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Wireless Computing in Medicine. From Nano to Cloud with Ethical and Legal Implications. Nature-Inspired Computing Series

  • ID: 3609873
  • Book
  • 664 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Provides a comprehensive overview of wireless computing in medicine, with technological, medical, and legal advances

This book brings together the latest work of leading scientists in the disciplines of Computing, Medicine, and Law, in the field of Wireless Health. The book is organized into three main sections. The first section discusses the use of distributed computing in medicine. It concentrates on methods for treating chronic diseases and cognitive disabilities like Alzheimer s, Autism, etc.  It also discusses how to improve portability and accuracy of monitoring instruments and reduce the redundancy of data. It emphasizes the privacy and security of using such devices. The role of mobile sensing, wireless power and Markov decision process in distributed computing is also examined. The second section covers nanomedicine and discusses how the drug delivery strategies for chronic diseases can be efficiently improved by Nanotechnology enabled materials and devices such as MENs and Nanorobots. The authors will also explain how to use DNA computation in medicine, model brain disorders and detect bio–markers using nanotechnology. The third section will focus on the legal and privacy issues and how to implement these technologies in a way that is a safe and ethical.

  • Defines the technologies of distributed wireless health, from software that runs cloud computing data centers, to the technologies that allow new sensors to work
  • Explains the applications of nanotechnologies to prevent, diagnose, and cure disease
  • Includes case studies on how the technologies covered in the book are being implemented in the medical field, through both the creation of new medical applications and their integration into current systems
  • Discusses pervasive computing s organizational benefits to hospitals and health care organizations, and their ethical and legal challenges

Wireless Computing in Medicine: From Nano to Cloud with Its Ethical and Legal Implications is written as a reference for computer engineers working in wireless computing, as well as medical and legal professionals. The book will also serve students in the fields of advanced computing, nanomedicine, health informatics, and technology law.

Dr. Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Esq. is an interdisciplinary scientist and patent attorney. She received a B.S. degree in Biomedical and Electrical Engineering (1985), M.S. degree in Computer Engineering (1985), Engineers degree in Electrical Engineering (1988), and Ph.D. in Computer Engineering (1988), all from the University of Southern California (USC). She holds a J.D. degree from the Northwestern California School of Law, and has graduated Cum Laude with an LL.M. degree from the Thomas Jefferson School of Law. Professor Eshaghian–Wilner is currently a Professor of Engineering Practice at the Electrical Engineering Department of USC.  She is best known for her work in the areas of Optical Computing, Heterogeneous Computing, and Nanocomputing. Her current research involves the applications and implications of these and other emerging technologies in medicine and law. Professor Eshaghian–Wilner has founded and/or chaired numerous IEEE conferences and organizations, and serves on the editorial board of several journals. She is the recipient of several prestigious awards, and has authored and/or edited hundreds of publications, including three books.

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Contributors xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface xix


1 Introduction to Wireless Computing in Medicine 3Amber Bhargava, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Arushi Gupta, Alekhya Sai Nuduru Pati, Kodiak Ravicz, and Pujal Trivedi

1.1 Introduction, 3

1.2 Definition of Terms, 5

1.3 Brief History of Wireless Healthcare, 5

1.4 What is Wireless Computing? 6

1.5 Distributed Computing, 7

1.6 Nanotechnology in Medicine, 10

1.7 Ethics of Medical Wireless Computing, 12

1.8 Privacy in Wireless Computing, 13

1.9 Conclusion, 14

References, 14

2 Nanocomputing and Cloud Computing 17T. Soren Craig, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Nikila Goli, Arushi Gupta, Shiva Navab, Alekhya Sai Nuduru Pati, Kodiak Ravicz, Gaurav Sarkar, and Ben Shiroma

2.1 Introduction, 17

2.2 Nanocomputing, 18

2.3 Cloud Computing, 30

2.4 Conclusion, 37

Acknowledgment, 37

References, 37


3 Pervasive Computing in Hospitals 43Janet Meiling Wang–Roveda, Linda Powers, and Kui Ren

3.1 Introduction, 43

3.2 Architecture of Pervasive Computing in Hospitals, 45

3.3 Sensors, Devices, Instruments, and Embedded Systems, 49

3.4 Data Acquisition in Pervasive Computing, 59

3.5 Software Support for Context–Aware and Activity Sharing Services, 63

3.6 Data and Information Security, 66

3.7 Conclusion, 71

Acknowledgment, 71

References, 72

4 Diagnostic Improvements: Treatment and Care 79Xiaojun Xian

4.1 Introduction, 79

4.2 System Design, 81

4.3 Body Sensor Network, 82

4.4 Portable Sensors, 84

4.5 Wearable Sensors, 88

4.6 Implantable Sensors, 94

4.7 Wireless Communication, 95

4.8 Mobile Base Unit, 97

4.9 Conclusion and Challenges, 98

Acknowledgment, 99

References, 99

5 Collaborative Opportunistic Sensing of Human Behavior with Mobile Phones 107Luis A. Castro, Jessica Beltran–Marquez, Jesus Favela, Edgar Chavez, Moises Perez, Marcela Rodriguez, Rene Navarro, and Eduardo Quintana

5.1 Health and Mobile Sensing, 107

5.2 The InCense Sensing Toolkit, 110

5.3 Sensing Campaign 1: Detecting Behaviors Associated with the Frailty Syndrome Among Older Adults, 119

5.4 Sensing Campaign 2: Detecting Problematic Behaviors among Elders with Dementia, 123

5.5 Discussion, 131

5.6 Conclusions and Future Work, 132

References, 133

6 Pervasive Computing to Support Individuals with Cognitive Disabilities 137Monica Tentori, José Mercado, Franceli L. Cibrian, and Lizbeth Escobedo

6.1 Introduction, 137

6.2 Wearable and Mobile Sensing Platforms to Ease the Recording of Data Relevant to Clinical Case Assessment, 144

6.3 Augmented Reality and Mobile and Tangible Computing to Support Cognition, 151

6.4 Serious Games and Exergames to Support Motor Impairments, 158

6.5 Conclusions, 168

Acknowledgments, 172

References, 172

7 Wireless Power for Implantable Devices: A Technical Review 187Nikita Ahuja, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Zhuochen Ge, Renjun Liu, Alekhya Sai Nuduru Pati, Kodiak Ravicz, Mike Schlesinger, Shu Han Wu, and Kai Xie

7.1 Introduction, 187

7.2 History of Wireless Power, 189

7.3 Approach of Wireless Power Transmission, 191

7.4 A Detailed Example of Magnetic Coupling Resonance, 194

7.5 Popular Standards, 199

7.6 Wireless Power Transmission in Medical use, 201

7.7 Conclusion, 204

Acknowledgments, 205

References, 205

8 Energy–Efficient Physical Activity Detection in Wireless Body Area Networks 211Daphney–Stavroula Zois, Sangwon Lee, Murali Annavaram, and Urbashi Mitra

8.1 Introduction, 211

8.2 Knowme Platform, 215

8.3 Energy Impact of Design Choices, 217

8.4 Problem Formulation, 228

8.5 Sensor Selection Strategies, 232

8.6 Alternative Problem Formulation, 237

8.7 Sensor Selection Strategies for the Alternative Formulation, 241

8.8 Experiments, 244

8.9 Related Work, 254

8.10 Conclusion, 256

Acknowledgments, 257

References, 257

9 Markov Decision Process for Adaptive Control of Distributed Body Sensor Networks 263Shuping Liu, Anand Panangadan, Ashit Talukder, and Cauligi S. Raghavendra

9.1 Introduction, 263

9.2 Rationale for MDP Formulation, 265

9.3 Related Work, 268

9.4 Problem Statement, Assumptions, and Approach, 269

9.5 MDP Model for Multiple Sensor Nodes, 272

9.6 Communication, 274

9.7 Simulation Results, 276

9.8 Conclusions, 292

Acknowledgment, 294

References, 294


10 An Introduction to Nanomedicine 299Amber Bhargava, Janet Cheung, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Wan Lee, Kodiak Ravicz, Mike Schlesinger, Yesha Shah, and Abhishek Uppal

10.1 Introduction, 299

10.2 Nanomedical Technology, 301

10.3 Detection, 303

10.4 Treatment, 305

10.5 Biocompatibility, 309

10.6 Power, 311

10.7 Computer Modeling, 313

10.8 Research Institutions, 315

10.9 Conclusion, 317

Acknowledgments, 317

References, 317

11 Nanomedicine Using Magneto–Electric Nanoparticles 323Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Andrew Prajogi, Kodiak Ravicz, Gaurav Sarkar, Umang Sharma, Rakesh Guduru, and Sakhrat Khizroev

11.1 Introduction, 323

11.2 Overview of MENs, 324

11.3 Experiment 1: Externally Controlled On–Demand Release of Anti–HIV Drug Azttp Using Mens as Carriers, 325

11.4 Experiment 2: Mens to Enable Field–Controlled High–Specificity Drug Delivery to Eradicate Ovarian Cancer Cells, 331

11.5 Experiment 3: Magnetoelectric Spin on Stimulating the Brain, 339

11.6 Bioceramics: Bone Regeneration and MNS, 348

11.7 Conclusion, 351

References, 353

12 DNA Computation in Medicine 359Noam Mamet and Ido Bachelet

12.1 Background for the Non–Biologist, 359

12.2 Introduction, 362

12.3 In Vitro Computing, 364

12.4 Computation in Vivo, 370

12.5 Challenges, 373

12.6 Glimpse into the Future, 373

References, 374

13 Graphene–Based Nanosystems for the Detection of Proteinic Biomarkers of Disease: Implication in Translational Medicine 377Farid Menaa, Sandeep Kumar Vashist, Adnane Abdelghani, and Bouzid Menaa

13.1 Introduction, 377

13.2 Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Graphene and Main Derivatives, 379

13.3 Graphene and Derivatives–Based Biosensing Nanosystems and Applications, 382

13.4 Conclusion and Perspectives, 389

Conflict of Interest, 390

Abbreviations, 390

References, 391

14 Modeling Brain Disorders in Silicon Nanotechnologies 401Alice C. Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Kun Yue, Rebecca Lee, and Sukanya Patil

14.1 Introduction, 401

14.2 The BioRC Project, 402

14.3 Background: BioRC Neural Circuits, 404

14.4 Modeling Synapses with CNT Transistors, 408

14.5 Modeling OCD with Hybrid CMOS/Nano Circuits, 410

14.6 The Biological Cortical Neuron and Hybrid Electronic Cortical Neuron, 411

14.7 Biological OCD Circuit and Biomimetic Model, 412

14.8 Indirect Pathway: The Braking Mechanism, 413

14.9 Direct Pathway: The Accelerator, 414

14.10 Typical and Atypical Responses, 415

14.11 Modeling Schizophrenic Hallucinations with Hybrid CMOS/Nano Circuits, 416

14.12 Explanation for Schizophrenia Symptoms, 416

14.13 Disinhibition due to Miswiring, 418

14.14 Our Hybrid Neuromorphic Prediction Network, 418

14.15 Simulation Results, 419

14.16 Numerical Analysis of False Firing, 421

14.17 Modeling PD with CMOS Circuits, 422

14.18 Modeling MS with CMOS Circuits, 424

14.19 Demyelination Circuit, 425

14.20 Conclusions and Future Trends, 426

References, 428

15 Linking Medical Nanorobots to Pervasive Computing 431Sylvain Martel

15.1 Introduction, 431

15.2 Complementary Functionalities, 432

15.3 Main Specifications for such Nanorobotic Agents (Nanorobots), 433

15.4 Medical Nanorobotic Agents An Example, 436

15.5 Nanorobotic Communication Links Allowing Pervasive Computing, 438

15.6 Types of Information, 439

15.7 Medical Nanorobotic Agents for Monitoring and Early Detection, 440

15.8 Medical Nanorobotics and Pervasive Computing Main Conditions that must be met for its Feasibility, 442

15.9 Conclusion, 443

References, 444

16 Nanomedicine s Transversality: Some Implications of the Nanomedical Paradigm 447José J. López and Mathieu Noury

16.1 Introduction, 447

16.2 Nanomedicine s Promises, 448

16.3 Analysing Implications of the Nanomedicine Paradigm, 451

16.4 The Molecular Underpinnings of Nanomedicine s Transversality, 456

16.5 Nanomedicine as Predictive Medicine, 457

16.6 Nanomedicine as Personalized Medicine, 460

16.7 Nanomedicine as Regenerative Medicine, 465

16.8 Conclusion, 466

References, 468


17 Ethical Challenges of Ubiquitous Health Care 475William Sims Bainbridge

17.1 Introduction, 475

17.2 A Philosophical Framework, 478

17.3 Information Deviance, 480

17.4 The Current Frenzy, 482

17.5 Genetic Informatics, 485

17.6 Ubiquitous Information Technology, 489

17.7 Stasis versus Progress, 492

17.8 Problematic Ethics, 494

17.9 Leadership in Science and Engineering Ethics, 496

17.10 Conclusion, 498

References, 499

18 The Ethics of Ubiquitous Computing in Health Care 507Clark A. Miller, Heather M. Ross, Gaymon Bennett, and J. Benjamin Hurlbut

18.1 Introduction, 507

18.2 Ubiquitous Computing and the Transformation of Health Care: Three Visions, 511

18.3 Case Study: Cardiac Implanted Electrical Devices, 516

18.4 Ethical Reflections, 521

18.5 Conclusions: The Need for Socio–Technical Design, 534

References, 537

19 Privacy Protection of Electronic Healthcare Records in e–Healthcare Systems 541Fredrick Japhet Mtenzi

19.1 Introduction, 541

19.2 Security and Privacy Concerns of EHR in e–Healthcare Systems, 545

19.3 Privacy Laws and Regulations of EHRs, 547

19.4 Privacy of EHRs in e–Healthcare Systems, 552

19.5 Discussion and Conclusion, 558

19.6 Contributions and Future Research, 559

References, 561

20 Ethical, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Issues in Nanomedicine 567Katie Atalla, Ayush Chaudhary, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Arushi Gupta, Raj Mehta, Adarsh Nayak, Andrew Prajogi, Kodiak Ravicz, Ben Shiroma, and Pujal Trivedi

20.1 Introduction, 567

20.2 Ethical Issues, 568

20.3 Privacy Issues, 579

20.4 IP Issues, 590

20.5 Conclusion, 596

Acknowledgments, 596

References, 596


21 Concluding Remarks 603Zhaoqi Chen, Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner, Kalyani Gonde, Kodiak Ravicz, Rakshith Saligram and Mike Schlesinger

21.1 Wireless Computing in Health Care, 603

21.2 Nanomedicine, 606

21.3 Ethical, Privacy, and Intellectual Property Issues of Nanomedicine and Wireless Computing, 609

21.4 Conclusions, 610

Acknowledgments, 610

References, 610

Index 613

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Mary Mehrnoosh Eshaghian–Wilner
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