Liquid Phase Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis. Industrial Applications and Academic Perspectives

  • ID: 3609930
  • Book
  • 456 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The first book to place recent academic developments within the context of real life industrial applications, this is a timely overview of the field of aerobic oxidation reactions in the liquid phase that also illuminates the key challenges that lie ahead.

As such, it covers both homogeneous as well as heterogeneous chemocatalysis and biocatalysis, along with examples taken from various industries: bulk chemicals and monomers, specialty chemicals, flavors and fragrances, vitamins, and pharmaceuticals. One chapter is devoted to reactor concepts and engineering aspects of these methods, while another deals with the relevance of aerobic oxidation catalysis for the conversion of renewable feedstock.

With chapters written by a team of academic and industrial researchers, this is a valuable reference for synthetic and catalytic chemists at universities as well as those working in the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industries seeking a better understanding of these reactions and how to design large scale processes based on this technology.
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Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

Part I Radical Chain Aerobic Oxidation 1

1 Overview of Radical Chain Oxidation Chemistry 3Ive Hermans

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Chain Initiation 6

1.3 Chain Propagation 7

1.4 Formation of Ring–Opened By–Products in the Case of Cyclohexane Oxidation 11

1.5 Complications in the Case of Olefin Autoxidation 12

1.6 Summary and Conclusions 13

References 14

2 Noncatalyzed Radical Chain Oxidation: Cumene Hydroperoxide 15Manfred Weber, Jan–Bernd Grosse Daldrup, and Markus Weber

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 15

2.3 Process Technology 21

2.4 New Developments 27

References 30

3 Cyclohexane Oxidation: History of Transition from Catalyzed to Noncatalyzed 33Johan Thomas Tinge

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 34

3.3 Process Technology 35

3.4 New Developments 38

Epilogue 39

References 39

4 Chemistry and Mechanism of Oxidation of para–Xylene to Terephthalic Acid Using Co Mn Br Catalyst 41Victor A. Adamian and William H. Gong

4.1 Introduction 41

4.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 42

4.3 Process Technology 58

4.4 New Developments 61

4.5 Conclusions 62

References 63

Part II Cu–Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation 67

5 Cu–Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation: Overview and New Developments 69Damian Hruszkewycz, Scott McCann, and Shannon Stahl

5.1 Introduction 69

5.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 70

5.3 Process Technology 74

5.4 New Developments: Pharmaceutical Applications of Cu–Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation Reactions 76

References 82

6 Copper–Catalyzed Aerobic Alcohol Oxidation 85Janelle E. Steves and Shannon S. Stahl

6.1 Introduction 85

6.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 86

6.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 91

6.4 Conclusions 93

References 94

7 Phenol Oxidations 97

7.1 Polyphenylene Oxides by Oxidative Polymerization of Phenols 97Patrick Gamez

7.2 2,3,5–Trimethylhydroquinone as a Vitamin E Intermediate via Oxidation of Methyl–Substituted Phenols 106Jan Schütz and Thomas Netscher

References 109

Part III Pd–Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation 113

8 Pd–Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation Reactions: Industrial Applications and New Developments 115Dian Wang, Jonathan N. Jaworski, and Shannon S. Stahl

8.1 Introduction 115

8.2 Chemistry and Catalysis: Industrial Applications 117

8.3 Chemistry and Catalysis: Applications of Potential Industrial Interest 122

8.4 Chemistry and Catalysis: New Developments and Opportunities 128

8.5 Conclusion 133

References 133

9 Acetaldehyde from Ethylene and Related Wacker–Type Reactions 139Reinhard Jira

9.1 Introduction 139

9.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 140

9.3 Process Technology (Wacker Process) 148

9.4 Other Developments 151

References 155

Further Reading 158

10 1,4–Butanediol from 1,3–Butadiene 159Yusuke Izawa and Toshiharu Yokoyama

10.1 Introduction 159

10.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 160

10.3 Process Technology 164

10.4 New Developments 168

10.5 Summary and Conclusions 169

References 170

11 Mitsubishi Chemicals Liquid Phase Palladium–Catalyzed Oxidation Technology: Oxidation of Cyclohexene, Acrolein, and Methyl Acrylate to Useful Industrial Chemicals 173Yoshiyuki Tanaka, Jun P. Takahara, Tohru Setoyama, and Hans E. B. Lempers

11.1 Introduction 173

11.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 174

11.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 180

11.4 Conclusion 187

References 187

12 Oxidative Carbonylation: Diphenyl Carbonate 189Grigorii L. Soloveichik

12.1 Introduction 189

12.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 192

12.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 201

12.4 Conclusions and Outlook 203

Acknowledgments 204

References 205

13 Aerobic Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Alcohols: The Evolution from Pd Pb Intermetallic Catalysts to Au NiOx Nanoparticle Catalysts for the Production ofMethylMethacrylate 209Ken Suzuki and Setsuo Yamamatsu

13.1 Introduction 209

13.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 210

13.3 Process Technology 214

13.4 New Developments 215

13.5 Conclusion and Outlook 217

References 218

Part IV Organocatalytic Aerobic Oxidation 219

14 Quinones in Hydrogen Peroxide Synthesis and Catalytic Aerobic Oxidation Reactions 221Alison E.Wendlandt and Shannon S. Stahl

14.1 Introduction 221

14.2 Chemistry and Catalysis: Anthraquinone Oxidation (AO) Process 223

14.3 Process Technology 227

14.4 Future Developments: Selective Aerobic Oxidation Reactions Catalyzed by Quinones 229

References 234

15 NOx Cocatalysts for Aerobic Oxidation Reactions: Application to Alcohol Oxidation 239Susan L. Zultanski and Shannon S. Stahl

15.1 Introduction 239

15.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 241

15.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 247

15.4 Conclusions 249

References 249

16 N–Hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI)–Organocatalyzed Aerobic Oxidations: Advantages, Limits, and Industrial Perspectives 253Lucio Melone and Carlo Punta

16.1 Introduction 253

16.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 254

16.3 Process Technology 257

16.4 New Developments 262

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

17 Carbon Materials as Nonmetal Catalysts for Aerobic Oxidations: The Industrial Glyphosate Process and New Developments 267

17.1 Introduction 267Mark Kuil and Annemarie E.W. Beers

17.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 268Mark Kuil and Annemarie E.W. Beers

17.3 Process Technology 270Mark Kuil and Annemarie E.W. Beers

17.4 New Developments 274Paul L. Alsters

17.5 Concluding Remarks 283

References 283

Part V Biocatalytic Aerobic Oxidation 289

18 Enzyme Catalysis: Exploiting Biocatalysis and Aerobic Oxidations for High–Volume and High–Value Pharmaceutical Syntheses 291Robert L. Osborne and Erika M. Milczek

18.1 Introduction 291

18.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 293

18.3 Process Technology 302

18.4 New Developments 304

References 306

Part VI Oxidative Conversion of Renewable Feedstocks 311

19 From Terephthalic Acid to 2,5–Furandicarboxylic Acid: An Industrial Perspective 313Jan C. van derWaal, Etienne Mazoyer, Hendrikus J. Baars, and Gert–Jan M. Gruter

19.1 Introduction 313

19.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 314

19.3 Process Technology 320

19.4 New Developments 325

19.5 Conclusion 327

List of Abbreviations 327

References 327

20 Azelaic Acid fromVegetable Feedstock via Oxidative Cleavage with Ozone or Oxygen 331Angela Köckritz

20.1 Introduction 331

20.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 336

20.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 341

20.4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 342

References 344

21 Oxidative Conversion of Renewable Feedstock: Carbohydrate Oxidation 349Cristina Della Pina, Ermelinda Falletta, and Michele Rossi

21.1 Introduction 349

21.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 351

21.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 362

21.4 Concluding Remarks and Perspectives 366

References 367

Part VII Aerobic Oxidation with Singlet Oxygen 369

22 Industrial Prospects for the Chemical and Photochemical Singlet Oxygenation of Organic Compounds 371Véronique Nardello–Rataj, Paul L. Alsters, and Jean–Marie Aubry

22.1 Introduction 371

22.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 373

22.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 383

22.4 Conclusion 392

Acknowledgments 392

References 393

Part VIII Reactor Concepts for Liquid Phase Aerobic Oxidation 397

23 Reactor Concepts for Aerobic Liquid Phase Oxidation:Microreactors and Tube Reactors 399Hannes P. L. Gemoets, Volker Hessel, and Timothy Noël

23.1 Introduction 399

23.2 Chemistry and Catalysis 400

23.3 Prospects for Scale–Up 413

23.4 Conclusions 417

References 417

Index 421

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Shannon S. Stahl
Paul L. Alsters
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