Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique. Wiley – IEEE

  • ID: 3609913
  • Book
  • 288 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Describes the use of the Real Frequency Technique for designing and realizing RF/microwave amplifiers and circuits

This book focuses on the authors′ Real Frequency Technique (RFT) and its application to a wide variety of multi–stage microwave amplifiers and active filters, and passive equalizers for radar pulse shaping and antenna return loss applications. The first two chapters review the fundamentals of microwave amplifier design and provide a description of the RFT. Each subsequent chapter introduces a new type of amplifier or circuit design, reviews its design problems, and explains how the RFT can be adapted to solve these problems. The authors take a practical approach by summarizing the design steps and giving numerous examples of amplifier realizations and measured responses.

  • Provides a complete description of the RFT as it is first used to design multistage lumped amplifiers using a progressive optimization of the equalizers, leading to a small number of parameters to optimize simultaneously
  • Presents modifications to the RFT to design trans–impedance microwave amplifiers that are used for photodiodes acting as high impedance current sources
  • Discusses the methods using the RFT to optimize equalizers made of lossy distributed networks
  • Covers methods and examples for designing standard linear multi–stage power amplifiers and those using arborescent structures
  • Describes how to use the RFT to design multi ]stage active filters
  • Shows the flexibility of the RFT to solve a variety of microwave circuit design problems like the problem of passive equalizer design for Radar receivers
  • Examines a possible method for the synthesis of microwave antennas using the RFT

Microwave Amplifier and Active Circuit Design Using the Real Frequency Technique is intended for researchers and RF and microwave engineers but is also suitable for advanced graduate students in circuit design.

Dr. Beneat and Dr. Jarry are members of the editorial board of Wiley s International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer Aided Engineering. They have published seven books together, including Advanced Design Techniques and Realizations of Microwave and RF Filters (Wiley–IEEE 2008), Design and Realizations of Miniaturized Fractals RF and Microwave Filters (Wiley 2009), Miniaturized Microwave Fractal Filters M2F2 (Wiley 2012),  and RF and Microwave Electromagnetism (Wiley–ISTE 2014).

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Foreword vii

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xiii

1 Microwave Amplifier Fundamentals 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Scattering Parameters and Signal Flow Graphs 2

1.3 Reflection Coefficients 5

1.4 Gain Expressions 7

1.5 Stability 9

1.6 Noise 10

1.7 ABCD Matrix 14

1.7.1 ABCD Matrix of a Series Impedance 14

1.7.2 ABCD Matrix of a Parallel Admittance 15

1.7.3 Input Impedance of Impedance Loaded Two–Port 15

1.7.4 Input Admittance of Admittance Loaded Two–Port 16

1.7.5 ABCD Matrix of the Cascade of Two Systems 16

1.7.6 ABCD Matrix of the Parallel Connection of Two Systems 17

1.7.7 ABCD Matrix of the Series Connection of Two Systems 17

1.7.8 ABCD Matrix of Admittance Loaded Two–Port Connected in Parallel 17

1.7.9 ABCD Matrix of Impedance Loaded Two–Port Connected in Series 19

1.7.10 Conversion Between Scattering and ABCD Matrices 19

1.8 Distributed Network Elements 20

1.8.1 Uniform Transmission Line 20

1.8.2 Unit Element 21

1.8.3 Input Impedance and Input Admittance 22

1.8.4 Short–Circuited Stub Placed in Series 23

1.8.5 Short–Circuited Stub Placed in Parallel 24

1.8.6 Open–Circuited Stub Placed in Series 24

1.8.7 Open–Circuited Stub Placed in Parallel 25

1.8.8 Richard s Transformation 25

1.8.9 Kuroda Identities 28

References 35

2 Introduction to the Real Frequency Technique: Multistage Lumped Amplifier Design 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Multistage Lumped Amplifier Representation 38

2.3 Overview of the RFT 40

2.4 Multistage Transducer Gain 41

2.5 Multistage VSWR 43

2.6 Optimization Process 44

2.6.1 Single–Valued Error and Target Functions 44

2.6.2 Levenberg Marquardt More Optimization 46

2.7 Design Procedures 48

2.8 Four–Stage Amplifier Design Example 49

2.9 Transistor Feedback Block for Broadband Amplifiers 57

2.9.1 Resistive Adaptation 57

2.9.2 Resistive Feedback 57

2.9.3 Reactive Feedback 57

2.9.4 Transistor Feedback Block 58

2.10 Realizations 59

2.10.1 Three–Stage Hybrid Amplifier 59

2.10.2 Two–Stage Monolithic Amplifier 62

2.10.3 Single–Stage GaAs Technology Amplifier 64

References 64

3 Multistage Distributed Amplifier Design 67

3.1 Introduction 67

3.2 Multistage Distributed Amplifier Representation 68

3.3 Multistage Transducer Gain 70

3.4 Multistage VSWR 71

3.5 Multistage Noise Figure 73

3.6 Optimization Process 74

3.7 Transistor Bias Circuit Considerations 75

3.8 Distributed Equalizer Synthesis 78

3.8.1 Richard s Theorem 78

3.8.2 Stub Extraction 80

3.8.3 Denormalization 82

3.8.4 UE Impedances Too Low 83

3.8.5 UE Impedances Too High 85

3.9 Design Procedures 88

3.10 Simulations and Realizations 92

3.10.1 Three–Stage 2 8 GHz Distributed Amplifier 92

3.10.2 Three–Stage 1.15 1.5 GHz Distributed Amplifier 94

3.10.3 Three–Stage 1.15 1.5 GHz Distributed Amplifier (Noncommensurate) 94

3.10.4 Three–Stage 5.925 6.425 GHz Hybrid Amplifier 96

References 99

4 Multistage Transimpedance Amplifiers 101

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Multistage Transimpedance Amplifier Representation 102

4.3 Extension to Distributed Equalizers 104

4.4 Multistage Transimpedance Gain 106

4.5 Multistage VSWR 109

4.6 Optimization Process 110

4.7 Design Procedures 111

4.8 Noise Model of the Receiver Front End 114

4.9 Two–Stage Transimpedance Amplifier Example 116

References 118

5 Multistage Lossy Distributed Amplifiers 121

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Lossy Distributed Network 122

5.3 Multistage Lossy Distributed Amplifier Representation 127

5.4 Multistage Transducer Gain 130

5.5 Multistage VSWR 132

5.6 Optimization Process 133

5.7 Synthesis of the Lossy Distributed Network 135

5.8 Design Procedures 141

5.9 Realizations 144

5.9.1 Single–Stage Broadband Hybrid Realization 144

5.9.2 Two–Stage Broadband Hybrid Realization 145

References 149

6 Multistage Power Amplifiers 151

6.1 Introduction 151

6.2 Multistage Power Amplifier Representation 152

6.3 Added Power Optimization 154

6.3.1 Requirements for Maximum Added Power 154

6.3.2 Two–Dimensional Interpolation 156

6.4 Multistage Transducer Gain 159

6.5 Multistage VSWR 162

6.6 Optimization Process 163

6.7 Design Procedures 164

6.8 Realizations 166

6.8.1 Realization of a One–Stage Power Amplifier 166

6.8.2 Realization of a Three–Stages Power Amplifier 167

6.9 Linear Power Amplifiers 172

6.9.1 Theory 172

6.9.2 Arborescent Structures 175

6.9.3 Example of an Arborescent Linear Power Amplifier 176

References 179

7 Multistage Active Microwave Filters 181

7.1 Introduction 181

7.2 Multistage Active Filter Representation 182

7.3 Multistage Transducer Gain 184

7.4 Multistage VSWR 186

7.5 Multistage Phase and Group Delay 187

7.6 Optimization Process 188

7.7 Synthesis Procedures 189

7.8 Design Procedures 195

7.9 Simulations and Realizations 198

7.9.1 Two–Stage Low–Pass Active Filter 198

7.9.2 Single–Stage Bandpass Active Filter 200

7.9.3 Single–Stage Bandpass Active Filter MMIC Realization 202

References 206

8 Passive Microwave Equalizers for Radar Receiver Design 207

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 Equalizer Needs for Radar Application 208

8.3 Passive Equalizer Representation 209

8.4 Optimization Process 212

8.5 Examples of Microwave Equalizers for Radar Receivers 213

8.5.1 Sixth–Order Equalizer with No Transmission Zeros 213

8.5.2 Sixth–Order Equalizer with Two Transmission Zeros 214

References 217

9 Synthesis of Microwave Antennas 219

9.1 Introduction 219

9.2 Antenna Needs 219

9.3 Antenna Equalizer Representation 221

9.4 Optimization Process 222

9.5 Examples of Antenna–Matching Network Designs 223

9.5.1 Mid–Band Star Antenna 223

9.5.2 Broadband Horn Antenna 224

References 227

Appendix A: Multistage Transducer Gain 229

Appendix B: Levenberg Marquardt More Optimization Algorithm 239

Appendix C: Noise Correlation Matrix 245

Appendix D: Network Synthesis Using the Transfer Matrix 253

Index 271

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Pierre Jarry, PhD, is a professor at the University of Bordeaux, France, and also serves the French National Science Research Center (CNRS) laboratory IMS (Intégration du Materiau au Système). Previously he was professor at the University of Brest, Brest, France, where he created and directed the Laboratory of Electronics and Telecommunication Systems, which is affiliated with the CNRS. His research focuses on the areas of microwave filters (localized, distributed, multimode, and genetic), and microwave amplifiers (lumped, distributed and lossy distributed, power, and multi–stage).

Jacques N. Beneat, PhD, is Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Norwich University, Vermont, USA. He received his PhD in electrical and computer engineering from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts, USA, with a focus in advanced microwave structures for satellite communications.

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