+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

Natural Systems. The Organisation of Life

  • ID: 3609968
  • Book
  • 392 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
1 of 4

Organised into four sections, this text discusses the organisation of the living world.

  • Links Ecology, Biodiversity and Biogeography
  • Bridges modern and conventional Ecology
  • Builds sequentially from the concept and importance of species, through patterns of diversity to help consider global patterns of biogeography
  • Uses real data sets to help train in essential skills
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 4
Preface xv

Acknowledgements xix

Abbreviations xxi

1 Introduction: defining nature 1

1.1 How little we know 1

1.2 Pressing questions 2

1.3 The hierarchy of nature 2

1.4 Biodiversity 4

1.5 Myths to bust 4

1.6 Further information 5

1.6.1 Recommended reading 5

References 5

Part I: Species

2 What is a species? 9

2.1 The big question 9

2.2 Species concepts 10

2.2.1 Nominalistic 10

2.2.2 Morphological 11

2.2.3 Biological 12

2.2.4 Phylogenetic 13

2.2.5 Genetic 14

2.3 Solving the riddle 16

2.4 Coda: Species richness 17

2.5 Conclusions 17

2.5.1 Recommended reading 17

2.5.2 Questions for the future 17

References 17

3 The history of life 19

3.1 The big question 19

3.2 Sources of evidence 19

3.2.1 The fossil record 19

3.2.2 Molecular evidence 20

3.3 A brief history of diversity 20

3.4 Uneven diversity 24

3.5 Conclusions 25

3.5.1 Recommended reading 26

3.5.2 Questions for the future 26

References 26

4 How many species are there? 29

4.1 The big question 29

4.2 How can we not know? 29

4.3 Discovery rates 30

4.4 Scaling 32

4.5 Sampling–based methods 33

4.6 Other organisms 36

4.7 Wrapping up 36

4.8 Conclusions 37

4.8.1 Recommended reading 38

4.8.2 Questions for the future 38

References 38

Part II: Diversity

5 Measuring diversity 43

5.1 The big question 43

5.2 Scales of diversity 43

5.3 Species richness 43

5.4 Believing in estimates 46

5.5 A SAD story 47

5.6 Diversity of species 49

5.7 Other measures of diversity 51

5.8 diversity 53

5.9 Case study: The Binatang project 54

5.10 Conclusions 57

5.10.1 Recommended reading 57

5.10.2 Questions for the future 57

References 57

6 Niches 61

6.1 The big question 61

6.2 Historical background 61

6.3 Back to basics 63

6.4 Birth and death rates 63

6.5 The ZNGI 66

6.6 Impact vectors 67

6.7 Supply points 67

6.8 Coexistence 68

6.9 The evidence 71

6.10 Implications 73

6.11 Conclusions 76

6.11.1 Recommended reading 77

6.11.2 Questions for the future 77

References 77

7 Patterns in species richness 79

7.1 The big question 79

7.2 Area 79

7.3 Local and regional species richness 81

7.4 Local patterns in species richness 85

7.4.1 Elevation 85

7.4.2 Depth 88

7.4.3 Peninsulas and Bays 88

7.4.4 Isolation 89

7.4.5 Mid–Domain Effects 89

7.5 Congruence 89

7.6 Assembling a model 90

7.7 Conclusions 91

7.7.1 Recommended reading 91

7.7.2 Questions for the future 92

References 92

8 Drivers of diversity 95

8.1 The big question 95

8.2 Coexistence or co–occurrence? 95

8.3 Energy and resources 95

8.4 Diversity begets diversity 101

8.4.1 Heterogeneity in space 101

8.4.2 Heterogeneity in time 103

8.5 Disturbance 104

8.6 Top–down control 105

8.7 Expanding our model 109

8.8 Conclusions 110

8.8.1 Recommended reading 110

8.8.2 Questions for the future 111

References 111

9 Does diversity matter? 113

9.1 The big question 113

9.2 Ecosystems 113

9.3 What shape is the relationship? 115

9.4 Field experiments 117

9.5 Other measures of diversity 121

9.6 Multifunctionality 122

9.7 The real world 125

9.8 Species richness and productivity 126

9.9 Conclusions 127

9.9.1 Recommended reading 127

9.9.2 Questions for the future 128

References 128

Part III: Communities

10 Organisation at the community scale 133

10.1 The big question 133

10.2 Definitions 133

10.3 Communities in the field 134

10.4 Quantitative approaches 135

10.5 Community structure 137

10.6 Food chains 140

10.7 Food webs 142

10.8 Complexity and stability 145

10.9 Trophic cascades 147

10.10 SAD again 148

10.11 Complex systems 151

10.12 Unified neutral theory 153

10.13 Metabolic theory of ecology 155

10.14 Conclusions 156

10.14.1 Recommended reading 157

10.14.2 Questions for the future 157

References 157

11 Stability 161

11.1 The big question 161

11.2 Stable states 161

11.3 Changing environments 164

11.4 Hysteresis 165

11.5 Predicting changes 167

11.6 Coral reefs 169

11.7 Shifting baselines 170

11.8 Conclusions 173

11.8.1 Recommended reading 174

11.8.2 Questions for the future 175

11.9 Coda: the seduction of Gaia 175

References 176

12 Changes through time 179

12.1 The big question 179

12.2 Succession 179

12.3 Succession and niche theory 180

12.4 Examples of succession 182

12.5 Disturbance 184

12.6 Modelling succession 185

12.7 Regeneration 187

12.8 Plants and animals 188

12.9 Case study: Mpala, Kenya 188

12.10 Conclusions 190

12.10.1 Recommended reading 190

12.10.2 Questions for the future 190

References 191

13 Changes through space 193

13.1 The big question 193

13.2 Community assembly 193

13.2.1 Competitive exclusion 194

13.2.2 Historical processes 196

13.2.3 Habitat checkerboards 197

13.2.4 Chance and contingency 198

13.3 Metacommunities 199

13.4 Dispersal limitation 204

13.5 Combining environment and dispersal 208

13.6 Conclusions 210

13.6.1 Recommended reading 210

13.6.2 Questions for the future 210

References 210

Part IV: Biogeography

14 Global patterns of life 215

14.1 The big question 215

14.2 Biogeography 215

14.3 Phytogeography 217

14.4 Ecoregions 222

14.5 Empirical approaches 223

14.6 The oceans 225

14.7 Fresh water 228

14.8 Conclusions 228

14.8.1 Recommended reading 229

14.8.2 Questions for the future 229

References 229

15 Regional species richness 233

15.1 The big question 233

15.2 Climate and productivity 234

15.3 Other processes 236

15.4 Scale and productivity 238

15.5 Latitudinal gradients 240

15.6 Centres of origin 243

15.7 Regional species area relationships 244

15.8 Confounding effects 244

15.9 Conclusions 245

15.9.1 Recommended reading 246

15.9.2 Questions for the future 246

References 246

16 Latitudinal gradients 249

16.1 The big question 249

16.2 Hypotheses 249

16.3 Geographic area 249

16.4 Climatic stability 251

16.5 Productivity 252

16.6 Niche size 253

16.7 Evolutionary speed 254

16.8 Out of the tropics 257

16.9 Conclusions 261

16.9.1 Recommended reading 262

16.9.2 Questions for the future 262

References 262

17 Earth history 265

17.1 The big question 265

17.2 Geological history 265

17.3 Continental drift 266

17.4 Echoes of Pangæa 269

17.5 Climatic effects 272

17.6 Ice ages 274

17.7 Sea level 278

17.8 Extinctions 278

17.9 Conclusions 281

17.9.1 Recommended reading 283

17.9.2 Questions for the future 283

References 283

18 Dispersal 287

18.1 The big question 287

18.2 Range expansion 287

18.3 Mechanisms of dispersal 289

18.4 Barriers 290

18.5 Case studies 292

18.5.1 New Zealand 292

18.5.2 Madagascar 295

18.6 Conclusions 299

18.6.1 Recommended reading 300

18.6.2 Questions for the future 300

References 300

19 Life on islands 303

19.1 The big question 303

19.2 Types of island 303

19.3 Island biotas 305

19.4 Evolution of endemics 305

19.5 Size changes 307

19.6 Reproduction and dispersal 310

19.7 Super–generalists 311

19.8 Endemic communities 312

19.9 Disharmony 312

19.10 Assembly rules 314

19.11 Island species richness 314

19.12 The equilibrium model of island biogeography 317

19.13 Testing the theory 319

19.14 Conclusions 320

19.14.1 Recommended reading 320

19.14.2 Questions for the future 320

References 320

20 Reinventing islands 323

20.1 The big question 323

20.2 A critique of EMIB 323

20.3 Rival hypotheses 326

20.4 Disturbance 326

20.5 Relaxation 329

20.6 Extinctions 331

20.7 Invasions 331

20.8 A new theory? 332

20.9 Evolution 333

20.10 Conclusions 338

20.10.1 Recommended reading 338

20.10.2 Questions for the future 338

References 338

21 What is a natural system? 341

21.1 The big question 341

21.2 Lessons learnt 342

21.2.1 Ecological processes are scale dependent 342

21.2.2 All interactions are nested 342

21.2.3 There is no such thing as the balance of nature 342

21.2.4 Everything is contingent 343

21.3 Processes not systems 343

References 344

Appendix A Diversity analysis case study: Butterfly conservation in the Rocky Mountains 345

A.1 Software resources 345

A.2 Calculations 346

A.3 Synthesis 350

A.4 Conclusions 351

References 352

Glossary 353

Index 359

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
3 of 4

Loading
LOADING...

4 of 4
Markus Eichhorn
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
5 of 4
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Order Online - visit: https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/3609968
Adroll
adroll