In 1989, global regulatory authorities in the United States, Europe, and Japan – together with pharmaceutical trade associations from the same regions – established an International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) to standardize the quality and safety requirements for drug product registration. Through the ICH process, more than fifty guidelines have been produced covering quality, non–clinical safety, clinical efficacy and safety, and multi–disciplinary topics. While the guidelines provide a clear framework in terms of requirements, there remains the necessity to interpret how compliance can be achieved practically. Interpreting and implementing the ICH quality guidelines from a practical point of view is thus a challenge facing the entire pharmaceutical industry.
Motivated by the pressing need for a consistent and integrated view of how the guidelines inform drug development strategic planning and decision–making, ICH Quality Guidelines: An Implementation Guide focuses on the quality guidelines and requirements along with their implications and practical implementation. Featuring chapters by authors who were involved in the development of the guidelines and subject matter experts, the book offers a succinct and definitive text with practical case study examples.
Topics include stability testing, analytical method validation, impurities, biotechnology drugs and products, and good manufacturing practice (GMP). The book provides a primary reference point for practitioners addressing the dual challenge of interpretation and practical implementation of the guidelines, giving not only a definitive narrative, but also actual solutions to effectively manage the associated identified issues.
Encompassing both R&D and marketing environments, ICH Quality Guidelines details the appropriate application during the phases of drug development – a truly global issue and thus valuable to anyone involved in the pharma industry throughout the world.
List of Contributors ix
An Introduction to ICH Quality Guidelines: Opportunities and Challenges 1
1 ICHQ1A(R2) Stability Testing of New Drug Substance and Product and ICHQ1C Stability Testing of New Dosage Forms 3Andy Rignall
2 Stability Testing: Photostability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products ICH Q1B 45David Clapham
3 ICH Q1D: Bracketing and Matrixing Designs for Stability Testing of New Drug Substances and Products 73Raymond Peter Munden
4 ICH Q1E Evaluation for Stability Data 89Garry Scrivens
5 Q2(R1) Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology 127Phillip Borman and David Elder
6 Impurities in New Drug Substances and New Drug Products: ICH Q3A/B: Key Guidelines in the General Impurity Management Process 167Andrew Teasdale, David Elder, James Harvey, and Steven Spanhaak
7 ICH Q3C Impurities: Guideline for Residual Solvents 199John Connelly
8 ICH Q3D Elemental Impurities 233Andrew Teasdale and Sarah Thompson
9 ICH Q4: Pharmacopeial Harmonization and Evaluation and Recommendation of Pharmacopeial Texts for Use in the ICH Regions 281David Elder
10 ICH Q5A: Viral Safety of Biotechnology Products 311Daniel Galbraith
11 ICH Q5B Analysis of the Expression Construct in Cell Lines Used for Production of Recombinant DNA]Derived Protein Products 337Jianxin Ye, Zhong Liu, and David Pollard
12 ICH Q5C Stability Testing of Biotechnological/Biological Products 345John G. Davies, Di Gao, Yoen Joo Kim, Richard Harris, Patricia W. Cash, Timothy L. Schofield, Roujian Zhang, and Qiang Qin
13 Q5D Derivation and Characterization of Cell Substrates Used for Production of Biotechnological/Biological Products 375Mark Plavsic
14 Conduct of Risk Assessments: An Integral Part of Compliance with ICH Q5A and ICH Q5D 395Raymond W. Nims
15 ICH Q5E Comparability of Biotechnological/Biological Products Subject to Changes in Their Manufacturing Processes: Summary and Analysis of ICH Q5E Guideline 409Ramani R. Raghavan and Robert McCombie
16 ICH Q6A Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for New Drug Substances and New Drug Products: Chemical Substances 433David Elder
17 ICH Q6B Specifications: Test Procedures and Acceptance Criteria for Biotechnological/Biological Products 467Scott R. Rudge and Raymond W. Nims
18 Process]Related Impurities in Biopharmaceuticals: A Deeper Dive into ICH Q6B 487Anil Raghani, Kim Li, Jeanine L. Bussiere, Joel P. Bercu, and Jinshu Qiu
19 ICH Q7 Good Manufacturing Practice Guide for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) 509Gordon Munro
20 Q8(R2): Pharmaceutical Development 535Per Holm, Morten Allesø, Mette C. Bryder, and René Holm
21 ICH Q9 Quality Risk Management 579David Elder and Andrew Teasdale
22 ICH Q10 Quality Systems: ICH Q10 Implementation at Genentech/Roche 611Larry Wigman and Danny Ooi
23 ICH Q11: Development and Manufacture of Drug Substance 639Ronald Ogilvie
24 ICH M7: Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential Carcinogenic Risk 667Andrew Teasdale
Andrew Teasdale, PhD, is a principal scientist in pharmaceutical development with AstraZeneca. He has over 20 years′ experience within the industry and has held a number of leadership roles both internally and externally at a cross industry level encompassing key ICH topic areas.
David Elder, PhD, is an independent CMC consultant. He has 40 years′ experience within the pharmaceutical industry. He was formerly a director within GlaxoSmithKline′s platform technology and science function. He is an expert member for the British Pharmacopoeia and has extensive CMC experience encompassing many of the key ICH topics.
Raymond W. Nims, PhD, is a Senior Consultant at RMC Pharmaceutical Solutions, with experience in a variety of GMP quality assurance and quality control topics from a biologics point of reference. He has served on ad hoc panels supporting a number of USP chapters and ANSI Standards.