Conductors for High Energy Physics
14. View of CERN LHC Tunnel 100 Meters Below the Earth’s Surface Showing Superconducting Magnets Inside the Tubes
15. Compact Myon Solenoid (CM. Is One of Two Large General Purpose Particle Physics Detectors on LHC
16. LHC Compact Myon Solenoid (CM. Conductors
17. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SME. Nb-Ti Conductors
18. International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITE. and NbTi and Nb3Sn Conductors
19. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer II and NbTi Conductors
20. Input Cooling Power in Per Cent of Requirements at 4.2 K
Vs. Temperature of LTS, MgB2, HTS
21. MgB2 Wire Manufactured in Various Configurations
22. Paramed OpenSky MRI Scanner
23. Development of HTS 2G Wire: 1985-2014
24. Development of HTS 2G Wire by Country: 2006-2017
25. HTS Throughput Variables
26. Price for 2G HTS Conductor (Euro/1000 kAm): 2014-2019
27. Price vs. Cost for HTS Conductor (Euro/1000 kAm): 2014-2019
28. Cross-Section of a Traditional Cylindrical MRI Scanner and Its Components (Multi-coil Design)
29. Patient Comfort and Compactness
30. Typical Coil Configuration of A Cylindrical Actively Shielded MRI Magnet
31. Progress in MRI Refrigeration Technology
32. MRI Exams Performed Per Thousand Population by U.S. Vs. OECD Various Countries: 2014
33. Triad Cable Components
34. HTS Triaxial Cables
34. LS Cable 22-kV Triad Cable
35. InnoPower 220-kV Fault Current Limiter
36. History Of World Energy Production By Source Type (EJ/Year): 1900-2010
37. Shares of Various Energy Sources In World Energy Production, Showing Energy Transitions (%): 1900-2010
38. Projections Of Energy Demand And Supply: 1970-2100
39. Specific Energy Of Large-Scale Fuels
40. Power Units: The Terawatt Challenge
41. Global Energy Consumption By Source (TW): 2001
42. Global Energy Reserves And Resource Base By Type and Conventional vs. Unconventional in Exa Joules
43. Global Primary Power Use By Source And Year (TW): 1990-2050
44. Nuclear Requirements to Get 10 TW Of Power
45. 1 GW (Electri. or 3 GW (Therma. Annual Production Requirements by Fuel Source
46. Fission and Fusion Nuclear Reactions
47. Nuclear Fusion Reaction
48. Nuclear Fusion Fuels
49. Nuclear Fusion Products
50. Nuclear Fusion Reactor
51. Challenges of Fusion
52. Plasma Confinement
53. Tokamaks
54. Conventional vs. Superconducting Tokamaks
55. Large Superconducting Magnet Systems
56. Large Cryostat Systems
57. Superconducting Fusion Machines
58. Superconducting Materials and Their Critical Current Density
59. Superconducting Wire Production
60. ITER Parties Procurement Allocations
61. ITER Site Construction
62. ITER Tokamak Schematic
63. ITER Tokamak Scale
64. ITER Magnet System
65. ITER Feeder System
66. ITER Magnet Suppliers by Type and Country
67. ITER Strand Zoo: Conductors by Type and Suppliers
68. Main Steps of ITER CICC Manufacture
69. ITER Strand Production by Company and Country
70. ITER Jacketing Lines Around the World
71. ITER Conductor QA/QC Flow Diagram
72. ITER Strand Production Status by Type (Tonnes)
73. ITER TF Strand Billet Weight Distribution by Country
74. Companies by Country Contributing to ITER Conductor Procurement
75. Proximity Effect Magnesium Diboride-Based ScNc Particles
76. Japan Superconducting Technology Superconducting Wire Products Specs
77. Japan Superconducting Technology ITER Nb3Sn Wire
78. Japan Superconducting Technology NMR Superconducting Wire Products
79. Oxford Instruments Nb-Ti/Wire in Channel Superconducting Wire
80. SH Copper Products Hydrostatic Extruder and the Principle of Hydrostatic Extrusion
81. SH Copper Products Nb3Sn Cables
82. SH Copper Products Aluminum Stabilized NbTi Cables
83. SH Copper Products Internal Tin Nb3Sn Wires RHQT Processed and JR Nb3Al Wires
84. SH Copper Products Mass Production Process of Wires and Cables
85. SH Copper Products Rectangular NbTi Wires
86. SH Copper Products Round and Rectangular Nb3Sn Wires
87. SH Copper Products Aluminum Stabilized NbTi Conductor Process
88. Hitachi Metals Nb3Sn Wire and Cable Products for ITER
89. Range of Elements that Structured Materials Industries’ MOCVD Technology Has or Can Produce
90. Structured Materials Industries MOCVD Tools
91. Structured Materials Industries Analytic Capabilities
92. Structured Materials Industries Clients
93. SuNam 2G Wire Specifications Table
94. Cross-Section of SuNam Superconducting Wire
95. SuNam 2G Wire Architecture
96. SuNam 2G Wire Production System
97. SuNam RHEED Vision System
98. SuNam RCE Vision System
99. SuNam Coated Conductor Goals
100. SuNam HTS Revenue and Capex Goals
101. SuNam HTS Product and Price Goals: 2014-2019
102. Conductus® Wire Materials
103. Conductus® Solution Deposition Planarization
104. Conductus® Ion Beam Assisted Deposition
105. Conductus® Reactive Co-evaporation and Cyclic Deposition Reaction System
106. SuperOx Technology Profile: 2006-2015
107. SuperOx 2G HTS Tape Architecture
108. SuperOx 2G HTS Tape Applications
109. SuperOx 2G HTS Wire Blocks for Magnetic Levitation
110. Furukawa History in Low Temperature Superconductors
111. SuperPower Manufacturing Facilities
112. SuperPower (RE)BCO Superconductor Architecture
113. SuperPower Bonded Tapes Production
114. SuperPower Cable Configurations
115. 69 kV FCL Transformer High Voltage Module
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
3 of 3
- Advanced Conductor Technologies
- Allegheny Technologies Incorporated
- American Superconductor Corporation
- ASG Superconductors SpA
- Bruker Corporation
- Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração S.A.
- Deutsche Nanoschicht GmbH
- Grid Logic
- Hyper Tech Research, Inc
- Japan Superconductor Technology, Inc
- Luvata Pori OY
- Metal Oxide Technologies Inc
- Nexans SA
- Oxford Instruments plc
- SH Copper Products Co. Ltd.
- Structured Materials Industries
- Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd
- SuNam Co., Ltd.
- Superconductor Technologies, Inc.
- SuperOx
- SuperPower Inc.
- TVEL Fuel Company
- Western Superconducting Technologies Co., Ltd
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown