Soil and Rock Description in Engineering Practice, 2nd edition

  • ID: 3620845
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 320 Pages
  • Whittles Publishing
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The Definitive Work by an Acknowledged Expert and an Acclaimed Practical Guide to the Engineering Geological Description of Soils and Rocks in the Field
This is a revised and updated edition of the highly successful first edition. In the intervening period the procedures used in the description of soils and rocks have continued to develop and evolve and this new edition incorporates changes in the national and international standards, BS 5930:2015 and EN ISO 14688 and 14689 and makes close comparison with US practice in description (ASTM D2488) and classification (ASTM D2487).

In addition, changes in definitions, naming procedures, and new terms are all included and explained. More detailed guidance is given for several procedures including identification of minerals in the process of naming rocks, comparisons of terminology between engineering geology and the other geosciences and alignment of the classification approach to that proposed for earthworks in line with EN 16907.

The book continues to provide invaluable practical guidance in carrying out engineering geological logging of soil and rock samples and exposures in the field. The systematic and codified approach are laid out in detail to ensure the defined descriptors are used in a consistent format, rendering mistakes less likely and the necessary communication from field to design more successful.

The procedures, techniques and tips within this book continue to serve and guide young practitioners learning their craft, but also their seniors and mentors, including responsible experts who sign off the logs and report on behalf of their company. More than ever the need to be aware of current practices in order to avoid costly mistakes is paramount.
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1 Introduction
1.1 What are we describing and why?
1.2 Description compared with classification
1.3 Communication in description
1.4 Soil meets rock
1.5 Health and Safety in description

2 History of Description in Codification
2.1 Prior to 1970
2.2 The period 1970-1981
2.3 The period 1981-1999 and the first BS 5930
2.4 Rock weathering
2.5 1999 and the second BS 5930
2.6 The period since 1999
2.7 Multiple usage of defined terms
2.7.1 Clay and silt terminology
2.7.2 Secondary constituent terms
2.7.3 Loose and dense
2.7.4 Compactness of silt
2.7.5 Rock strength
2.7.6 Rock weathering
2.7.7 Comparison of descriptive terminology

3 Systematic Description
3.1 Standard word order
3.2 Standard word order in US practice
3.3 The multiple sentence approach

4 Description of Materials
4.1 Principal soil and rock types
4.2 Size fractions
4.3 Description procedure using flow chart
4.4 Very coarse soils
4.5 Coarse soils
4.6 Particle shape
4.7 The coarse soil/fine soil boundary
4.8 Fine soils
4.9 Classification of plasticity of fine soils
4.10 The soil/rock boundary
4.11 Rock naming
4.11.1 General naming of rocks
4.11.2 Description of coal
4.11.3 Naming of carbonate sediments
4.11.4 Naming of volcaniclastic sediments
4.12 Grain size in rocks

5 Relative Density and Strength
5.1 Relative density in coarse soils
5.2 Consistency of fine soils
5.3 Strength: shear or unconfined

6 Structure, Fabric and Texture
6.1 Structure
6.2 Fabric
6.3 Texture

7 Colour

8 Secondary and Tertiary Fractions
8.1 Secondary fractions
8.1.1 Secondary fractions in very coarse soils
8.1.2 Very coarse particles as a secondary fraction
8.1.3 Secondary fractions in coarse soils
8.1.4 Fine soil as a secondary constituent
8.1.5 Secondary fractions in fine soils
8.1.6 Multiple secondary fractions
8.2 Tertiary fractions
8.3 Description of widely graded soils
8.4 Description and classification of particle size grading
8.5 Other information

9 Geological Unit

10 Weathering
10.1 Weathering of soils
10.2 Rock weathering
10.3 Approach 1: description of weathering
10.4 Approaches 2 and 3: classifications for
homogeneous stronger rocks

10.5 Approach 4: classification for heterogeneous weaker rocks
10.6 Material specific weathering schemes
10.7 Approach 5: special cases
10.7.1 Chalk
10.7.2 Karstic limestone
10.7.3 Tropical weathering
11 Discontinuity Logging

11.1 Types of discontinuity
11.2 Discontinuity description
11.3 Orientation
11.4 Spacing
11.5 Persistence and termination
11.6 Surface form Contents
11.7 Wall strength
11.8 Aperture and infilling
11.9 Seepage
11.10 Discontinuity sets

12 Discontinuity State Recording
12.1 Total core recovery
12.2 Solid core recovery
12.3 Rock quality designation
12.4 Fracture spacing

13 Low Density Soils
13.1 Organic soils
13.1.1 Topsoil
13.1.2 Peat
13.1.3 Transported mixtures of organic soils
13.2 Volcanic soils or rocks
13.3 Loess and brickearth

14 Anthropogenic Ground
14.1 Types of anthropogenic ground
14.2 Identification of anthropogenic ground
14.3 Odours
14.4 Definitions of some combustion products
14.5 Description of concrete or macadam
14.5.1 Aggregate content
14.5.2 Voids
14.5.3 Deleterious substances
14.5.4 Reinforcement
14.6 Pavement material types
14.7 Description of brickwork
14.8 Logging cores of manufactured materials

15 Classification Schemes
15.1 Classification according to EN ISO
15.2 International classification systems
15.3 Classification systems taking account of engineering properties
15.4 European earthworks classification
15.5 Rock classification and rating schemes

16 The Description Process - Boreholes
16.1 The approach to description
16.2 Logging equipment and the toolbox
16.3 Description of samples and cores
16.4 Check logging
16.5 Photography of samples and cores
16.6 Testing and sampling
16.7 Compilation of field log
16.8 Checking against test results
16.9 Editing the field log to completion

17 Description Process - Field Exposures
17.1 Geological and geomorphological mapping
17.2 Field logging
17.3 Information to be recorded in exposure logging
17.4 Surveying
17.5 Safety

Appendix: Pro-Forma Field Record Sheets
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David Norbury
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