The aim of this book is to provide readers with an overview of the current thought and evidence about the prevention of chronic musculoskeletal pain. Starting with the introduction, readers are shown the dire need for prevention and the peculiarities of preventing a problem that is typically recurrent. In the second section, risk factors and mechanisms are examined that provide a unique and in-depth understanding of how disability develops and thereby how it might be prevented. Chapters are dedicated to major risk factors such as stress, ergonomics and fear-avoidance as well as to the overriding question of why acute pain sometimes develops into a chronic problem. The major challenge facing the field today is developing effective preventive interventions. Section three provides detailed information on a number of approaches to the prevention of debilitating chronic pain. The section starts with the early identification of patients who, based on the information in section two on risk factors, will likely develop persistent pain and disability. Clinical and workplace oriented prevention strategies are highlighted. Readers are introduced to the problems and solutions in developing effective preventive programs. Several successful methods are described in terms of program delivery and scientific value. This book will provide the state of the art on how to understand and effectively deal with this costly and devastating problem.
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Section I. The Need for Prevention.
Chapter 2. The prevalence of regional and widespread musculoskeletal pain symptoms (J. McBeth, G.J. Macfarlane). Chapter 3. Economic aspects of chronic musculoskeletal pain (M.E.J.B. Goossens). Chapter 4. Reducing disability in injured workers: the importance of collaborative management (M.K. Nicholas). Chapter 5. Concepts of treatment and prevention in musculoskeletal disorders (C.J. Main).
Section II. Risk Factors and Mechanisms.
Chapter 6. Why does chronic pain develop? A behavioral approach (S.J. Linton). Chapter 7. Pain-related fear and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain (J.W.S. Vlaeyen, S.J. Linton). Chapter 8. Depression and mood (Z. Clyde, A.C.deC. Williams). Chapter 9. Cognitive appraisal (T. Pincus, S. Morley). Chapter 10. On occupational ergonomic risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and related intervention practice (R.H. Westgaard, J. Winkel). Chapter 11. Stress in the development of musculoskeletal pain (U. Lundberg, B. Melin).
Section III. Early Identification and Preventive Interventions.
Chapter 12. Employing risk factors for screening of chronic pain disability (C.B. Pulliam, R.J. Gatchel). Chapter 13. Early assessment of psychological factors: the Örebro Screening Questionnaire for Pain (K. Boersma, S.J. Linton). Chapter 14. Secondary prevention in the workplace (W.S. Shaw, M. Feuerstein, G.D. Huang). Chapter 15. The stepped care approach to chronic back pain (B.H.K. Balderson, M. Von Korff). Chapter 16. Educational and informational approaches (A.K. Burton, G. Waddell). Chapter 17. Early rehabilitation: the Ontario experience (S.J. Sinclair, S. Hogg-Johnson). Chapter 18. Cognitive behavioral therapy in the prevention of musculoskeletal pain: description of a program (S.J. Linton). Chapter 19. Multidimensional prevention (G. Bergström, I.B. Jensen). Chapter 20. Problem-solving therapy and behavioral graded activity in the prevention of chronic pain disability (J.H.C. Van den Hout, J.W.S. Vlaeyen).