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Eco-friendly Innovations in Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks

  • ID: 3744602
  • Book
  • 510 Pages
  • Elsevier Science and Technology
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Electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) networks carry electricity from generation sites to demand sites. With the increasing penetration of decentralised and renewable energy systems, in particular variable power sources such as wind turbines, and the rise in demand-side technologies, the importance of innovative products has never been greater. Eco-design approaches and standards in this field are aimed at improving the performance as well as the overall sustainability of T&D network equipment. This multidisciplinary reference provides coverage of developments and lessons-learned in the fields of eco-design of innovation from product-specific issues to system approaches, including case studies featuring problem-solving methodologies applicable to electricity transmission and distribution networks.

- Discusses key environmental issues and methodologies for eco-design, and applies this to development of equipment for electricity transmission and distribution.
- Provides analysis of using and assessing advanced equipment for wind energy systems.
- Includes reviews of the energy infrastructure for demand-side management in the US and Scandinavia.
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Related titles
Dedication
List of contributors
Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
Acknowledgements
Introduction
Part One. Eco-design and innovation in electricity transmission and distribution networks
1. The implications of climate change and energy security for global electricity supply: The Energy (R)evolution
1.1. Greenhouse emissions and climate change
1.2. Primary energy resources
1.3. The fossil fuels
1.4. Carbon dioxide capture and storage and clean coal technologies
1.5. Uranium resources and nuclear energy
1.6. Contribution of all fossil and nuclear fuels
1.7. What is the solution for saving the planet?
1.8. Development of global energy demand
1.9. The hydrogen economy
1.10. Conclusions
2. Key performance indicators in assessing new technology for electricity transmission and distribution networks
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Key performance indicators to assess the environmental impact of transmission and distribution networks
2.3. Test networks
2.4. A methodology for evaluating KPIs
2.5. Results
3. Improving European Union ecodesign standardization
3.1. Standardization policy
3.2. Product ecodesign
3.3. Ecodesign methodology
3.4. Ecodesign for energy-related products: The new scope of the ErP directive
3.5. Applying ecodesign directive to electricity transmission and distribution technology: power transformers
3.6. Methodology for ecodesign of energy-related products (MeerP)
3.7. Two European initiatives on resource efficiency and critical raw materials
3.8. The product environmental footprint
3.9. Future trends
References and further reading
List of acronyms used
4. Approaches for multi-objective optimization in the ecodesign of electric systems
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Ecodesign principles
4.3. Matching models and algorithms
4.4. Multi-objective algorithms and techniques
4.5. Optimization problem transformation techniques
4.6. Summary: using different techniques
5. Strategic environmental assessment of power plants and electricity transmission and distribution networks
5.1. Introduction
5.2. SEA in different countries
5.3. The contribution of SEA to sustainability
5.4. SEA in the power planning process
5.5. Stages of SEA
5.6. SEA indicators: measuring differences within power plan alternatives
5.7. Conclusions and future trends
5.8. Sources of further information and advice
Part Two. Application and assessment of advanced equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks
6. Life cycle assessment of equipment for electricity transmission and distribution networks
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Introduction to life cycle assessment
6.3. Applying LCA in practice: power transformer
6.4. Applying LCA in practice: a 765 kV AC transmission system
6.5. Conclusions
7. Superconducting DC cables to improve the efficiency of electricity transmission and distribution networks: An overview
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Superconducting cable systems: key elements
7.3. Superconducting materials
7.4. Cable conductors and electrical insulation
7.5. Cable cryostat
7.6. Cable terminations and joints
7.7. Cryogenic machine
7.8. Superconductive cable system configurations
7.9. Power dissipation sources in the superconducting system
7.10. Power losses from AC ripples
7.11. Comparing power dissipation in a DC superconducting system to a conventional system
7.12. Opportunities for DC superconducting cables
7.13. Conclusions
8. Improving energy efficiency in railway powertrains
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Upstream design of an onboard energy storage system
8.3. Techniques to optimize the design of the ESS
8.4. Downstream optimization of a transformer and its rectifier
8.5. Techniques to optimize the design of the transformer and rectifier
8.6. Conclusion
9. Reducing the environmental impacts of power transmission lines
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Environmental challenges relating to grid lines
9.3. Environmental legislation and guidelines
9.4. The importance of stakeholder engagement
9.5. The challenges of implementing nature legislation
9.6. Biodiversity along grid lines
9.7. Best practice approaches
9.8. Conclusion
10. Ecodesign of equipment for electricity distribution networks
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Legislation and standards in Europe relating to energy-efficient design
10.3. The product environmental profile program for energy-efficient design
10.4. Typical electricity distribution network equipment
10.5. End-of-life management of electricity distribution network equipment
10.6. Case study: managing the recycling of medium-voltage switchgear
10.7. Meeting PEP and LCA requirements for electricity distribution network equipment
10.8. Case study: LCA of medium-voltage switchgear
10.9. Future trends
List of acronyms
Part Three. Application and assessment of advanced wind energy systems
11. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in wind energy systems
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Wind turbines
11.3. Maintenance theory
11.4. Condition monitoring of WTs
11.5. Sensory signals and signal processing methods
11.6. Conclusions
List of acronyms
12. Development of permanent magnet generators to integrate wind turbines into electricity transmission and distribution networks
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Wind turbine power conversion: the induction generator
12.3. Wind turbine power conversion: the synchronous generator
12.4. Improving reliability: the direct drive permanent magnet generator
12.5. Optimizing direct drive permanent magnet generators
12.6. Comparing different configurations
12.7. Conclusion and future trends
13. Advanced AC and DC technologies to connect offshore wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Wind power development and wind turbine technologies
13.3. Wind farm configuration and wind power collection
13.4. Multiterminal HVDC for offshore wind power transmission
13.5. Control of centralised AC/DC converter for offshore wind farms with induction generators
13.6. Future trends
14. DC grid architectures to improve the integration of wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Benefits of using a pure DC grid
14.3. Current wind farm architectures
14.4. Case study to compare different architectures
14.5. Strengths and weaknesses of different architectures
14.6. Availability estimation
14.7. Overall comparison
14.8. Conclusions
Part Four. Smart grid and demand-side management for electricity transmission and distribution networks
15. Improved energy demand management in buildings for smart grids: The US experience
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Smart energy infrastructure: an overview
15.3. Core technologies
15.4. Architectures for building-to-grid communications
15.5. Building applications
15.6. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for peak load reduction
15.7. Case studies: building-to-grid applications for integration of renewable power sources
15.8. Conclusions and future trends
16. Smart meters for improved energy demand management: The Nordic experience
16.1. Introduction
16.2. The Schneider Electric experience of AMI deployment in Sweden and Finland
16.3. Planning the deployment of a massive AMI
16.4. Rollout of the AMI platform into milestone areas
16.5. Launching the operation of the AMI platform
16.6. Leveraging a smart metering infrastructure to add value
16.7. Conclusions
17. Managing charging of electric vehicles in electricity transmission and distribution networks
17.1. Introduction
17.2. EV charging: issues and opportunities for the distribution grid
17.3. Impact of FR charging strategies on the distribution grid
17.4. Smart VR charging strategies: a key paradigm for electric transportation
17.5. Smart grid for vehicle charging: a case study
17.6. Conclusions
18. The Serhatköy photovoltaic power plant and the future of renewable energy on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus: Integrating solar photovoltaic and wind farms into electricity transmission and distribution networks
18.1. Background
18.2. Electricity sector
18.3. The solar project
18.4. The tender process and awarding of the contract
18.5. Construction of the plant
18.6. Performance of the plant
18.7. Recommendations for future improvements to the Serhatköy power plant
18.8. The Intergovernmental Programme for Climate Change
18.9. The future
18.10. Conclusions
Index
Plate Captions List
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Bessede, Jean-Luc
J-L. Bessede is R&D Partnership Director at Schneider Electric
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