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Power Ultrasonics

  • ID: 3744473
  • Book
  • 960 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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The industrial interest in ultrasonic processing has revived during recent years because ultrasonic technology may represent a flexible "green? alternative for more energy efficient processes. A challenge in the application of high-intensity ultrasound to industrial processing is the design and development of specific power ultrasonic systems for large scale operation. In the area of ultrasonic processing in fluid and multiphase media the development of a new family of power generators with extensive radiating surfaces has significantly contributed to the implementation at industrial scale of several applications in sectors such as the food industry, environment, and manufacturing. Part one covers fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids. It also discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices. Part two looks at applications of high power ultrasound in materials engineering and mechanical engineering, food processing technology, environmental monitoring and remediation and industrial and chemical processing (including pharmaceuticals), medicine and biotechnology.

- Covers the fundamentals of nonlinear propagation of ultrasonic waves in fluids and solids.
- Discusses the materials and designs of power ultrasonic transducers and devices.
- Considers state-of-the-art power sonic applications across a wide range of industries.
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List of contributors
Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials
1. Introduction to power ultrasonics
Abstract
1.1 Introduction
1.2 The field of ultrasonics
1.3 Power ultrasonics
1.4 Historical notes
1.5 Coverage of this book
Part One: Fundamentals
2. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in fluids: nonlinear propagation and effects
Abstract
Acknowledgments
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Nonlinear phenomena
2.3 Nonlinear interactions within the acoustic mode
2.4 Nonlinear interactions between the acoustic and nonacoustic modes
2.5 Conclusion
3. Acoustic cavitation: bubble dynamics in high-power ultrasonic fields
Abstract
Acknowledgments
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Cavitation thresholds
3.3 Single-bubble dynamics
3.4 Bubble ensemble dynamics
3.5 Acoustic cavitation noise
3.6 Sonoluminescence
3.7 Conclusions
4. High-intensity ultrasonic waves in solids: nonlinear dynamics and effects
Abstract
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Fundamental nonlinear equations
4.3 Nonlinear effects in progressive and stationary waves
4.4 Conclusions
5. Piezoelectric ceramic materials for power ultrasonic transducers
Abstract
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Fundamentals of ferro-piezoelectric ceramics
5.3 Characterization methods of ceramics from piezoelectric resonances
5.4 Applications of the iterative automatic method in the characterization of ceramics
5.5 Lead-free piezoceramics for environmental protection
5.6 Future trends
6. Power ultrasonic transducers: principles and design
Abstract
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Ultrasonic vibrations: mechanical oscillator
6.3 Ultrasonic vibrations: longitudinal vibrations
6.4 Piezoelectric materials
6.5 The power ultrasonic transducer
6.6 Transducer characterization and control
6.7 Modeling transducer behavior
6.8 Transducer development
6.9 Future trends
6.10 Sources of further information and advice
7. Power ultrasonic transducers with vibrating plate radiators
Abstract
Acknowledgments
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Structure of transducers: basic design
7.3 Finite element modeling
7.4 Controlling nonlinear vibration behavior
7.5 Fatigue limitations of transducers
7.6 Characteristics of the different types of plate transducers
7.7 Evaluating transducers in power operation: electrical, vibrational, acoustic, and thermal characteristics
7.8 Conclusions and future trends
8. Measurement techniques in power ultrasonics
Abstract
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Characterizing the source
8.3 Characterizing the generated ultrasound field
8.4 Characterizing the resultant acoustic cavitation
8.5 Case studies: characterizing two cavitating systems
8.6 Conclusions
9. Modeling of power ultrasonic transducers
Abstract
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Transduction and elastic wave propagation in solids
9.3 Acoustic waves in fluids and fluid-structure coupling
9.4 The unbounded problem: far-field radiation of acoustic waves
10. Modeling energy losses in power ultrasound transducers
Abstract
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Modeling linear and nonlinear behavior
10.3 Experimental validation and simulation testing
10.4 Assessing model performance
10.5 Conclusions
Part Two: Welding, metal forming, and machining applications
11. Ultrasonic welding of metals
Abstract
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Principles of ultrasonic metal welding
11.3 Ultrasonic welding equipment
11.4 Mechanics and metallurgy of the ultrasonic weld
11.5 Applications of ultrasonic welding
11.6 Process advantages and disadvantages
11.7 Future trends
11.8 Sources of further information and advice
12. Ultrasonic welding of plastics and polymeric composites
Abstract
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Theory of the ultrasonic welding process
12.3 Description of plunge and continuous welding processes
12.4 Ultrasonic welding equipment
12.5 Joint and part design
12.6 Material weldability
13. Power ultrasonics for additive manufacturing and consolidating of materials
Abstract
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Ultrasonic additive manufacturing
13.3 Applications of ultrasonic additive manufacturing
13.4 Future trends
13.5 Conclusion
14. Ultrasonic metal forming: materials
Abstract
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Microstructure effects
14.3 Macroscopic behavior
14.4 Surface friction
14.5 Future trends
14.6 Sources of further information and advice
15. Ultrasonic metal forming: processing
Abstract
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Wire and tube drawing
15.3 Deep drawing and bending
15.4 Forging and extrusion
15.5 Ultrasonic rolling
15.6 Other forming processes
15.7 Future trends
15.8 Sources of further information and advice
16. Using power ultrasonics in machine tools
Abstract
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Historical and technical review
16.3 Ultrasonic machine tool processes: ultrasonic turning
16.4 Ultrasonic drilling and milling
16.5 Ultrasonic grinding
16.6 Allied ultrasonic machining processes
16.7 Ultrasonic machine tools for production
16.8 Future trends
16.9 Sources of further information and advice
Part Three: Engineering and medical applications
17. Ultrasonic motors
Abstract
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Traveling-wave ultrasonic motors
17.3 Hybrid transducer ultrasonic motors
17.4 Performance of ultrasonic motors and driver circuits
17.5 Conclusion and future trends
18. Power ultrasound for the production of nanomaterials
Abstract
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Ultrasound synthesis of metallic nanoparticles
18.3 Ultrasound synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles
18.4 Ultrasound synthesis of chalcogenide nanoparticles
18.5 Ultrasound synthesis of metal halide nanoparticles
18.6 Using ultrasonic waves in the synthesis of graphene, graphene oxide, and other nanomaterials
18.7 The use of ultrasound for the deposition of nanoparticles on substrates
18.8 Ultrasound synthesis of micro- and nanospheres
18.9 Conclusions and future trends
19. Ultrasonic cleaning and washing of surfaces
Abstract
19.1 Introduction
19.2 The use of ultrasound in cleaning
19.3 Ultrasonic cleaning technology
19.4 Mechanism of ultrasonic cleaning
19.5 Ultrasonic cleaning process variables
19.6 The role of chemical additives and temperature
19.7 Achieving optimum ultrasonic cleaning performance
19.8 Evaluating ultrasonic cleaning performance
19.9 Advances in technology
19.10 Damage mechanisms
19.11 Megasonics
19.12 Future trends
19.13 Sources of further information and advice
Appendix ultrasonic washing of textiles (contributed by Juan A. Gallego-Juárez)
20. Ultrasonic degassing of liquids
Abstract
Acknowledgment
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic degassing
20.3 Mechanism of ultrasonic degassing in melts
20.4 Main process parameters in ultrasonic degassing
20.5 Industrial implementation of ultrasonic degassing
21. Ultrasonic surgical devices and procedures
Abstract
Acknowledgment
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Surgical device requirements and goals
21.3 General device design
21.4 Mechanisms of action
21.5 Device types
21.6 Medical device regulations
21.7 Future trends
21.8 Sources of further information and advice
22. High-intensity focused ultrasound for medical therapy
Abstract
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Ultrasound interaction with tissue
22.3 Therapy devices
22.4 Imaging guidance
22.5 Clinical experience
22.6 Future trends
23. Ultrasonic cutting for surgical applications
Abstract
23.1 Introduction: the origins of ultrasonic cutting for surgical devices
23.2 Developments in ultrasound for soft-tissue dissection
23.3 Developments in ultrasound for bone cutting and other surgical applications
23.4 Cutting mechanisms in soft tissue
23.5 Ultrasonic dissection of mineralized tissue
23.6 Factors affecting device performance
23.7 Device characterization
23.8 Orthopedic, orthodontic, and maxillofacial procedures
23.9 Current and future trends
Part Four: Food technology and pharmaceutical applications
24. Design and scale-up of sonochemical reactors for food processing and other applications
Abstract
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Modeling of cavitational reactors
24.3 Understanding cavitational activity
24.4 Types of reactors
24.5 Developments in reactor design
24.6 Selecting operating parameters
24.7 Reactor choice, scale-up, and optimization
24.8 Future trends
24.9 Conclusions
25. Ultrasonic mixing, homogenization, and emulsification in food processing and other applications
Abstract
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Cavitation and acoustic streaming
25.3 Mixing
25.4 Particle and aggregate dispersion and disruption
25.5 Solid and liquid dissolution
25.6 Homogenization
25.7 Emulsification
25.8 Conclusions and future trends
26. Ultrasonic defoaming and debubbling in food processing and other applications
Abstract
Acknowledgments
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Foams
26.3 Conventional methods for foam control
26.4 Ultrasonic defoaming
26.5 Mechanisms of ultrasonic defoaming
26.6 Ultrasonic defoamers
26.7 Using ultrasound to remove bubbles in coating layers
26.8 Conclusions and future trends
27. Power ultrasonics for food processing
Abstract
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Ultrasonically assisted extraction (UAE)
27.3 Emulsification
27.4 Viscosity modification
27.5 Processing dairy proteins
27.6 Sonocrystallization
27.7 Fat separation
27.8 Other applications: sterilization, pasteurization, drying, brining, and marinating
27.9 Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) for ultrasound in food-processing operations
27.10 Conclusions and future trends
28. Crystallization and freezing processes assisted by power ultrasound
Abstract
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Fundamentals of crystallization
28.3 Impact of ultrasound on solute crystallization
28.4 Effect of ultrasound on ice crystallization (freezing)
28.5 Solute nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
28.6 Crystal growth and breakage mechanisms induced by ultrasound
28.7 Ice nucleation mechanisms induced by ultrasound
28.8 Future trends
29. Ultrasonic drying for food preservation
Abstract
Acknowledgment
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Ultrasonic mechanisms involved in transport phenomena
29.3 Ultrasonic devices for drying
29.4 Testing the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
29.5 Product properties affecting the effectiveness of ultrasonic drying
29.6 Structural changes caused by ultrasonic drying
29.7 Conclusions and future trends
30. The use of ultrasonic atomization for encapsulation and other processes in food and pharmaceutical manufacturing
Abstract
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Fundamentals of ultrasonic atomization
30.3 Ultrasonic atomizer design
30.4 Measuring droplet size and distribution
30.5 The effect of different operating parameters on droplet size
30.6 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: encapsulation
30.7 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the food industry: food hygiene
30.8 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: aerosols for drug delivery
30.9 Applications of ultrasonic atomization in the pharmaceutical industry: encapsulation for drug delivery
30.10 Future trends
30.11 Conclusion
Part Five: Environmental and other applications
31. The use of power ultrasound for water treatment
Abstract
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Ultrasonic cavitation and advanced oxidative processes (AOPs)
31.3 Sonochemical devices and experimentation
31.4 Characteristics of sonochemical elimination
31.5 Kinetic and sonochemical yields
31.6 Sonochemical treatment parameters
31.7 Ultrasound in hybrid processes
31.8 Conclusion
32. The use of power ultrasound for wastewater and biomass treatment
Abstract
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Impact of ultrasound on biological suspensions
32.3 Anaerobic digestion processes: full-scale application
32.4 Aerobic biological processes: full-scale application
32.5 Development and design of a full-scale ultrasound reactor
32.6 Future trends
33. The use of power ultrasound for organic synthesis in green chemistry
Abstract
33.1 Introduction
33.2 The green sonochemical approach for organic synthesis
33.3 Solvent-free sonochemical protocols
33.4 Heterogeneous catalysis in organic solvents and ionic liquids
33.5 Heterocycle synthesis
33.6 Heterocycle functionalization
33.7 Cycloaddition reactions
33.8 Organometallic reactions
33.9 Multicomponent reactions
33.10 Conclusions and future trends
34. Ultrasonic agglomeration and preconditioning of aerosol particles for environmental and other applications
Abstract
Acknowledgment
34.1 Introduction
34.2 The development of practical applications of aerosol agglomeration
34.3 Linear acoustic effects that determine the agglomeration process
34.4 Nonlinear acoustic effects
34.5 Motion of aerosol particles in an acoustic field: vibration
34.6 Translational motion of aerosol particles
34.7 Interactions between aerosol particles: orthokinetic effect (OE)
34.8 Hydrodynamic mechanisms of particle interaction
34.9 Mutual radiation pressure effect (MRPE)
34.10 Acoustic wake effect (AWE)
34.11 Modeling of acoustic agglomeration of aerosol particles
34.12 Laboratory and pilot scale plants for industrial and environmental applications
34.13 Conclusions and future trends
35. The use of power ultrasound in mining
Abstract
35.1 Introduction
35.2 The mining process
35.3 Measuring the stress state in a rock mass
35.4 Application of power ultrasound in mineral grinding
35.5 Development of an ultrasonic-assisted flotation process for increasing the concentration of mined minerals
35.6 Conclusions and future trends
36. The use of power ultrasound in biofuel production, bioremediation, and other applications
Abstract
36.1 Introduction
36.2 The chemical effects of ultrasound
36.3 The molecular effects of ultrasound
36.4 Sonochemical reactors
36.5 Biofuel production
36.6 Ultrasound-assisted bioremediation
36.7 Biosensors
36.8 Biosludge processing
36.9 Conclusions and future trends
Index
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Gallego-Juárez, Juan A
Juan A. Gallego-Juárez, Research Professor at the Higher Council for Scientific Research of Spain (CSIC).
Graff, Karl F
Karl Graff, Senior Engineer at EWI and Professor Emeritus, The Ohio State University, USA.
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