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Advanced Characterization Techniques for Thin Film Solar Cells. 2 Volumes, 2nd Edition

  • ID: 3623309
  • Book
  • 760 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The book focuses on advanced characterization methods for thin–film solar cells that have proven their relevance both for academic and corporate photovoltaic research and development. After an introduction to thin–film photovoltaics, highly experienced experts report on device and materials characterization methods such as electroluminescence analysis, capacitance spectroscopy, and various microscopy methods. In the final part of the book simulation techniques are presented which are used for ab–initio calculations of relevant semiconductors and for device simulations in 1D, 2D and 3D.

Building on a proven concept, this new edition also covers thermography, transient optoelectronic methods, and absorption and photocurrent spectroscopy.

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PART I. Introduction

INTRODUCTION TO THIN–FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS

Introduction

The Photovoltaic Principle

Functional Layers in Thin–Film Solar Cells

Comjparison of Various Thin–Film Solar–Cell Types

Conclusions

PART II. Device Characterization

FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Current/Voltage Curves

Quantum–Efficiency Measurements

ELECTROLUMINESCENCE ANALYSIS OF SOLAR CELLS AND SOLAR MODULES

Introduction

Basics

Spectrally Resolved EL

Spatially Resolved EL of c–Si Solar Cells

EL Imaging of Thin–Film Solar Cells and Modules

Electromodulated Luminescence under Illumination

CAPACITANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Admittance Basics

Sample Requirements

Instrumentation

CV Profiling and the Depletion Approximation

Admittance Response of Deep States

The Influence of Deep States on CV Profiles

Deep–Level Transient Spectroscopy

Admittance Spectroscopy

Drive–Level Capacitance Profiling

Photocapacitance

The Meyer–Neldel Rule

Spatial Inhomogeneities and Interface States

Metastability

TIME–OF–FLIGHT ANALYSIS

Introduction

Fundamentals of TOF Measurements

Experimental Details

Analysis of TOF Results

TRANSIENT OPTOELECTRONIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Measurement Setup

Charge Extraction and Transient Photovoltage

CE with Linearly Increased Voltage

Time–Delayed Collection Field Method

STEADY–STATE PHOTOCARRIER GRATING METHOD

Introduction

Basic Analysis of SSPG and Photocurrent Response

Experimental Setup

Data Analysis

Results

DOS Determination

Data Collection by Automization and Combination with other Experiments

Summary

PART III. Materials Characterization

ABSORPTION AND PHOTOCURRENT SPECTROSCOPY WITH HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE

Introduction

Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy

Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy

SPECTROSCOPIC ELLIPSOMETRY

Introduction

Theory

Ellipsometry Instrumentation

Data Analysis

Spectroscopic Ellipsometry forThin–Film Photovoltaics

Summary and Outlook

CHARACTERIZING THE LIGHT–TRAPPING PROPERTIES OF TEXTURED SURFACES WITH SCANNING NEAR–FIELD OPTICAL MICROSCOPY

Introduction

How Does a Scanning Near–Field Optical Microscope Work?

The Role of Evanescent Modes for Light Trapping

Analysis of Scanning Near–Field Optical Microscopy Images by Fast Fourier Transformation

Investigation of Individua lWaveguide Modes

Light Propagation inThin–Film Solar Cells Investigated with Dual–Probe SNOM

Conclusion

PHOTOLUMINESCENCE ANALYSIS OF THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Experimental Issues

Basic Transitions

Case Studies

ELECTRON–SPIN RESONANCE (ESR) IN HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS SILICON (a–Si:H)

Introduction

Basics of ESR

How to Measure ESR

The g Tensor and Hyperfine Interaction in Disordered Solids

Discussion of Selected Results

Alternative ESR Detection

Concluding Remarks

SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY ON INORGANIC THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Experimental Background

Selected Applications

Summary

ELECTRON MICROSCOPY ON THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Scanning Electron Microscopy

Transmission Electron Microscopy

Sample Preparation Techniques

X–RAY AND NEUTRON DIFFRACTION ON MATERIALS FOR THIN–FILM SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Diffraction of X–Rays and Neutron by Matter

Grazing Incidence X–Ray Diffraction (GIXRD)

Neutron Diffraction of Absorber Materials for Thin–Film Solar Cells

Anomalous Scattering of Synchrotron X–Rays

IN SITU REAL–TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF THIN–FILM GROWTH

Introduction

Real–Time In Situ Characterization Techniques for Thin–Film Growth

X–Ray Methods for Real–Time Growth Analysis

Light Scattering and Reflection

Summary

RAMAN–SPECTROSCOPY ON THIN FILMS FOR SOLAR CELLS

Introduction

Fundamentals of Raman Spectroscopy

Vibrational Modes in Crystalline Materials

Experimental Considerations

Characterization of Thin–Film Photovoltaic Materials

Conclusions

SOFT X–RAY AND ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY: A UNIQUE "TOOL CHEST" TO CHARACTERIZE THE CHEMICAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SURFACES AND INTERFACES

Introduction

Charact
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Daniel Abou–Ras
Thomas Kirchartz
Uwe Rau
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