The apatites and related calcium phosphates have been of considerable interest to biologists, mineralogists, and inorganic and industrial chemists for many years. This book contains a detailed description of the structures and structural interrelationships of the calcium orthophosphates, including the apatites. Their preparation, crystal growth and dissolution, chemical reactions including thermal decomposition, IR, Raman and NMR spectra and various physical properties are discussed. Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. Synthetic, mineral and biological carbonate apatites are also considered. A wide, but critical coverage of the literature is given, which includes a substantial amount not written in English. Research from many disciplines is included which results in a comprehensive compilation of recent work.
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1. General chemistry of the calcium orthophosphates Introduction. Monocalcium phosphates (monohydrate and anhydrous). Octacalcium phosphate. Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, brushite. Dicalcium phosphate anhydrous, monetite. Anhydrous tricalcium phosphates and whitlockite. Tetracalcium phosphate. Amorphous calcium phosphates 2. Fluorapatite and chlorapatite Introduction. Structures. Substitutions in apatites. Preparation of powders. Growth of single crystals. Infrared and Raman spectra. Other physical and chemical studies 3. Hydroxyapatite and nonstoichiometric apatites Introduction. Structure of hydroxyapatite. Preparation of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite powders. Preparation of other apatites with hydroxyl ions. Growth of hydroxyapatite single crystals. Special analytical methods. Structure of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites. Kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth. Solubility and interfacial phenomena. Reactions in solution. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. NMR spectroscopy. Other physical and chemical studies 4. Mineral, synthetic and biological carbonate apatites Introduction. Francolite and dahllite. A-type carbonate apatite, Ca10(PO4)6CO3. Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. Carbonate apatites from aqueous systems. Biological apatites. Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated carbonate apatites. Summary Appendix Calculated X-ray diffraction patterns of the calcium orthophosphates. References Index