Unlike other human senses, the exact mechanisms that lead to our perception of flavour have not yet been elucidated. It is known that the process involves a wide range of stimuli, which are thought likely to interact in a complex way, but, since the chemical compounds and physical structures that activate the flavour sensors change as the food is eaten, measurements of the changes in stimuli with time are essential to an understanding of the relationship between stimuli and perception.
Flavour: From Food to Perception covers all aspects of flavour perception, including aroma, taste and trigeminal sensation, from the general composition of food to the perception at the peri–receptor, receptor and central level. It responds to a growing need for pluridisciplinary approaches to better understand the mechanisms involved in flavour perception. After presenting the physiological systems involved in the perception of flavour molecules, the book provides an overview of the interactions occurring in the food matrix (interactions between flavour molecules and other ingredients, texture–flavour interactions). It then presents the most recent findings on the transfer of these molecules from food to the chemosensory receptors and on the integration of the different sensory modalities at the central level.
This comprehensive book will provide those in the food industry working on flavour and food with a multidisciplinary approach to flavour perception. The mechanisms of flavour perception as well as the new tools and approaches presented will help with the reformulation of products in the future.
Lists of Contributors vii
List of Abbreviations xiii
1 Olfactory system in mammals: structural and functional anatomy 1Anne–Marie Le Bon, Frédérique Datiche, Jean Gascuel & Xavier Grosmaitre
2 Odorant metabolizing enzymes in the peripheral olfactory process 34Jean–Marie Heydel, Hassan–Ismail Hanser, Philippe Faure & Fabrice Neiers
3 The vertebrate gustatory system 57Maik Behrens & Wolfgang Meyerhof
4 Bioadhesion and oral fluids perireceptor modulators of taste perception? 79Christian Hannig, Matthias Hannig & Martine Morzel
5 Basic physiology of the intranasal trigeminal system 109Florence Gingras–Lessard & Johannes Frasnelli
6 Characterization of aroma compounds: structure, physico–chemical and sensory properties 126Henryk Jelen´ & Anna Gracka
7 Characterization of taste compounds: chemical structures and sensory properties 154Anni Laffitte, Fabrice Neiers & Loïc Briand
8 Sensory characterization of compounds with a trigeminal effect for taste modulation purposes 192Isabelle Cayeux & Christian Starkenmann
9 Interactions between aroma compounds and food matrix 208Laurianne Paravisini & Elisabeth Guichard
10 Aroma release during in–mouth process 235Andrea Romano
11 Release of tastants during in–mouth processing 266Christian Salles
12 Interactions between saliva and flavour compounds 284Francis Canon & Eric Neyraud
13 Orthonasal and retronasal perception 310Thomas Hummel & Han–Seok Seo
14 Perception of mixtures of odorants and tastants: sensory and analytical points of view 319Thierry Thomas–Danguin, Carmen Barba, Christian Salles & Elisabeth Guichard
15 Odour mixture coding from the neuronal point of view 341Patricia Duchamp–Viret
16 Multisensory flavour perception 373Charles Spence