Chipless Radio Frequency Identification Reader Signal Processing. Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering

  • ID: 3617514
  • Book
  • 292 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Presents a comprehensive overview and analysis of the recent developments in signal processing for Chipless Radio Frequency Identification Systems

This book presents the recent research results on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and provides smart signal processing methods for detection, signal integrity, multiple–access and localization, tracking, and collision avoidance in Chipless RFID systems. The book is divided into two sections: The first section discusses techniques for detection and denoising in Chipless RFID systems. These techniques include signal space representation, detection of frequency signatures using UWB impulse radio interrogation, time domain analysis, singularity expansion method for data extraction, and noise reduction and filtering techniques. The second section covers collision and error correction protocols, multi–tag identification through time–frequency analysis, FMCW radar based collision detection and multi–access for Chipless RFID tags as we as localization and tag tracking.

  • Describes the use of UWB impulse radio interrogation to remotely estimate the frequency signature of Chipless RFID tags using the backscatter principle
  • Reviews the collision problem in both chipped and Chipless RFID systems and summarizes the prevailing anti–collision algorithms to address the problem
  • Proposes state–of–the–art multi–access and signal integrity protocols to improve the efficacy of the system in multiple tag reading scenarios
  • Features an industry approach to the integration of various systems of the Chipless RFID reader–integration of physical layers, middleware, and enterprise software

Chipless Radio Frequency Identification Reader Signal Processing is primarily written for researchers in the field of RF sensors but can serve as supplementary reading for graduate students and professors in electrical engineering and wireless communications.

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PREFACE xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Chipless RFID 1

1.2 Chipless RFID Tag Reader 7

1.3 Conclusion 12

References 13

2 Signal Space Representation of Chipless RFID Signatures 15

2.1 Wireless Communication Systems and Chipless RFID Systems 15

2.1.1 The Conventional Digital Wireless Communication System 15

2.1.2 Chipped RFID System 16

2.1.3 Chipless RFID System 17

2.2 The Geometric Representation of Signals in a Signal Space 18

2.2.1 Representing Transmit Signals Using Orthonormal Basis Functions 18

2.2.2 Receiving Signals and Decoding Information 20

2.3 Novel Model for the Representation of Chipless RFID Signatures 22

2.3.1 Signal Space Representation of Frequency Signatures 24

2.3.2 Application of New Model 27

2.4 Performance Analysis 32

2.5 Experimental Results Using the Complete Tag 34

2.6 Conclusion 36

References 38

3 Time –Domain Analysis of Frequency Signature–Based Chipless RFID 39

3.1 Limitations of Current Continuous –Wave Swept Frequency Interrogation and Reading Methods for Chipless RFID 39

3.2 UWB –IR Interrogation of Time –Domain Reflectometry–Based Chipless RFID 43

3.3 Time –Domain Analysis of Frequency Signature–Based Chipless RFID 47

3.4 Analysis of Backscatter from a Multiresonator Loaded Chipless Tag 47

3.4.1 System Description and Mathematical Model for Backscatter Analysis 49

3.4.2 Chipless RFID Tag Design 53

3.5 Simulation Results 55

3.6 Processing Results 56

3.7 Analysis of Backscatter from a Multipatch–Based Chipless Tag 59

3.7.1 System Model and Expressions for Backscatter 59

3.7.2 The Design and Operation of the Multipatch –Based Chipless RFID 61

3.8 Electromagnetic Simulation of System 62

3.8.1 Four –Patch Backscattering Chipless Tag 62

3.8.2 Investigation into Reading Distance and Orientation of Tag 66

3.8.3 Measurement Results 67

3.9 Conclusion 68

References 70

4 Singularity Expansion Method for Data Extraction for Chipless RFID 71

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 The SEM 72

4.2.1 The Complex Frequency Domain 74

4.2.2 Extraction of Poles and Residues 77

4.2.3 Matrix Pencil Algorithm 77

4.2.4 Case Study 81

4.3 Application of SEM for Chipless RFID 84

4.4 Conclusion 89

References 91

5 Denoising and Filtering Techniques for Chipless RFID 93

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Matrix Pencil Algorithm ]Based Filtering 95

5.3 Noise Suppression Through Signal Space Representation 99

5.4 SSI 103

5.5 Wavelet–Based Filtering of Noise 107

5.6 Conclusion 108

References 109

6 Collision and Error Correction Protoco ls in Chipless RFID 111

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 RFID System and Collision 113

6.2.1 Reader Reader Collision 114

6.2.2 Reader Tag Collision 114

6.2.3 Tag Tag Collision 115

6.3 Applications that Involve Multiple Tags 115

6.4 Anticollision Algorithm in Chipped RFID Tags 118

6.4.1 SDMA 119

6.4.2 FDMA 122

6.4.3 CDMA 123

6.4.4 Time Division Multiple Access: TDMA 125

6.5 Anticollision Algorithm for Chipless RFID 128

6.5.1 Linear Block Coding 129

6.5.2 Correlative Signal Processing–Based Approach 131

6.5.3 Walsh –Domain Matched Filtering 131

6.5.4 Spatial Focusing (SDMA) 132

6.5.5 Other Anticollision/Multi–Access Methods 134

6.6 Collision Detection and Multiple Access for Chipless RFID System 135

6.7 Introducing Block Coding in Chipless RFID 138

6.7.1 Coding 139

6.7.2 Block Coding for Collision Detection 141

6.7.3 Block Coding for Improving Data Integrity 144

6.7.4 Advantages and Challenges of Block Coding 146

6.8 Conclusion 148

References 148

7 Multi –Tag Identification Through Time Frequency Analysis 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 t f Analysis and Chipless RFID Systems 154

7.3 FrFT: Background Theory 157

7.3.1 Linear Frequency Modulated Signal 157

7.3.2 FrFT 161

7.4 System Description 167

7.4.1 ADS Simulation Environment 170

7.4.2 Postprocessing in MATLAB 171

7.5 Results and Discussion 174

7.6 Conclusion 180

References 180

8 FMCW RADAR –Based Multi –Tag Identification 183

8.1 Introduction 183

8.2 Background Theory 186

8.2.1 Overview of FMCW RADAR 186

8.2.2 FMCW RADAR Technique for Chipless RFID Systems: Multi–Tag Identification 189

8.3 System Description 196

8.3.1 ADS Simulation Environment 196

8.3.2 Postprocessing in MATLAB 199

8.4 Results and Discussion 201

8.4.1 Collision Detection and Range Extraction 202

8.4.2 Tag Identification 206

8.5 Conclusion 212

References 213

9 Chipless Tag Localization 215

9.1 Introduction 215

9.2 Significance of Localization 216

9.3 Tag localization: Chipless Versus Conventional RFID 217

9.4 Conventional RFID Tag Localization Techniques 218

9.4.1 RTOF Estimation 218

9.4.2 RSS –Based Localization 220

9.4.3 Phase Evaluation Method 220

9.5 Chipless RFID Tag Localization 221

9.6 Benefits of Chipless Tag Localization 222

9.7 Proposed Localization for Chipless RFID Tags 223

9.7.1 Backscattered Signal from Chipless Tag 223

9.7.2 Maximum Detection Range 225

9.7.3 Localization of Tag 228

9.7.4 Ranging of Tag 230

9.7.5 Positioning of Tag 231

9.8 Results and Discussion 233

9.8.1 Simulation Environment 233

9.8.2 Experimental Setup 234

9.8.3 Results and Discussion 236

9.8.4 Unknown Tag Localization 240

9.9 Conclusion 241

References 242

10 State–of–the –Art Chipless RFID Reader 247

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 Challenges in Mass Deployment 249

10.3 Smart RFID Reader 252

10.3.1 Physical Layer (Front End) 253

10.3.2 IT Layer (Back End) 255

10.4 Various Smart Readers 261

10.5 Conclusion 263

References 264

Index 265

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Nemai Karmakar, PhD, is the lead researcher at the RFID and Antenna Research Group at Monash University, Australia. He received his PhD in ITEE from the University of Queensland, Australia, in February 1999. Dr. Karmakar is a pioneer in fully printable Chipless RFID tags, readers, signal processing, and smart antennas. He has published more than 350 scientific journal and conference articles, 9 books, 35 book chapters, and 9 patent applications.

Prasanna Kalansuriya, PhD, is an electrical engineer at Clarinox Technologies, Australia. He obtained a PhD in electrical and computer systems engineering at Monash University, Australia in 2014. In 2012, he was a visiting researcher with the Auto–ID Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Rubayet E Azim is working toward her PhD on Chipless RFID signal processing in electrical and computer systems engineering at Monash University, Australia.

Randika Koswatta, PhD, is a RF design engineer with Hawk Measurement Systems in Melbourne, Australia. He obtained his PhD from the Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering Department of Monash University, Australia in 2013 and completed a bachelor s degree in electrical and electronics engineering with first class honors from the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka in 2007.

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