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Dietary Supplements

  • ID: 3744597
  • Book
  • 630 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Dietary supplements made from foods, herbs and their constituents are a rapidly growing market sector. Consumers often view food supplements as 'natural' and therefore safe; however, supplements are regulated as foods rather than as pharmaceuticals and so are not as closely monitored as may be necessary. With the commercial market in these products growing, this book provides essential research into their safety, efficacy and potential risk of interaction with pharmaceuticals. Following an introductory chapter, part one covers the chemical composition, manufacture and regulation of dietary supplements. Part two looks at the effectiveness of different types of dietary supplement and methods of evaluation. Finally, part three focuses on supplement safety.

- Reviews the design, production and regulation of dietary supplements.
- Analyses the potential for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics interactions between dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals.
- Offers reviews of important clinical studies on the efficacy of dietary supplements for range of conditions.
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List of contributors
Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
Part One: General issues
1: Dietary supplement labelling and health claims
1.1 Introduction: the regulatory situation in the European Union (EU)
1.2 Labelling requirements
1.3 Nutrition claims
1.4 Health claims
1.5 Borderline substances: between foods and medicine
1.6 Conclusions
Appendix: abbreviations
2: Good manufacturing practice (GMP) in the production of dietary supplements
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Key issues related to good manufacturing practice/good hygienic practice (GMP/GHP) implementation
2.3 Documentation of GMP
2.4 Benefits and drawbacks of GMP use in organisations
2.5 Summary
3: Analysing the composition of fortified foods and supplements: the case of vitamins
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Extraction and purification methods
3.3 High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)
3.4 Gas chromatography (GC)
3.5 Capillary electrophoresis (CE)
3.6 Spectroscopic methods
3.7 Microbiological methods
3.8 Immunoassays
3.9 Other methods
3.10 Future trends
Part Two: Drug-supplement interactions
4: Pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs and dietary supplements: herbal supplements
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Herbals: introduction
4.3 Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort (SJW))
4.4 Allium sativum (garlic)
4.5 Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo)
4.6 Panax ginseng (ginseng), Piper methysticum (kava kava) and Serenoa repens (saw palmetto)
4.7 Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower), Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) and Silybum marianum (milk thistle)
4.8 Hydrastis canadensis (goldenseal), Valeriana officinalis (valerian) and Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh)
4.9 Glycine max (soy), Camellia sinensis (green tea) and Zingiber officinale (ginger)
4.10 Morinda citrifolia (noni), Aloe vera (aloe), Vitis vinifera (grape seed) and Curcuma longa (turmeric)
4.11 Stevia rebaudiana (stevia), Lepidium meyenii (maca) and Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)
4.12 Summary
5: Pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs and dietary supplements: probiotic and lipid supplements
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Probiotics and drug delivery in the colon
5.3 Probiotics: summary
5.4 Lipids and drug delivery
5.5 Lipidic excipients and drug release
5.6 Summary: pharmacokinetic drug-lipid interactions
6: Pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs and dietary supplements: carbohydrate, protein, vitamin and mineral supplements
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Carbohydrates as dietary supplements
6.3 Carbohydrates as pharmaceutical excipients and prodrugs
6.4 Carbohydrates: summary
6.5 Proteins, peptides, and amino acids
6.6 The impact of proteins on drug pharmacokinetics and their use as prodrugs
6.7 Proteins: summary
6.8 Vitamins
6.9 Vitamins: summary
6.10 Minerals and oligoelements
6.11 Minerals: summary
7: Pharmacodynamic interactions between drugs and dietary supplements
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Vitamins
7.3 Minerals
7.4 Herbal supplements
7.5 Antioxidants
7.6 Conclusion
Part Three: Vitamins, minerals and probiotics as dietary supplements
8: Vitamins/minerals as dietary supplements: a review of clinical studies
8.1 Introduction: efficacy in clinical trials does not guarantee practical impact
8.2 Are some natural metabolites conditionally essential nutrients?
8.3 Use of supplements to improve micronutrient adequacy
8.4 Do folic acid supplements prevent neural tube defects (NTDs)?
8.5 Do supplements of the ACE vitamins and selenium reduce cancer and heart disease mortality?
8.6 Do vitamin C supplements prevent or ameliorate the common cold?
8.7 Do vitamin D (and calcium) supplements improve bone health and have wider benefits?
8.8 Can supplements of essential minerals reduce blood pressure?
8.9 Should parents in areas without fluoridated water give their children fluoride supplements?
8.10 Do micronutrients improve immune function in the elderly?
8.11 Conclusions
9: Reviewing clinical studies of probiotics as dietary supplements: probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders, Helicobacter eradication, lactose malabsorption and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Probiotics for gastrointestinal disorders
9.3 Probiotics for Helicobacter eradication
9.4 Probiotics for lactose malabsorption
9.5 Probiotics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and associated conditions
9.6 Safety of probiotics
9.7 Conclusions and future trends
10: Reviewing clinical studies of probiotics as dietary supplements: probiotics for atopic and allergic disorders, urinary tract and respiratory infections
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Probiotics for atopic and allergic disorders
10.3 Probiotics for urogenital infections
10.4 Probiotics for respiratory tract infections
10.5 Conclusions
11: Reviewing clinical studies of probiotics as dietary supplements: probiotics for oral healthcare, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer prevention, metabolic diseases and postoperative infections
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Probiotics for oral healthcare
11.3 Probiotics for rheumatoid arthritis
11.4 Probiotics for cancer prevention
11.5 Probiotics for metabolic diseases
11.6 Probiotics for postoperative infections
11.7 Conclusions
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Berginc, Katja
Katja Berginc, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Kreft, Samo
Samo Kreft, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
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