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Turbochargers and Superchargers – Major Trends and The Future of Forced Induction

  • ID: 3744070
  • Report
  • December 2015
  • 103 pages
  • Autelligence
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Technology, Business and Future of Forced Induction


  • BorgWarner
  • Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems
  • Continental AG
  • Cummins
  • Eaton
  • Honeywell
  • MORE
Market drivers, powertrain strategies, market segmentation and dynamics, forecasts to 2020, current and future forced induction technology, and detailed sector supplier profiles.

In a 2016 expert survey on the future of powertrain, forced induction was voted in the top 5 most important technologies for achieving powertrain objectives in the next 10 years, clearly showing that much is still expected of this proven technology.

Because of the inherent benefits of forced induction, primarily the ability to allow engine downsizing for fuel economy and CO2 emission standards compliance while retaining excellent drivability, the technology has moved from being a niche powertrain system to becoming central to powertrain strategy.

It’s applied for downsizing gasoline engines (1.0 litre turbocharged gasoline engines are now common in C- and even D-segment cars in Europe), for making diesel engines overcome their inherent problems with power and torque delivery, and even for a new approach to performance engines, to the point where the 2016 Porsche 911 engine range will be practically all forced induction.

“Downsized turbocharged engines offer the power that the customer wants along with the efficiencies of fuel economy and the benefits that go along with the lightweighting” – Frank Paluch, president of Honda R&D Americas

Key report coverage

Market drivers in a world of increasingly tougher emissions regulations, both regulation-based such as increasing fuel economy and reducing CO2; increasingly stringent criterion emissions regulation and other regulations, as well as OEM competitiveness parameters like drivability, NVH performance, costs, packaging, systems integratin and speed to market

Forced induction powertrain strategies – downsizing and downspeeding, design compromises, new designs in structure and function, hybridisation, engineering challenges and limitations, gasoline vs diesel, efficiency optimization

Market segmentation and dynamics: continuing industry restructuring, the expanding markets of China and India, increased global industry integration and the continually increasing degree of globalization.

The future of turbocharging and supercharging – the necessity for additional measures to meet emissions targets in light of VW scandal, subsequent increased pace of development, harvesting of waste exhaust energy, new electrical architectures such as 48V with electrically driven superchargers, flexible turbochargers vs compound systems

The key battleground of current and future forced induction technology – turbochargers, compressors, aerodynamics, bearing design, compounding, multi-stage charging, waste heat recovery, new materials, assisted charging

Forecasts of fitment rates, engine displacement and forced induction vehicle market size

The main sector players in detailed company profiles, including company overview, key people, products and customers, revenue analysis, R&D and future plans

About the author

Alistair Hill started his career in production and project management having graduated as a metallurgist from the University of Aston in Birmingham. He then moved into industrial market analysis and senior marketing roles within the truck industry supply sector. He became a consultant for Knibb Gormezano & Partners in the mid-1990s and began a long history of automotive and commercial vehicle sector analysis working for a wide range of clients including OEMs, suppliers and analytical companies. He has spoken on a wide range of technical subjects at conferences around the world and is actively involved in science and technology development in his adopted country of New Zealand.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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  • BorgWarner
  • Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems
  • Continental AG
  • Cummins
  • Eaton
  • Honeywell
  • MORE
Chapter 1: Forced induction – a critical enabling technology for CO2 reduction

1.1 Types of charging mechanisms
1.2 Engine design to manage forced induction
1.3 Implications for powertrain
1.4 Benefits of turbocharging

Chapter 2: Forced induction – market segmentation
2.1 Heavy duty
2.2 Light duty
2.3 Performance
2.4 Small diesels

Chapter 3: Powertrain strategy – downsizing and downspeeding
3.1 Boosting a downsized engine
3.2 Efficiency optimization; turbocharger and supercharger choices and combinations

Chapter 4: Market dynamics – industry initiatives drive engine efficiency
4.1 Turbocharging forecasts

Chapter 5: Technologies – the key competitive battleground
5.1 Single stage turbochargers
5.2 Compressors
5.2.1 Reciprocating compressors
5.2.2 Screw compressors
5.2.3 Roots type superchargers
5.2.4 Roots vs screw
5.2.4 Centrifugal compressors
5.2.5 Surge line
5.2.6 Choke line
5.3 Aerodynamic design
5.4 Bearing systems
5.5 Micro turbocharging
5.6 Waste-gated turbochargers
5.7 Turbocompounding
5.7.1 Electric turbocompounding
5.8 Twin-scroll turbochargers
5.9 Variable geometry turbochargers
5.10 Multi-stage turbocharging
5.10.1 Parallel twin turbocharging
5.10.2 Sequential twin turbocharging
5.10.3 Regulated twin turbocharging
5.10.4 Three-stage turbocharging
5.11 Twin vortices supercharger
5.12 Multi-speed superchargers
5.13 Electric superchargers
5.14 Charge air coolers (intercoolers)

Chapter 6: The future of turbocharging and supercharging
6.1 Waste heat recovery: the state of the art
6.2 Electronic controls and new materials
6.3 Titanium compressor impellers
6.4 Assisted turbocharging

Chapter 7: Market drivers dominated by tougher emissions regulation
7.1 Emissions regulations – improving CO2 emissions
7.2 Global overview
7.2.1 The European Union
7.2.2 The United States
7.2.3 Japan Actual and targeted CO2 emissions volumes in Japan’s transport sector Emissions Standards and Certification
7.2.4 China
7.2.5 Other countries
7.3 Testing regimes – variation makes life difficult and the move to a global standard
7.4 Criterion emissions – tough and getting tougher – how to make a difference
7.4.1 The United States
7.4.2 Japan
7.4.3 Europe
7.4.4 China
7.4.5 Other countries
7.5 Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

Company profiles
Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems
Continental AG
IHI Corporation
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Table of figures
Figure 1: Basic turbocharger design
Figure 2: Electric supercharger
Figure 3: Typical transient response comparison at 1,500rpm, turbocharger vs supercharger
Figure 4: Turbocharger configurations
Figure 5: Torque response for various engine and turbocharger configurations
Figure 6: Eaton’s Roots-type supercharger
Figure 7: The VGT fitted to a Porsche 911 with vanes closed and open
Figure 8: Schematic diagram of BorgWarner’s eBooster
Figure 9: VanDyne’s SuperTurbo
Figure 10: European average CO2 emissions versus average engine displacement 2012
Figure 11: Cost of reducing CO2 emissions and reduction potential
Figure 12: Continental’s aluminium turbine housing turbocharger
Figure 13: Projected global turbocharger fitment for new vehicles by region 2014–2019
Figure 14: Regional turbocharger penetration forecast
Figure 15: Changes in boosted engine displacement 2014–2020
Figure 16: Forced induction vehicle market size 2014–2020
Figure 17: Forced induction market value 2014–2020
Figure 18: Forced induction equipment by vehicle 2015
Figure 19: Close tolerance rotors from a twin-screw supercharger
Figure 20: Schematic showing the operation of a Roots type supercharger
Figure 21: An Eaton TVS roots-type supercharger with integrated bypass
Figure 22: A schematic showing the operation of a conventional Roots design and an Eaton TVS supercharger
Figure 23: A typical compressor map for the operation of a turbocharger for passenger car applications
Figure 24: Summary of transient performance for Honeywell Dualboost concept turbocharger design
Figure 25: Fiat two-cylinder MultiAir engine
Figure 26: Volvo D12D 500TC
Figure 27: Mechanical turbo-compounding
Figure 28: Electric turbocompounding solutions
Figure 29: A schematic showing turbocompounding using a turbogenerator
Figure 30: Fuel consumption based on combined engine shaft and electrical power outputs
Figure 31: A turbogenerator based on TIGERS technology
Figure 32: A schematic of a twin scroll turbocharger
Figure 33: Multi-scroll turbine housing design
Figure 34: Deflection through a dual-volute-turbine housing with VTG guide vanes
Figure 35: Twin volute VTG with optimised exhaust manifold design
Figure 36: Holset VGT™ Turbocharging Technology
Figure 37: BMW bi-turbo
Figure 38: Exploded view of a Rotrak variable-speed supercharger
Figure 39: Antonov dual-speed supercharger
Figure 40: Valeo’s electric supercharger
Figure 41: Aeristech’s eSupercharger
Figure 42: A speed versus efficiency plot for Aeristech’s eSupercharger
Figure 43: GM’s LF3 twin turbocharged V6 engine with integral manifold mounted intercooler
Figure 44: Performance indicators for waste heat recovery technologies for an automotive application
Figure 45: Weight to power ratio for different waste heat recovery technologies used with a mobile application
Figure 46: Turbocharging technologies for high-pressure charging
Figure 47: A titanium alloy impeller
Figure 48: Global passenger car and light vehicles emission legislation normalized to NEDC progress 2000–2025
Figure 49: Real world CO2 improvements versus official fleet average results
Figure 50: A range of technologies identified in a European Commission study
Figure 51: Changes in transmission ratio strategy with downsizing
Figure 52: US Transportation Sector emissions scenarios
Figure 53: US targets for future GHG reductions (% reduction from 2005 levels)
Figure 54: US vehicle trends 1975–2009, fuel economy, power, weight
Figure 55: Average fuel efficiency 2010 and 2015 targets for gasoline vehicles
Figure 56: Comparison of different test regimes for EU, US and Japan
Figure 57: WLTC introduction timetable
Figure 58: Emissions standards timetable in selected countries, 2005–2020
Figure 59: NOx and PM limits in the EU and US, 1994–2015 (g/km)
Table of tables
Table 1: Comparison between downsized turbocharged diesel and non-turbocharged gasoline (Volvo) and turbocharged gasoline and non-turbocharged gasoline (Opel) performance
Table 2: Performance evolution through downsizing and turbocharging for the Volkswagen Golf
Table 3: Forced induction vehicle market size 2014–2020
Table 4: European criterion emissions limits
Table 5: Current passenger vehicle emissions regulations in Japan
Table 6: Comparison of different fuel efficiency regulations and test regimes
Table 7: US emissions standards for light-duty vehicles, to five years/50,000 miles (g/mile)
Table 8: Japan emissions limits for light gasoline & LPG vehicles (g/km)
Table 9: Japan emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)
Table 10: Euro 5 emissions limits for light gasoline vehicles (g/km)
Table 11: Euro 5 emissions limits for light diesel vehicles (g/km)

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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4 of 3
- BorgWarner
- Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems
- Continental AG
- Cummins
- Eaton
- Honeywell
- IHI Corporation
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
- Valeo

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown