Constangy's Field Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act

  • ID: 3511139
  • Book
  • Region: United States
  • 340 Pages
  • ALM Media, LLC
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Daily Business Review Books is releasing their annual: Constangy's Field Guide to the Fair Labor Standards Act, authored by the law firm of Constangy Brooks & Smith, LLP. This book will provide Florida attorneys with clarity to the most recent developments under the FLSA's regulations and facilitate a better understanding of:
  • FLSA retaliation claims. Including an analysis of the Supreme Court's decision in Kasten.
  • What courts look for in granting or denying summary judgment, for plaintiffs and defendants, in an exemption case
  • The continuing battle among the courts on defining the outside sales exemption: who is winning?
  • The latest on coverage issues for the highly compensated employee  exemption
  • Damages for misclassification: how employers are escaping the big hit
  • Failing to plead affirmative defenses:  is all lost?
  • and much more
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Table of Contents
 
Chapter 1: General Regulations...............................1
 
1-1  29CFR § 541.0. Introductory Statement..................1 
1-1:1 Preemption............................................2 
1-1:2 Unclean Hands..........................................3 
1-1:3 Exempt Status as an Affirmative Defense...............4 
1-1:4 Employees v. Independent Contractors...................6 
1-1:5 Interns and the FLSA...................................9 
1-1:6 Coverage of Employer by the FLSA.......................9 
1-1:7 Positions Not Covered by FLSA.........................12 
1-1:8 State Law Breach of Contract Claims 
     and Preemption .......................................14 
1-1:9 Deference to the FLSA and Its Regulations.............14 
1-2  29 CFR § 541.1. Terms Used in Regulations .............16 
1-3  29 CFR § 541.2. Job Titles Insufficient................16 
1-3:1 Role of Job Title....................................17 
1-3:2 Damages for Misclassified Employees...................18 
1-3:3 Value of Well-Defined Job Descriptions...............19 
1-4  29 CFR § 541.3. Scope of the Section 13a)(1)Exemption..19 
1-4:1 Scope of Regulation..................................21 
1-4:2 Police, Firefighters and EMTs.........................22 
1-5  29 CFR § 541.4. Other Laws and Collective 
Bargaining Agreements.......................................23 
1-5:1 Release of FLSA Rights...............................23 
1-5:2 FLSA Claims and Arbitration..........................24 
 
Chapter 2: Executive Employees.............................25
 
2-1 29 CFR § 541.100. General Rule for Executive Employees..25
2-1:1 Revisions to Regulation..............................26
2-1:2 “Management”.........................................27
2-1:3 Department of Labor Commentary........................28
2-1:4 “Particular Weight”..................................28
2-1:5 Public Sector.........................................29
2-2 29 CFR § 541.101. Business Owner........................29
2-2:1 Defining the Employer/Employee Relationship...........29
2-2:2 Salary Basis Test.....................................30
2-3 29 CFR § 541.102.Management............................30
2-3:1 “Primary Duty”........................................31
2-3:2 Five-Part Test for“Management”.......................31
2-3:3 When Less Than 50 Percent of Time IsSpent
     on Exempt Work........................................34
2-3:4 Summary Judgment......................................35
2-3:5 “Manager With Benefits”...............................35
2-3:6 Need for Flexibility When Determining“Management” ....36
2-4 29 CFR § 541.103. Department or Subdivision.............37
2-4:1 Revised Definition of “Department or Subdivision”.....38
2-4:2 Flexibility of Definition.............................38
2-5 29 CFR § 541.104. Two or More Other Employees ..........39
2-5:1 Revision of Regulations...............................40
2-5:2 Practical Application of the Regulation...............40
2-5:3 Keys to Managing Two Employees.......................41
2-5:4 Physical Presence....................................41
2-5:5 Supervision of an Independent Contractor or Volunteer .42
2-5:6 “Leadership”.........................................42
2-6 29 CFR § 541.105. Particular Weight....................43
2-6:1 Revisions to Regulations..............................43
2-6:2 Establishing “Particular Weight”.....................43
     2-6:2.1 What Satisfies the “Particular Weight”
             Requirement ..................................43
     2-6:2.2 What Does Not Satisfy the “Particular Weight                       Requirement”...................................44
     2-6:2.3 Evidence Sufficient to Create a
             Jury Question ................................45
     2-6:2.4 Role of Employee’s Suggestions and
              Recommendations..............................45
2-6:3 Role of Pre-2004 Case Law.............................46
2-7 29 CFR § 541.106. Concurrent Duties....................47
2-7:1 Revisions to Regulations..............................48
2-7:2 Practice Note........................................50
2-7:3 Rejection of Categories of Work......................50
2-7:4 Generalized Approach to Concurrent Duties.............50

Chapter 3: Administrative Employees.........................53
 
3-1 29 CFR § 541.200. General Rule for Administrative                          Employees.............................................53
3-1:1 Administrative Exemption..............................54
3-1:2 General Business Operations..........................54
3-1:3 Employees Who Consult Manuals or Adhere to Guidelines 55
3-1:4 Department of Labor Commentary........................57
3-2 29 CFR § 541.201. Directly Related to Management
     or General Business Operations........................58
3-2:1 Relating Directly to Management or Business
     Operations ...........................................59
3-2:2 Production v. Staff Work.............................60
3-2:3 Summary Judgment......................................61
3-2:4 Positions That Will Be Exempt........................62
3-3 29 CFR § 541.202. Discretion and Independent Judgment...63
3-3:1 Determining Discretion and Independent Judgment ......66
3-3:2 Rule of Thumb When Determining
     the Administrative Exemption .........................68
3-4 29 CFR § 541.203. Administrative Exemption Examples ....70
3-4:1 Purpose of Regulation................................73
3-4:2 Job Positions That Are Exempt.........................74
     3-4:2.1 Insurance Industry ...........................74
     3-4:2.2 Financial Industry............................75
3-4:3 Other Job Classifications of Interest................76
     3-4:3.1 Administrative Assistants ....................76
     3-4:3.2 Inspectors (Public Employer) .................76
3-5 29 CFR § 541.204. Educational Establishments ...........77
3-5:1 Educational Establishment Exemption Explained ........79
     3-5:1.1 Educational Establishment Analysis............80
     3-5:1.2 Example of Educational Exemption..............80
3-5:2 Application of Regular Administrative
      Exemption in Educational Setting.....................81
 
Chapter 4: Professional Employees..........................83
 
4-1 29 CFR §541.300.General Rule for Professional Employees..83
4-1:1 Intent of Revisions to Regulation....................84
4-1:2 Attempts to Circumvent Payment on Salary Basis........84
4-2 29 CFR § 541.301. Learned Professionals................84
4-2:1 “Customarily Required”...............................89
4-2:2 Job Classifications Under 29 CFR §541.301............93
     4-2:2.1 Chef .........................................93
     4-2:2.2 Paralegals ...................................93
     4-2:2.3 Sales Engineers...............................93
     4-2:2.4 Social Workers and Caseworkers ...............94
     4-2:2.5 Registered Nurses.............................94
     4-2:2.6 Respiratory Therapists........................94
     4-2:2.7 Senior Legal Analyst .........................95
     4-2:2.8 Court Reporter................................95
     4-2:2.9 Assistant Lab Manager.........................95
4-3 29 CFR § 541.302. Creative Professionals ...............95
4-3:1 Revisions to Regulation..............................97
4-3:2 Determining Exempt Status.............................97
4-3:3 Practice Points......................................98
4-4 29 CFR § 541.303.Teachers..............................99
4-4:1 Revision to Regulation...............................100
4-4:2 Discretion and Independent Judgment.................100
4-4:3 Performance of Both Exempt and Nonexempt Duties......101
4-5 29 CFR § 541.304. Practice of Law and Medicine.........101
4-5:1 Applying the Exemption...............................102
4-5:2 Physician’s Assistant...............................102
4-5:3 Attorneys............................................102
 
Chapter 5: Computer Employees..............................103
 
5-1 29 CFR § 541.400. General Rule for Computer Employees..103
5-1:1 Scope of Exemption..................................104
5-1:2 Job Titles Not Included.............................104
5-1:3 Computer Employees and the Highly Compensated
     Employee Exemption...................................105
5-1:4 Unqualified Employees Performing Exempt Tasks .......105
5-1:5 IT Support Personnel.................................106
5-1:6 Computer Consultants.................................106
5-2 29 CFR § 541.401. Computer Manufacture and Repair......107
5-3 29 CFR § 541.402. Executive and Administrative
     Computer Employees...................................107
 
Chapter 6: Outside Sales Employees.........................109
 
6-1 29 CFR § 541.500. General Rule for Outside
     Sales Employees......................................109
6-1:1 Revisions to Regulations.............................110
6-1:2 “Sales” for Charity..................................110
6-1:3 Pharmaceutical Sales Representatives.................110
6-2  29 CFR § 541.501. Making Sales or Obtaining Orders....111 
6-2:1 Interpretation of the Regulation ...................112 
6-2:2 Revisions to the Regulation ........................114 
6-3  29 CFR§541.502.Away From Employer’s Place of Business.114 
6-3:1 Effect of Technology on Outside Sales Exemption ....114 
6-3:2 Determining Whether the Exemption Applies ..........116 
6-3:3 Payment on True Commission Basis ...................117 
6-4  29 CFR § 541.503. Promotion Wo........................117 
6-4:1 “Commitment”........................................118 
6-4:2 Advertising and Marketing ..........................119 
6-5  29 CFR § 541.504. Drivers Who Sell....................119 
 
Chapter 7: Salary Requirements.............................123
 
7-1 29 CFR § 541.600. Amount of Salary Required............123
7-1:1 Salary Basis Test....................................124
7-1:2 Professionals and Salary Basis Test..................125
7-2 29 CFR § 541.601. Highly Compensated Employees.........126
7-2:1 $100,000 Requirement................................128
7-2:2 Computing the $100,000 Requirement...................129
     7-2:2.1 Overtime Liability ..........................130
7-2:3 Exempt Duties........................................131
     7-2:3.1 Exempt Duties and Recruiters.................131
7-3 29 CFR § 541.602. Salary  basis.........................131
7-3:1 Salary Basis Test....................................135
     7-3:1.1 Revisions to Regulations.....................135
7-3:2 What Employers Are Allowed to Do....................136
7-3:3 Deductions for Safety Violations
     and Disciplinary Suspensions ........................139
7-3:4 Disciplinary Suspensions.............................139
     7-3:4.1 Rule Not Carte Blanche to Discipline
             Exempt Employees.............................139
     7-3:4.2 Implementing Policy on Disciplinary
             Suspensions .................................139
     7-3:4.3 Exemption’s Effect of Ability
             to Manage Employees .........................140
7-3:5 Salary Basis Test and Classifications
     in Payroll System ...................................140
7-4 29 CFR § 541.603. Effect of Improper
     Deductions From Salary...............................141
7-4:1 Revisions to Regulations.............................143
7-4:2 Employer Protection Against Improper Deductions......144
7-4:3 Safe Harbor..........................................146
7-4:4 Deductions From Exempt Employee’s Bonus .............146 
7-4:5 Deductions for Business Expenses ....................147 
7-4:6 Deductions for Partial-Day Absences .................147 
7-4:7 Damages..............................................148 
7-5  29 CFR § 541.604. Minimum Guarantee Plus Extras.......148 
7-5:1 Burden to Establish Salaried Employee 
      Is Paid Correct Amount..............................149 
7-5:2 Ways to Pay Exempt Employees .......................150 
7-6  29 CFR § 541.605. Fee Basis ..........................150 
7-6:1 Fee Basis Explained ................................151 
7-6:2 Calculating Fee Basis...............................151 
7-7  29 CFR § 541.606. Board, Lodging or Other Facilities .151 
7-7:1 Determining the $455 Threshold .....................152 
7-7:2 “Other Facilities”..................................153 
 
Chapter 8: Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions........155
 
8-1 29 CFR § 541.700. Primary Duty.........................155
8-2 29 CFR § 541.701. Customarily and Regularly ...........156
8-2:1 “Customarily and Regularly” Defined.................156
8-3 29 CFR § 541.702. Exempt and Nonexempt Work............157
8-4 29 CFR § 541.703. Directly and Closely Related.........157
8-4:1 Interpreting the Regulation..........................161
8-4:2 Summary Judgment.....................................161
8-5 29 CFR § 541.704. Use of Manuals......................162
8-6 29 CFR § 541.705.Trainees.............................163
8-6:1 Revisions to the Regulation.........................163
8-6:2 Claiming Exempt Status for Trainees..................163
8-6:3 Students as Trainees.................................164
8-7 29 CFR § 541.706.Emergencies..........................165
8-7:1 Effect of Emergencies on Exempt Status..............166
8-7:2 Strikes..............................................167
8-8 29 CFR § 541.707. Occasional Tasks.....................167
8-9 29 CFR § 541.708. Combinations Exemptions..............167
8-10 29 CFR § 541.709. Motion Picture Producing Industry...168
8-11 29 CFR § 541.710. Employees of Public Agencies .......169
 
Chapter 9: Retaliation....................................171
 
9-1 29 U.S.C. § 215(a)(3). Retaliation.....................171
9-1:1“Filing”.............................................171
9-1:2 Complaints as Part of Job Duties.....................173
9-1:3 Words Used in Complaints.............................173
9-1:4 Complaints on Behalf of Other Employees.............174
9-1:5 Complaints Filed With State Agencies.................175 
9-1:6 Employee’s Testimony.................................175 
9-1:7 Adverse Employment Action............................175 
9-1:8 Applicants Not Protected by FLSA.....................177 
9-1:9 Protected Activity Occurring After Termination.......177 
9-1:10 Complaint Procedure v. Protest .....................177 
9-1:11 Damages.............................................178 
       9-1:11.1  Mental Anguish...........................178 
       9-1:11.2  Punitive Damages.........................179 
       9-1:11.3  Liquidated Damages.......................179 
       9-1:11.4  Injunctive Relief.......................180 
9-1:12 Who Can Be Sued in a Retaliation Case .............180 
       9-1:12.1  Employers Not Covered by the FLSA........180 
9-1:13 Discovery Disputes in Retaliation Cases............181 
9-1:14 Recent Retaliation Cases from 
       the Eleventh Circuit...............................181 
 
Chapter 10: Retail or Service Establishment................183
 
10-1 29 CFR § 779.411. Employee of a “Retail or
      Service Establishment”...............................183
10-1:1 Definition of Retail/Service
      Establishment Exemption ............................183
10-1:2 Determining Whether Employer Is a Retail
       or Service Establishment............................184
10-1:3 Meeting the Criteria for the Exemption..............185
10-1:4 Commissions........................................186
10-2 29 CFR § 779.413. Methods of Compensation of
     Retail Store Employees ..............................187
10-2:1 Commissioned Employees.............................188
 
Chapter 11: Exemption From Maximum Hours Provisions for
           Certain Employees of Motor Carriers............191
 
11-1 29 CFR § 782.2. Requirements for Exemption in General.191
11-1:1 “Commercial Motor Vehicle”..........................200
11-1:2 Requirements of Exemption...........................200
      11-1:2.1 Drivers....................................201
       11-1:2.2 Two-Part Analysis.........................203
11-1:3 Exemption as Affirmative Defense....................204
11-2 29 CFR § 782.3.Drivers...............................204
11-2:1 Definition of“Driver”..............................207
11-3 29 CFR § 782.4. Drivers’Helpers......................208
11-4 29 CFR § 782.5. Loaders .............................211 
11-5 29 CFR § 782.6. Mechanics ...........................216 
11-6 29 CFR § 782.7. Interstate Commerce Requirements 
      of Exemption........................................223 
11-7 29 CFR § 782.8. Special Classes for Carriers.........231 
Table ofCases.............................................235
Index......................................................249
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  • Michael D. Malfitano
Mike Malfitano is a senior Florida labor attorney who assists employers in problem prevention and legal analysis of complex employment issues. He has represented employers in cases involving every aspect of the employment relationship. He also represents employers in collective bargaining, arbitration, and union avoidance. He counsels employers with respect to Title VII, ADA and FMLA compliance, Wage Hour compliance, employee benefits issues, affirmative action, and in structuring payroll and compensation programs.  Mike is a Managing Partner in Constangy, Brooks & Smith, LLP, a national labor and employment law firm, and is the Office Head of its Tampa Office.  He received his B.S. from the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University, and his law degree from Boston College Law School.  Mike is a frequent lecturer at seminars for both employers and for other lawyers, and he has authored a number of labor law articles and a chapter of a book published by The Florida Bar on Labor Arbitration.  He is actively involved in community affairs, and is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Drug Abuse Comprehensive Coordinating Office (DACCO), and The University of Tampa Board of Fellows.  He is listed in The Best Lawyers in America (Woodward/White, Inc.) and Florida Super Lawyers.  He is recognized by Chambers USA as possessing valuable experience in the area and to be "very responsive and very good value."
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