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Active Immunization for Unconventional Indications Report

  • ID: 3704644
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 166 Pages
  • Martina Lutter
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Can we Repeat the Success of Active Vaccinations Against Infectious Diseases also in Indications Such as Chronic Diseases, Addictions, or Injuries?

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The aim of this report is to provide information about vaccines in development for unconventional indications and non-infectious diseases. Further focus will be placed on sophisticated antigen(s)-specific vaccines and vaccines where induced polyclonal antibodies are claimed to be the main mode of action. The scope of this report does not include vaccines against microorganisms which are used for non-infectious diseases (e.g. cancer vaccines targeting HPV). Also, the term “vaccine” as used in this report does not mean a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or immunoglobulin (IgGs) infusion.

Rather than explaining the background behind immune reactions a comparative overview will be made of active candidates with details on indications, targets, stage of development, technologies and the companies supporting them. Target product profiles will be provided for the most advanced candidates and details on single vaccines will also be provided for other vaccines in active development.

Most of the vaccines here will be synthetic vaccines generally composed of a synthetic B-cell epitope(s), usually coupled to a carrier in order to introduce T-cell epitopes necessary for inducing a correct and complete immune response and an adjuvant for amplifying immune response. This view is of course very simplified and details about vaccine composition will be discussed for the individual vaccines.

“Pure” T-cell vaccines (where the main mode of action is mediated by T lymphocytes) have not been included. However, some of the vaccines included report both modes of action equally and the importance of each is still to be elucidated.

Reference is also made to “Selected special antibody-inducing vaccines” which are interesting from a technological and conceptual point of view although they do not strictly fall into above mentioned scope of this review. There is a potential that these vaccines or the technologies behind them will be used more generally in the future, once they have been further elucidated, defined and developed.

The scope of the current report includes more than 100 active vaccine projects. Basic information is also given on dozens of stopped projects. A single vaccine project means a vaccine used for a single indication. Some vaccines (same formulation) are developed for more than one indication. Also, when a new formulation is disclosed, this is counted as a new vaccine.
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1. Aim and Scope

2. Introduction

3. Indications

4. Targets

5. Most advanced vaccines (Phase III- Phase I/II)
5.1. Overview
5.2. Target product profiles (TPPs)

6. Phase I vaccines
6.1. Overview
6.2. Details on Phase I vaccines

7. Preclinical candidates
7.1. Overview
7.2. Details on vaccines in preclinical development

8. Most active players in the field

9. Stopped vaccines

10. Summary

11. Disclaimer

12. Sources

13. Feedback form

14. Abbreviations, Terms

15. List of tables

16. List of Figures

17. About the publisher

List of Tables:
Table 1 List of vaccines for cancer indications
Table 2 List of vaccines for neurodegenerative diseases
Table 3 List of vaccines for allergies
Table 4 List of vaccines for addictions
Table 5 List of vaccines for cardiovascular diseases
Table 6 List of vaccines for autoimmune disorders
Table 7 List of most frequent targets used for vaccines development
Table 8 TPP of Vaccine 1
Table 9 TPP of Vaccine 2
Table 10 TPP of Vaccine 3
Table 11 TPP of Vaccine 4
Table 12 TPP of Vaccine 5
Table 13 TPP of Vaccine 6
Table 14 TPP of Vaccine 7
Table 15 TPP of Vaccine 8
Table 16 TPP of Vaccine 9
Table 17 TPP of Vaccine 10
Table 18 TPP of Vaccine 11
Table 19 TPP of Vaccine 12
Table 20 TPP of Vaccine 13
Table 21 TPP of Vaccine 14
Table 22 TPP of Vaccine 15
Table 23 TPP of Vaccine 16
Table 24 TPP of Vaccine 17
Table 25 TPP of Vaccine 18
Table 26 TPP of Vaccine 19
Table 27 TPP of Vaccine 20
Table 28 TPP of Vaccine 21
Table 29 TPP of Vaccine 22
Table 30 TPP of Vaccine 23
Table 31 TPP of Vaccine 24
Table 32 TPP of Vaccine 25
Table 33 TPP of a recently discontinued vaccine
Table 34 List of Phase I vaccines
Table 35 TPP of Vaccine 26
Table 36 TPP of Vaccine 27
Table 37 TPP of Vaccine 28
Table 38 TPP of Vaccine 29
Table 39 TPP of Vaccine 30
Table 40 TPP of Vaccine 31
Table 41 TPP of Vaccine 32
Table 42 TPP of Vaccine 33
Table 43 TPP of Vaccine 34
Table 44 TPP of Vaccine 35
Table 45 TPP of Vaccine 36
Table 46 TPP of Vaccine 37
Table 47 TPP of Vaccine 38
Table 48 TPP of Vaccine 39
Table 49 TPP of Vaccine 40
Table 50 TPP of Vaccine 41
Table 51 TPP of Vaccine 42
Table 52 TPP of Vaccine 43
Table 53 TPP of Vaccine 44
Table 54 TPP of Vaccine 45
Table 55 TPP of Vaccine 46
Table 56 TPP of Vaccine 47
Table 57 TPP of Vaccine 48
Table 58 TPP of Vaccine 49
Table 59 TPP of Vaccine 50
Table 60 TPP of Vaccine 51
Table 61 TPP of Vaccine 52
Table 62 TPP of Vaccine 53
Table 63 TPP of Vaccine 54
Table 64 TPP of Vaccine 55
Table 65 TPP of Vaccine 56
Table 66 TPP of Vaccine 57
Table 67 List of vaccines in preclinical development
Table 68 TPP of Vaccine 58
Table 69 TPP of Vaccine 59
Table 70 TPP of Vaccine 60
Table 71 TPP of Vaccine 61
Table 72 TPP of Vaccine 62
Table 73 TPP of Vaccine 63
Table 74 TPP of Vaccine 64
Table 75 TPP of Vaccine 65
Table 76 TPP of Vaccine 66
Table 77 TPP of Vaccine 67
Table 78 TPP of Vaccine 68
Table 79 TPP of Vaccine 69
Table 80 TPP of Vaccine 70
Table 81 TPP of Vaccine 71
Table 82 TPP of Vaccine 72
Table 83 TPP of Vaccine 73
Table 84 TPP of Vaccine 74
Table 85 TPP of Vaccine 75
Table 86 TPP of Vaccine 76
Table 87 TPP of Vaccine 77
Table 88 TPP of Vaccine 78
Table 89 TPP of Vaccine 79
Table 90 TPP of Vaccine 80
Table 91 TPP of Vaccine 81
Table 92 TPP of Vaccine 82
Table 93 TPP of Vaccine 83
Table 94 TPP of Vaccine 84
Table 95 TPP of Vaccine 85
Table 96 TPP of Vaccine 86
Table 97 TPP of Vaccine 87
Table 98 TPP of Vaccine 88
Table 99 TPP of Vaccine 89
Table 100 TPP of Vaccine 90
Table 101 TPP of Vaccine 91
Table 102 TPP of Vaccine 92
Table 103 TPP of Vaccine 93
Table 104 TPP of Vaccine 94
Table 105 TPP of Vaccine 95
Table 106 TPP of Vaccine 96
Table 107 TPP of Vaccine 97
Table 108 TPP of Vaccine 98
Table 109 TPP of Vaccine 99
Table 110 TPP of Vaccine 100
Table 111 TPP of Vaccine 101
Table 112 TPP of Vaccine 102
Table 113 TPP of Vaccine 103
Table 114 TPP of Vaccine 104
Table 115 TPP of Vaccine 105
Table 116 TPP of Vaccine 106
Table 117 Selection of stopped vaccines

List of Figures:
Figure 1 Overview of active and inactive/unknown status vaccines according to therapeutic area
Figure 2 Most advanced vaccines timelines
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Vaccines or active immunotherapy have proven track records in the successful eradication of some infectious diseases in the human population and in combating many others. Can we repeat the same success also in unconventional indications, in indications such as chronic diseases, addictions, or injuries?

A traditional vaccine is a prophylactic vaccine which usually induces long-life immunity against exogenous or foreign antigens expressed on microorganisms. Usually, but not in all cases, these exogenous antigens induce a robust immune response where innate and specific immunity is involved. Immunization with weakened or dead microorganisms or their parts which have been made synthetically or biotechnologically, protects against diseases caused by them.

Lessons have been learnt from infectious diseases and years ago people started to study vaccines for chronic diseases too, where a new challenge was introduced- inducing immune reaction against the own molecules which were thought to be involved in pathological processes. These own molecules could either be modified or overexpressed in the body or they could simply attain a structure which changed their function from a protective or normal one to a pathological one. What is important is that the body itself is not able to produce an adequate immune reaction to eradicate such overexpressed or modified molecules. There are successful efforts to help the immune system in chronic diseases by passive vaccination- by infusion of monoclonal antibodies. Therefore the way for using vaccines in indications such as cancer, metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases is laid open.

Furthermore, there are aims to use vaccines to tackle the “over” reaction of the immune system as is seen in allergic reactions. New allergy vaccines are developed in a sophisticated way by creating synthetic vaccines with defined allergen antigens inducing an immune response shifting from IgE to IgGs production or vaccines simply targeting IgE itself.
We should not forget efforts made to use vaccines in the fields of human addictions, biological weapons and recently also in genetic diseases.

All these attempts try to use the best from a vaccine approach- a specific and long-lasting effect and the feasibility to treat a large number of the population without exhausting health insurance systems.

It needs to be said that in contrast to infectious disease vaccines, vaccines mentioned here for unconventional indications are, with the exception of two of them, intended to be therapeutic vaccines. There is still a long way to go until there will be working prophylactic vaccines which could be used to protect people from diseases such as various cancers, Alzheimer’s disease, seasonal allergy, smoking addiction or obesity. Results from therapeutic vaccinations along with intensive biomarker research and in depth understanding of the etiology of diseases are paving the way for prophylactic vaccines.

The majority of vaccines for unconventional indications are in development in biotech companies and at universities. There are however also some big pharma companies involved in active development which indicates that this approach to bring vaccines to unconventional indications has attracted attention also from big pharma players, sometimes with their own experience with vaccines against infectious diseases.

The year 2016 will be quite unique in regards to development of active vaccinations for unconventional indications within the scope of this report- there should be results available from about 20 Phase III to Phase I trials.
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- AC Immune
- AFFiRiS
- Agilvax
- Alfred Health and Monash University
- Allergopharma
- Alzinova
- Amorfix Life Sciences/now ProMIS Neurosciences
- Anergis
- Aphton /now Cancer Advances)
- Araclon Biotech/Grifols
- Aravax
- Astellas Pharma
- Axon Neuroscience
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Biomay
- Biomira/later Oncothyreone
- BioRap Technologies
- Bioven
- Braasch Biotech
- Cancer Advances
- Cancer Research UK
- Celldex
- Celtic Pharmaceutical Holdings L.P./ Xenova Group
- Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba
- CuraVac
- Cyto Pulse Sciences
- Cytos
- Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China
- Elan
- GlaxoSmithKline
- ImmuLogic Pharmaceutical
- Immunovo
- Immunomic Therapeutics
- Imugene
- Institute for translational vaccinology
- InterveXion Therapeutics
- Janssen
- Karolinska Institutet
- Lundbeck
- MabVax
- Medigen USA
- Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
- Merciapharma
- MicroVax
- MSD
- Nabi Biopharmaceuticals/Merged in 2013 with Biota Holdings
- National Cancer Institute
- Neovacs
- NewLink Genetics
- Novartis
- OBI Pharma
- OncoQR
- Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine
- Oxford Biomedica
- Pepscan
- Pevion
- Pfizer
- Pharmexa (in 2009 acquired by Affitech AS)
- PharmLogic/VaxLogic
- Polynoma/within Hong Kong-based CK Life Sciences Int’l (Holdings)
- Progenics Pharmaceuticals
- ProMIS Neurosciences
- Resistencia Pharmaceuticals
- Selecta Biosciences
- Singapore Clinical Research Institute (SCRI)
- Soligenix
- Technovax
- The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital, The Ohio State University
- The Scripps Research Institute
- TYG-Oncology
- U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command
- United Biomedical
- University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
- University of British Columbia
- University of California, San Diego
- University of Lausanne
- University of Miami
- University of New Mexico
- University of Oxford
- University of Pennsylvania
- University of Pittsburgh
- University of Queensland's Institute for Molecular Bioscience
- VLP Biotech
- Weill Cornell Medical College
- Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories
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