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Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs) in Nuclear Power Plants

  • ID: 3744347
  • Book
  • 390 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs) contain the fuel and therefore the reaction at the heart of nuclear power plants. They are a life-determining structural component: if they suffer serious damage, the continued operation of the plant is in jeopardy. This book critically reviews irradiation embrittlement, the main degradation mechanism affecting RPV steels, and mitigation routes for managing the RPV lifetime.

Part I reviews RPV design and fabrication in different countries, with an emphasis on the materials required, their important properties, and manufacturing technologies. Part II then considers RVP embrittlement in operational nuclear power plants using different reactors. Chapters are devoted to embrittlement in light-water reactors, including WWER-type reactors and Magnox reactors. Finally, Part III presents techniques for studying embrittlement, including irradiation simulation techniques, microstructural characterisation techniques, and probabilistic fracture mechanics.

Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPVs) in Nuclear Power Plants provides a thorough review of an issue that is central to the safety of nuclear power generation. The book includes contributions from an international team of experts, and will be a useful resource for nuclear plant operators and managers, relevant regulatory and safety bodies, nuclear metallurgists and other academics in this field

- Discusses reactor pressure vessel (RPV) design and the effect irradiation embrittlement can have, the main degradation mechanism affecting RPVs
- Examines embrittlement processes in RPVs in different reactor types, as well as techniques for studying RPV embrittlement
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Contributor contact details
Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
Preface
Part I: Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) design and fabrication
1: Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) design and fabrication: the case of the USA
Abstract
1.1 Introduction
1.2 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code design practices
1.3 The design process
1.4 Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials selection
1.5 Toughness requirements
1.6 RPV fabrication processes
1.7 Welding practices
2: Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) components: processing and properties
Abstract
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Advances in nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV) components
2.3 Materials for nuclear RPVs
2.4 Manufacturing technologies
2.5 Metallurgical and mechanical properties of components
2.6 Conclusions
3: WWER-type reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials and fabrication
Abstract
3.1 Introduction
3.2 WWER reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials
3.3 Production of materials for components and welding techniques
3.4 Future trends
Part II: Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement in operational nuclear power plants
4: Embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in pressurized water reactors (PWRs)
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Characteristics of pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement
4.3 US surveillance database
4.4 French surveillance database
4.5 Japanese surveillance database
4.6 Surveillance databases from other countries
4.7 Future trends
5: Embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in WWER-type reactors
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Characteristics of embrittlement of WWER reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials
5.3 Trend curves
5.4 WWER surveillance programmes
5.5 RPV annealing in WWER reactors
5.6 RPV annealing technology
5.7 Sources of further information and advice
6: Integrity and embrittlement management of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) in light-water reactors
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Parameters governing reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity
6.3 Pressure-temperature operating limits
6.4 Pressurized thermal shock (PTS)
6.5 Mitigation methods
6.6 Licensing considerations
7: Surveillance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement in Magnox reactors
Abstract
7.1 Introduction
7.2 History of Magnox reactors
7.3 Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials and construction
7.4 Reactor operating rules
7.5 Design of the surveillance schemes
7.6 Early surveillance results
7.7 Dose-damage relationships and intergranular fracture in irradiated submerged-arc welds (SAWs)
7.8 Influence of thermal neutrons
7.9 Validation of toughness assessment methodology by RPV SAW sampling
7.10 Final remarks
7.11 Acknowledgements
Part III: Techniques for the evaluation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement
8: Irradiation simulation techniques for the study of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Test reactor irradiation
8.3 Ion irradiation
8.4 Electron irradiation
8.5 Advantages and limitations
8.6 Future trends
8.7 Sources of further information and advice
9: Microstructural characterisation techniques for the study of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Microstructural development and characterisation techniques
9.3 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
9.4 Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)
9.5 Atom probe tomography (APT)
9.6 Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS)
9.7 Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)
9.8 Other techniques
9.9 Using microstructural analyses to understand the mechanisms of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) embrittlement
9.10 Grain boundary segregation
9.11 Matrix damage
9.12 Solute clusters
9.13 Mechanistic framework to develop dose-damage relationships (DDRs)
9.14 Recent developments and overall summary
10: Evaluating the fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) materials subject to embrittlement
Abstract
10.1 Introduction
10.2 The development of fracture mechanics
10.3 Plane-strain fracture toughness and crack-arrest toughness
10.4 Current standard of fracture toughness curve
10.5 Effects of irradiation on fracture toughness
10.6 Fracture toughness versus Charpy impact energy
10.7 Heavy Section Steel Technology Program and other international reactor pressure vessel (RPV) research programs
10.8 Advantages and limitations of fracture toughness testing
10.9 Future trends
11: Embrittlement correlation methods to identify trends in embrittlement in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs)
Abstract
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Development of the embrittlement correlation method
11.3 Embrittlement correlation methods: USA
11.4 Embrittlement correlation methods: Europe
11.5 Embrittlement correlation methods: Japan
11.6 Conclusions
12: Probabilistic fracture mechanics risk analysis of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity
Abstract
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Risk evaluation procedures for assessing reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity
12.3 Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis software
12.4 Conditional probability computational procedure
12.5 Example calculations and applications
12.6 Future trends
Index
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Soneda, Naoki
Dr Naoki Soneda is an Associate Vice President at the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan, and is the author of numerous papers on RVP steels.
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