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Application of IC-MS and IC-ICP-MS in Environmental Research

  • ID: 3610022
  • Book
  • 288 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Introduces the reader to the field of ion chromatography, species analysis and hyphenated methods  including the theory and practice of several analytical methods

In recent years, the importance of monitoring and controlling environmental pollutants has become apparent in all parts of the world. As a result, analysts have increased their efforts to identify and determine toxic substances in air, water, wastewaters, food, and other sectors of our environment. Ion chromatography has been used in most areas of analytical chemistry and has become a versatile and powerful technique for the analysis of a vast number of inorganic and organic ions present in samples.

The coupling of ion chromatography with multi–dimensional detectors such as mass spectrometer (MS) or an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP–MS), known as the hyphenated methods, can achieve outstanding sensitivities and selectivities. Application of IC–MS and IC–ICP–MS in Environmental Research introduces the reader to the field of ion chromatography, species analysis and hyphenated methods. These hyphenated methods provide valuable information for unambiguous peak identification. While IC ICP–MS is used for element–specific analysis, IC MS allows the identification of parent compounds and corresponding metabolites. 

Written by leading experts in the field Application of IC–MS and IC–ICP–MS in Environmental Research features:

  • Principles and applications of ion chromatography
  • Mass spectrometric detectors for environmental studies
  • High performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma MS/electrospray ionization MS
  • Application of IC–MS in organic environmental geochemistry
  • Analysis of oxyhalides and haloacetic acids in drinking water using IC–MS
  • and IC–ICP–MS
  • Analysis of various anionic metabolites in plant and animal material by IC–MS
  • Analysis of perchlorate ion in various matrices using ion chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry
  • Sample preparation methods for ion chromatography

Although speciation analysis by using hyphenated methods such as IC–MS and IC–ICP–MS is relatively expensive, it is gaining more and more importance. This method is used to deal with situations that require both determination of total element contents and consideration for various forms in which these elements occur. Employees of laboratories analyzing environmental samples and carried out species analysis will find this book a valuable resource in identifying and determining toxic substances in air, water, wastewaters, food, and other sectors of our environment.

Rajmund Michalski works at the Institute of Environmental Engineering of Polish Academy of Sciences. He has authored/edited a dozen of books and over 250 publications about applications of ion chromatography in environmental samples analysis, as well as application of modern analytical methods and techniques for environmental protection and assessment. Since 2005 he has annually organized the since international ion chromatography conference in Poland.

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List of Contributors ix

Preface xi

1 Principles and Applications of Ion Chromatography 1
Rajmund Michalski

1.1 Principles of Ion Chromatography, 1

1.1.1 Introduction, 1

1.1.2 Stationary Phases, 6

1.1.3 Eluents, 13

1.1.4 Suppressors, 16

1.1.5 Detection Methods, 18

1.2 Ion Chromatography Applications, 23

1.2.1 Speciation Analysis with the Hyphenated Methods of IC–ICP–MS and IC–MS, 29

1.3 Sample Preparation for Ion Chromatography, 32

1.4 Selected Methodological Aspects of Ion Determination with Ion Chromatography, 34

1.5 Ion Chromatography Development Perspectives, 37

1.6 References, 37

2 Mass Spectrometric Detectors for Environmental Studies 47
Maria Balcerzak

2.1 Introduction, 47

2.2 Mass Spectrometric Detectors, 49

2.2.1 Ionization Methods, 50

2.2.2 Mass Analyzers, 58

Acknowledgments, 62

2.3 References, 62

3 High–Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma MS/Electrospray Ionization MS 79
Jürgen Mattusch

3.1 Separation Principles, 79

3.1.1 Ion Chromatography (Anion/Cation Exchange, Mixed Mode), 80

3.1.2 High–Performance Liquid Chromatography (Reversed–Phase Mode, HILIC), 81

3.1.3 Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) (Gel Filtration Chromatography, GFC), 82

3.2 Detection Principles, 83

3.2.1 Common Detection in IC: Conductivity, UV Vis, Electrochemical Detection, 83

3.2.2 Element Specific Detection, 83

3.3 Hyphenated Techniques, 87

3.3.1 HPLC(IC) ICP–MS, 87

3.4 HPLC(IC) ICP–MS/ESI–MS, 90

3.4.1 Fundamentals, 90

3.4.2 Methodology of Data Evaluation, 90

3.4.3 Technical Requirements, 91

3.5 Applications and Conclusion, 91

3.6 References, 102

4 Application of IC–MS in Organic Environmental Geochemistry 109
Klaus Fischer

4.1 Introduction, 109

4.2 Carboxylic Acids, 114

4.2.1 Molecular Structure, Molecular Interaction Potential, and Chromatographic Retention, 114

4.2.2 Environmental Analysis of Carboxylic Acids by Ion Exclusion Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPICE–MS), 116

4.2.3 Environmental Analysis of Carboxylic Acids by Ion–Exchange Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (HPI–EC–MS), 124

4.3 Carbohydrates, 135

4.3.1 Structural Diversity and Ion Chromatographic Behavior, 135

4.3.2 Environmental Analysis of Carbohydrates by Various IC–MS Methods, 136

4.4 Amines and Amino Acids, 143

4.5 Trends and Perspectives, 144

4.6 References, 145

5 Analysis of Oxyhalides and Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water Using IC–MS and IC–ICP–MS 152
Koji Kosaka

5.1 Introduction, 152

5.2 Source of Oxyhalides and HAAs, 154

5.3 Analysis of Oxyhalides and HAAs, 158

5.3.1 Suppressed IC–MS, 158

5.3.2 Nonsuppressed IC–MS and LC–MS, 162

5.3.3 IC–ICP–MS, 165

5.4 Application for Monitoring of Oxyhalides and HAAs in Drinking Water, 166

5.4.1 Oxyhalides, 166

5.4.2 HAAs, 171

Summary, 171

5.5 References, 172

6 Analysis of Various Anionic Metabolites in Plant and Animal Material by IC–MS 178
Adam Konrad Jagielski and Michal Usarek

6.1 Introduction, 178

6.2 Optimization of HPIC and Ms Settings, 179

6.2.1 HPIC Settings, 179

6.2.2 MS Settings, 183

6.2.3 HPIC–MS Settings, 185

6.2.4 Extraction of Metabolites from Cells and Tissues, 189

6.3 Application of the Method in Analysis of Metabolites in Plant and Animal Material, 191

6.3.1 Analysis of Metabolites from Cell Cultures (Primary Cultures as well as Established Cell Lines), 192

6.3.2 Analysis of Metabolites from Solid Tissues, 192

6.3.3 Extraction of Metabolites from Plants, 194

6.4 Conclusions, 196

6.5 References, 197

7 Analysis of Perchlorate Ion in Various Matrices Using Ion Chromatography Hyphenated with Mass Spectrometry 199
Jay Gandhi

7.1 Introduction, 199

7.2 Precautions Unique to Ion Chromatography Mass Spectrometry, 200

7.2.1 Instrumental and Operating Parameters, 201

7.3 Results and Discussion, 204

Acknowledgment, 209

7.4 References, 209

8 Sample Preparation Techniques for Ion Chromatography 210
Wolfgang Frenzel and Rajmund Michalski

8.1 Introduction, 210

8.2 When and Why is Sample Preparation Required in Ion Chromatography? 213

8.3 Automation of Sample Preparation (IN–LINE Techniques), 215

8.4 Sample Preparation Methods, 217

8.4.1 Filtration and Ultrafiltration, 219

8.4.2 Solid–Phase Extraction (SPE), 220

8.4.3 Liquid Liquid Extraction, 225

8.4.4 Gas–Phase Separations, 226

8.4.5 Precipitation, 226

8.4.6 Membrane–Based Separations and Sample Treatment, 227

8.5 Trace Analysis and Preconcentration for Ion Chromatographic Analysis, 238

8.5.1 Preconcentration Using SPE, 239

8.5.2 Membrane–Based In–Line Preconcentration, 241

8.6 In–Line Preseparations Using Two–Dimensional Ion Chromatography (2D–IC), 243

8.7 Sample Preparation of Solid Samples, 244

8.7.1 Dissolution and Aqueous or Acid Extraction, 246

8.7.2 Wet–Chemical Acid Digestions, 247

8.7.3 UV Photolytic Digestion, 248

8.7.4 Fusion Methods, 249

8.7.5 Dry Ashing and Combustion Methods, 249

8.8 Air Analysis Using Ion Chromatography Application to Gases and Particulate Matter, 251

8.9 Postcolumn Eluent Treatment Prior to Ms Detection, 255

8.10 Concluding Remarks, 257

8.11 References, 258

Index 267

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Rajmund Michalski
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