Praise for BUSINESS FORECASTING
"This book is the survivor′s guide for business forecasters. It covers a wide range of need–to–know topics from ′what is demand′ to ′why should I trust your forecast.′"
Scott Roy, Collaboration Planning Manager, Wells Enterprises Inc.
"This is a tremendous compilation from some of the best forecasting analytics and business minds of today. A reference that should be on the shelf of anyone whose job is to develop forecasts."
Jim Ferris, Director of Supply Chain Analytics, Clarkston Consulting
"Finally, a book tailored to business forecasting that is comprehensive for everything from data gathering to the art and politics of explaining why we are wrong!"
Eric Wilson, Director, Demand Planning and S&OP, Tempur Sealy International
"In spite of my many years in forecasting and planning, the reading was so captivating that I could not stop before it was over. Absolutely a ′must–read′ for every person working in business forecasting."
Igor Gusakov, Consulting Director, Goodsforecast
"This book is a wonderful compendium of demand planning and S&OP insights drawn from some of the best minds and practitioners in the industry."
Patrick Bower, Senior Director, Global Supply Chain Planning & Customer Service, Combe Incorporated
"The editors do an excellent job of introducing a broad set of topics critical for deploying and maintaining a successful forecasting process within an organization."
Sam Iosevich, Managing Principal, Prognos
"I would definitely recommend this reader as a key resource for those looking to learn more or to have knowledge at their fingertips for that moment when they need a refresher."
Curtis Brewer, Forecasting Manager, Bayer CropScience
"This terrific compilation of writings from virtually all of the big names in the forecasting community proves that innovation in forecasting is vibrant."
Rob Stevens, Vice President, First Analytics
Chapter 1 Fundamental Considerations in Business Forecasting 1
1.1 Getting Real about Uncertainty (Paul Goodwin) 3
1.2 What Demand Planners Can Learn from the Stock Market (Charles K. Re Corr) 9
1.3 Toward a More Precise Defi nition of Forecastability (John Boylan) 14
1.4 Forecastability: A New Method for Benchmarking and Driving Improvement (Sean Schubert) 22
1.5 Forecast Errors and Their Avoidability (Steve Morlidge) 36
1.6 The Perils of Benchmarking (Michael Gilliland) 46
1.7 Can We Obtain Valid Benchmarks from Published Surveys of Forecast Accuracy? (Stephan Kolassa) 48
1.8 Defi ning Demand for Demand Forecasting (Michael Gilliland) 60
1.9 Using Forecasting to Steer the Business: Six Principles (Steve Morlidge) 67
1.10 The Beauty of Forecasting (David Orrell) 76
Chapter 2 Methods of Statistical Forecasting 81
2.1 Confessions of a Pragmatic Forecaster (Chris Chatfi eld) 82
2.2 New Evidence on the Value of Combining Forecasts (Paul Goodwin) 92
2.3 How to Forecast Data Containing Outliers (Eric Stellwagen) 95
2.4 Selecting Your Statistical Forecasting Level (Eric Stellwagen) 98
2.5 When Is a Flat–line Forecast Appropriate? (Eric Stellwagen) 102
2.6 Forecasting by Time Compression (Udo Sglavo) 104
2.7 Data Mining for Forecasting: An Introduction (Chip Wells and Tim Rey) 112
2.8 Process and Methods for Data Mining for Forecasting (Chip Wells and Tim Rey) 120
2.9 Worst–Case Scenarios in Forecasting: How Bad Can Things Get? (Roy Batchelor) 126
2.10 Good Patterns, Bad Patterns (Roy Batchelor) 135
Chapter 3 Forecasting Performance Evaluation and Reporting 143
3.1 Dos and Don ts of Forecast Accuracy Measurement: A Tutorial (Len Tashman) 144
3.2 How to Track Forecast Accuracy to Guide Forecast Process Improvement (Jim Hoover) 160
3.3 A Softer Approach to the Measurement of Forecast Accuracy (John Boylan) 170
3.4 Measuring Forecast Accuracy (Rob Hyndman) 177
3.5 Should We Defi ne Forecast Error as e = F A or e = A F? (Kesten Green and Len Tashman) 184
3.6 Percentage Error: What Denominator? (Kesten Green and Len Tashman) 188
3.7 Percentage Errors Can Ruin Your Day (Stephan Kolassa and Roland Martin) 195
3.8 Another Look at Forecast–Accuracy Metrics for Intermittent Demand (Rob Hyndman) 204
3.9 Advantages of the MAD/Mean Ratio over the MAPE (Stephan Kolassa and Wolfgang Schütz) 211
3.10 Use Scaled Errors Instead of Percentage Errors in Forecast Evaluations (Lauge Valentin) 217
3.11 An Expanded Prediction–Realization Diagram for Assessing Forecast Errors (Roy Pearson) 228
3.12 Forecast Error Measures: Critical Review and Practical Recommendations (Andrey Davydenko and Robert Fildes) 238
3.13 Measuring the Quality of Intermittent Demand Forecasts: It s Worse than We ve Thought! (Steve Morlidge) 250
3.14 Managing Forecasts by Exception (Eric Stellwagen) 259
3.15 Using Process Behavior Charts to Improve Forecasting and Decision Making (Martin Joseph and Alec Finney) 262
3.16 Can Your Forecast Beat the Naïve Forecast? (Shaun Snapp) 276
Chapter 4 Process and Politics of Business Forecasting 281
4.1 FVA: A Reality Check on Forecasting Practices (Michael Gilliland) 282
4.2 Where Should the Forecasting Function Reside? (Larry Lapide) 288
4.3 Setting Forecasting Performance Objectives (Michael Gilliland) 294
4.4 Using Relative Error Metrics to Improve Forecast Quality in the Supply Chain (Steve Morlidge) 297
4.5 Why Should I Trust Your Forecasts? (M. Sinan Gönül, Dilek Önkal, and Paul Goodwin) 309
4.6 High on Complexity, Low on Evidence: Are Advanced Forecasting Methods Always as Good as They Seem? (Paul Goodwin) 315
4.7 Should the Forecasting Process Eliminate Face–to–Face Meetings? (J. Scott Armstrong) 319
4.8 The Impact of Sales Forecast Game Playing on Supply Chains (John Mello) 327
4.9 Role of the Sales Force in Forecasting (Michael Gilliland) 340
4.10 Good and Bad Judgment in Forecasting: Lessons from Four Companies (Robert Fildes and Paul Goodwin) 349
4.11 Worst Practices in New Product Forecasting (Michael Gilliland) 358
4.12 Sales and Operations Planning in the Retail Industry (Jack Harwell) 363
4.13 Sales and Operations Planning: Where Is It Going? (Tom Wallace) 372
About the Editors 381
MICHAEL GILLILAND is Marketing Manager for SAS forecasting software, editor of the Forecasting Practice section of Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, and author of The Business Forecasting Deal. He has published articles in Supply Chain Management Review, Journal of Business Forecasting, Analytics, Supply Chain Forecasting Digest, APICS Magazine, Swiss Analytics Magazine, and Foresight. Mike holds a BA in Philosophy from Michigan State University, and Master′s degrees in Philosophy and Mathematical Sciences from Johns Hopkins University. Follow his blog, The Business Forecasting Deal, at blogs.sas.com/content/forecasting.
LEN TASHMAN is the founding editor of Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, now in its 10th year of publication. He serves on the Board of Directors of the International Institute of Forecasters and is organizer and chair of the Forecasting in Practice Track at the annual International Symposium on Forecasting. Len is an emeritus professor of business administration at the University of Vermont and Director of the Center for Business Forecasting.
UDO SGLAVO is Senior Director of Predictive Modeling R&D at SAS Institute. His team develops industry–leading and award–winning software for data mining, machine learning, and large scale automatic forecasting. He has published articles in Analytics, and is a contributor to The Business Forecasting Deal blog. Udo has served on the practitioner advisory board of Foresight, and holds a diploma in mathematics from University of Applied Sciences, Darmstadt, Germany.