HVDC Grids. For Offshore and Supergrid of the Future. IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering

  • ID: 3609987
  • Book
  • 528 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Presents the advantages, challenges, and technologies of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Grids

This book discusses HVDC grids based on multi–terminal voltage–source converters (VSC), which is suitable for the connection of offshore wind farms and  a possible solution for a continent wide overlay grid. HVDC Grids: For Offshore and Supergrid of the Future begins by introducing and analyzing the motivations and energy policy drives for developing offshore grids and the European Supergrid. HVDC transmission technology and offshore equipment are described in the second part of the book. The third part of the book discusses how HVDC grids can be developed and integrated in the existing power system. The fourth part of the book focuses on HVDC grid integration, in studies, for different time domains of electric power systems. The book concludes by discussing developments of advanced control methods and control devices for enabling DC grids.

  • Presents the technology of the future offshore and HVDC grid
  • Explains how offshore and HVDC grids can be integrated in the existing power system
  • Provides the required models to analyse the different time domains of power system studies: from steady–state to electromagnetic transients

This book is intended for power system engineers and academics with an interest in HVDC or power systems, and policy makers. The book also provides a solid background for researchers working with  VSC–HVDC technologies, power electronic devices, offshore wind farm integration, and DC grid protection.

Dirk Van Hertem is an Assistant Professor within ESAT–ELECTA at KU Leuven, Belgium. Dr. Van Hertem has written over 100 scientific papers in international journals and conferences.

Oriol Gomis–Bellmunt is an Associate Professor in the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC). He is involved in the CITCEA–UPC research group and the Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC).

Jun Liang is a Reader within the School of Engineering at Cardiff University, UK. He s also an Adjunct Professor at Changsha University of Science and Technology and North China Electric Power University.
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LIST OF FIGURES xviiLIST OF TABLES xxvCONTRIBUTORS xxviiFOREWORD xxixPREFACE xxxiACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxxvACRONYMS xxxviiPART I HVDC GRIDS IN THE ENERGY VISION OF THE FUTURE

CHAPTER 1 DRIVERS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HVDC GRIDS 3

Dirk Van Hertem

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 From the Vertically Integrated Industry to Fast Moving Liberalized Market 3

1.3 Drivers for Change 5

1.3.1 Liberalized Energy Market 6

1.4 Investments in the Grid 12

1.5 Towards HVDC Grids 17

1.6 Conclusions 22

CHAPTER 2 ENERGY SCENARIOS: PROJECTIONS ON EUROPE′S FUTURE GENERATION AND LOAD 25

Erik Delarue and Cedric De Jonghe

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 System Setting 26

2.3 Scenarios for Europe′s Energy Provision 34

2.4 Conclusions 40

PART II HVDC TECHNOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY FOR OFFSHORE GRIDS

CHAPTER 3 HVDC TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 45

Gen Li, Chuanyue Li, and Dirk Van Hertem

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 LCC–HVDC Systems 45

3.3 LCC–HVDC Converter Station Technology 51

3.4 VSC–HVDC Systems 53

3.5 VSC–HVDC Converter Station Technology 53

3.6 Transmission Lines 72

3.7 Conclusions 76

CHAPTER 4 COMPARISON OF HVAC AND HVDC TECHNOLOGIES 79

Hakan Ergun and Dirk Van Hertem

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 Current Technology Limits 79

4.3 Technical Comparison 82

4.4 Economic Comparison 87

4.5 Conclusions 94

CHAPTER 5 WIND TURBINE TECHNOLOGIES 97

Eduardo Prieto–Araujo and Oriol Gomis–Bellmunt

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 Parts of the Wind Turbine 98

5.3 Wind Turbine Types 99

5.4 Conclusions 107

CHAPTER 6 OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANTS (OWPPS) 109

Mikel De Prada–Gil, Jose Luis Dominguez–Garcia,

Francisco Diaz–Gonzalez, and Andreas Sumper

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 AC OWPPs 111

6.3 DC OWPPs 130

6.4 Other OWPPs Proposals 135

6.5 Conclusions 138

PART III PLANNING AND OPERATION OF HVDC GRIDS

CHAPTER 7 HVDC GRID PLANNING 143

Hakan Ergun and Dirk Van Hertem

7.1 Context of Transmission System Planning 143

7.2 Transmission Expansion Optimization Methodologies 152

7.3 Specialties of Grid Planning with HVDC Technology 155

7.4 Illustrative Examples 157

CHAPTER 8 HVDC GRID LAYOUTS 171

Jun Liang, Oriol Gomis–Bellmunt, and Dirk Van Hertem

8.1 What is an HVDC Grid? 172

8.2 HVDC Grid Topologies 172

8.3 Topologies of HVDC Grids for Offshore Wind Power Transmission 176

8.4 HVDC Converter Station Configuration 183

8.5 Substation Configuration 189

8.6 Conclusions 189

CHAPTER 9 GOVERNANCE MODELS FOR FUTURE GRIDS 193

Muhajir Tadesse Mekonnen, Diyun Huang, and Kristof De Vos

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Transmission Grid Planning 194

9.3 Transmission Grid Ownership 197

9.4 Transmission Grid Financing 201

9.5 Transmission Grid Pricing 204

9.6 Transmission Grid Operation 208

9.7 Conclusions 210

CHAPTER 10 POWER SYSTEM OPERATIONS WITH HVDC GRIDS 213

Dirk Van Hertem, Robert H. Renner, and Johan Rimez

10.1 Introduction 213

10.2 Who Operates the HVDC Link or Grid? 214

10.3 Reliability Considerations in Systems with HVDC 217

10.4 Managing Energy Unbalances in the System 223

10.5 Active and Reactive Power Control 226

10.6 Ancillary Services 230

10.7 Grid Codes 235

10.8 Conclusions 235

CHAPTER 11 OPERATION AND CONTROL OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANTS 239

Oriol Gomis–Bellmunt and Monica Aragues–Penalba

11.1 Introduction 239

11.2 System Under Analysis 240

11.3 Control and Protection Requirements 240

11.4 Wind Power Plant Control Structure 245

11.5 Dynamic Simulation of a Simplified Example 249

11.6 Conclusions 254

PART IV MODELING HVDC GRIDS

CHAPTER 12 MODELS FOR HVDC GRIDS 257

Jef Beerten and Dirk Van Hertem

12.1 Introduction 257

12.2 Power System Computation Programs 257

12.3 Modeling Power Electronic Converters 258

12.4 HVDC Grids Modeling Challenges 262

12.5 Conclusions 264

CHAPTER 13 POWER FLOW MODELING OF HYBRID AC/DC SYSTEMS 267

Jef Beerten

13.1 Introduction 267

13.2 Simplified Power Flow Modeling 268

13.3 Detailed Power Flow Modeling 272

13.4 Sequential AC/DC Power Flow 279

13.5 Software Implementation 289

13.6 Test Case 289

13.7 Conclusions 290

CHAPTER 14 OPTIMAL POWER FLOW MODELING OF HYBRID AC/DC SYSTEMS 293

Johan Rimez

14.1 Introduction 293

14.2 Optimal Power Flow: Standard Formulation and Extension 293

14.3 Optimal Power Flow with DC Grids and Converters 299

14.4 Adding Security Constraints 306

14.5 Conclusions 313

CHAPTER 15 CONTROL PRINCIPLES OF HVDC GRIDS 315

Jef Beerten, Agusti Egea, and Til Kristian Vrana

15.1 Introduction 315

15.2 Basic Control Principles 316

15.3 Basic Converter Control Strategies 318

15.4 Advanced Converter Control Strategies 321

15.5 Basic Grid Control Strategies 324

15.6 Advanced Grid Control Strategies 325

15.7 Converter Inner Current Control 326

15.8 System Power Flow Control 328

15.9 Conclusions 330

CHAPTER 16 STATE–SPACE REPRESENTATION OF HVDC GRIDS 333

Eduardo Prieto–Araujo and Fernando Bianchi

16.1 Introduction 333

16.2 Multi–Terminal Grid Modeling 333

16.3 Four–Terminal Grid Example 339

16.4 Conclusions 343

CHAPTER 17 DC FAULT PHENOMENA AND DC GRID PROTECTION 345

Willem Leterme and Dirk Van Hertem

17.1 Introduction 345

17.2 Short–Circuit Faults in the DC Grid 346

17.3 DC Grid Protection 361

17.4 DC Protection Components 366

17.5 Conclusions 368

CHAPTER 18 REAL–TIME SIMULATION EXPERIMENTS OF DC GRIDS 371

Oluwole Daniel Adeuyi and Marc Cheah

18.1 Introduction 371

18.2 Real–Time Simulation in Power Systems 375

18.3 Design of Experimental Test Rig 379

18.4 Potential Applications of HIL Tests in DC Grids 386

PART V APPLICATIONS

CHAPTER 19 POWER SYSTEM OSCILLATION DAMPING BY MEANS OF VSC–HVDC SYSTEMS 391

Jose Luis Dominguez–Garcia and Carlos E. Ugalde–Loo

19.1 Introduction 391

19.2 Power System Stability 392

19.3 VSC–HVDC Systems Damping Contribution: Application Examples 397

19.4 Conclusions 409

CHAPTER 20 OPTIMAL DROOP CONTROL OF MULTI–TERMINAL VSC–HVDC GRIDS 413

Fernando D. Bianchi and Eduardo Prieto–Araujo

20.1 Introduction 413

20.2 Control of Multi–Terminal VSC–HVDC Grids 414

20.3 Time–Varying Description for Droop Control Design 418

20.4 Design of Optimal Control Droops 421

20.5 Four–Terminal VSC–HVDC Network Example 422

20.6 Conclusions 426

CHAPTER 21 DC GRID POWER FLOW CONTROL DEVICES 429

Chunmei Feng, Sheng Wang, and Qing Mu

21.1 DC Power Flow Control Devices (DCPFC) 430

21.2 Generic Modeling of DC Power Flow Control Devices 437

21.3 Sensitivity Analysis of DCPFC in DC Grid 438

21.4 Case Study of Power Flow Control Devices in DC Grids 441

21.5 Control Sensitivity of DCPFC in DC Grids 444

21.6 Comparison of Power Control Devices 448

21.7 Conclusions 450

CHAPTER 22 MODELING AND CONTROL OF OFFSHORE AC HUB 451

Xiaobo Hu, Jun Liang, and Jose Luis Dominguez–Garcia

22.1 Reasons for Developing AC Hub 451

22.2 What is the AC Hub? 452

22.3 Frequency–Dependent Modeling of AC Hub Components 455

22.4 AC Hub Control Using Variable Frequency 460

22.5 Conclusions 469
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Dirk Van Hertem is an Assistant Professor within ESAT–ELECTA at KU Leuven, Belgium. Dr. Van Hertem has written over 100 scientific papers in international journals and conferences.

Oriol Gomis–Bellmunt is an Associate Professor in the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC). He is involved in the CITCEA–UPC research group and the Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC).

Jun Liang is a Reader within the School of Engineering at Cardiff University, UK. He′s also an Adjunct Professor at Changsha University of Science and Technology and North China Electric Power University.
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