Handbook of Fillers, 4th Edition

  • ID: 3757808
  • Book
  • 922 pages
  • ChemTec Publishing
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This handbook gives direct comparison of general purpose fillers (micron-size fillers) and nanofillers.

Over 4,000 research papers, mostly published from 1994 to 2015 (over 1000 new papers in this edition), technical data from over 200 filler and equipment manufacturing companies, and patent literature were reviewed for this comprehensive handbook.

The book is designed to be single source of information for an experienced practitioner as well as a reference text for students and those new to the fields where fillers are used. The previous editions, used by very large number of readers, does not contain essential developments of extensive research on fillers in the last 10 years, especially related to nanofillers, graphene and other novelty products.

Fillers, in most applications, are no longer used as cost-saving additives but they add value to final products, and many products cannot be successfully designed without them. This reference book is a powerful tool for today’s challenges, which can only be met by those equipped with extensive information.

The book provides the information on three groups of relevant topics: available fillers and their properties, their effect on filled materials, and their use in practical applications.

One third of the book covers the grades of fillers available in the world market. Fillers are divided into 83 groups and their properties are analyzed to pinpoint properties, applications, and sources. The technical information is a synthesis of information on several thousand grades of fillers manufactured today. The morphology of fillers, in addition to the numerical and other data, is illustrated by over 200 SEM TEM, AFM micrographs.

The second part of the handbook discusses the effects of filler incorporation. Ten chapters cover the mechanical properties of compounded materials, the effect of the filler on material rheology, the morphology of the filled system, the material durability, flammability and recycling, the structure of interphase, chemical interactions, interaction with and effect on other additives, fillers use in material combinations, and the analytical methods of testing fillers and filled materials.

The last part of the book is concerned with application of fillers on an industrial scale. Several chapters discuss filler transportation, storage, processing and equipment used for these purposes. Others deal with the quality control of fillers, formulation with fillers, different processing methods, groups of products, and health and safety issues. This part is designed to assist industrial engineers to evaluate advances in the processing technology. It is also invaluable for chemists who design formulations for industrial processes and students in chemical engineering who must learn how modern industry operates in practical applications. The handbook is invaluable for sales and marketing because it gives possibility of direct comparison of fillers and their potential use and contains all required information to position them in the marketplace.

To summarize, major features of this handbook are:

- Comprehensive review of literature
- The most current information
- Information required by scientists, engineers, marketing, sales, and students given in one source
- All aspects of filler properties, effects, and application thoroughly reviewed
- Contains all available information to make decision on what can be done by traditional fillers and where nanotechnology excels

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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Expectations from fillers
1.2 Typical filler properties
1.3 Definitions
1.4 Classification
1.5 Markets and trends
References

2 SOURCES OF FILLERS, THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES, AND MORPHOLOGY
2.1 Particulate Fillers
2.1.1 Aluminum flakes and powders
2.1.2 Aluminum borate whiskers
2.1.3 Aluminum nitride
2.1.4 Aluminum oxide
2.1.5 Aluminum trihydroxide
2.1.6 Anthracite
2.1.7 Antimonate of sodium
2.1.8 Antimony pentoxide
2.1.8 Antimony trioxide
2.1.10 Ammonium octamolybdate
2.1.11 Apatite
2.1.12 Ash, fly
2.1.13 Attapulgite
2.1.14 Barium metaborate
2.1.15 Barium sulfate
2.1.16 Barium & strontium sulfates
2.1.17 Barium titanate
2.1.18 Bentonite
2.1.19 Beryllium oxide
2.1.20 Boron nitride
2.1.21 Calcium carbonate
2.1.22 Calcium fluoride
2.1.23 Calcium hydroxide
2.1.24 Calcium phosphate
2.1.25 Calcium silicate
2.1.26 Calcium sulfate
2.1.27 Carbon black
2.1.28 Carbonyl iron powder
2.1.29 Cellulose particles
2.1.30 Ceramic beads
2.1.31 Chitosan
2.1.32 Clamshell powder
2.1.33 Clay
2.1.34 Cobalt powder
2.1.35 Copper
2.1.36 Corn cob powder
2.1.37 Cristobalite
2.1.38 Diatomaceous earth
2.1.39 Dolomite
2.1.40 Eggshell filler
2.1.41 Ferrites
2.1.42 Feldspar
2.1.43 Gandolinium oxide
2.1.44 Glass beads
2.1.45 Gold
2.1.46 Graphene
2.1.47 Graphene oxide
2.1.48 Graphite
2.1.49 Ground tire powder
2.1.50 Halloysite
2.1.51 Huntite
2.1.52 Hydrous calcium silicate
2.1.53 Illite
2.1.54 Iron
2.1.55 Iron oxide
2.1.56 Kaolin
2.1.57 Lead oxide
2.1.58 Lithopone
2.1.59 Magnesium oxide
2.1.60 Magnesium hydroxide
2.1.61 Magnetite
2.1.62 Metal-containing conductive materials
2.1.63 Mica
2.1.64 Molybdenum
2.1.65 Molybdenum disulfide
2.1.66 Molybdic oxide
2.1.67 Nanofillers
2.1.68 Nickel
2.1.69 Nickel oxide
2.1.70 Nickel zinc ferrite
2.1.71 Nutshell powder
2.1.72 Perlite
2.1.73 Polymeric fillers
2.1.74 Potassium hexatitanate whiskers
2.1.75 Pumice
2.1.76 Pyrophyllite
2.1.77 Rubber particles
2.1.78 Sepiolite
2.1.79 Silica
2.1.79.1 Fumed silica
2.1.79.2 Fused silica
2.1.79.3 Precipitated silica
2.1.79.4 Quartz (Tripoli)
2.1.79.5 Sand
2.1.79.6 Silica gel
2.1.80 Silicon carbide
2.1.81 Silicon nitride
2.1.82 Silver powder and flakes
2.1.83 Slate flour
2.1.84 Talc
2.1.85 Titanium dioxide
2.1.86 Tungsten
2.1.87 Vermiculite
2.1.88 Wollastonite
2.1.89 Wood flour and similar materials
2.1.90 Zeolites
2.1.91 Zinc borate
2.1.92 Zinc oxide
2.1.93 Zinc stannate
2.1.94 Zinc sulfide
2.2 Fibers
2.2.1 Aramid fibers
2.2.2 Carbon fibers
2.2.3 Carbon nanotubes
2.2.4 Cellulose fibers
2.2.5 Glass fibers
2.2.6 Other fibers
References

3 FILLERS TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE, AND PROCESSING
3.1 Filler packaging
3.2 External transportation
3.3 Filler receiving
3.4 Storage
3.5 In-plant conveying
3.6 Semi-bulk unloading systems
3.7 Bag handling equipment
3.8 Blending
3.9 Feeding
3.10 Drying
3.11 Dispersion
References

4 QUALITY CONTROL OF FILLERS
4.1 Absorption coefficient
4.2 Acidity or alkalinity of water extract
4.3 Ash content
4.4 Brightness
4.5 Coarse particles
4.6 Color
4.7 CTAB surface area
4.8 Density
4.9 Electrical properties
4.10 Extractables
4.11 Fines content
4.12 Heating loss
4.13 Heat stability
4.14 Hegman fineness
4.15 Hiding power
4.16 Iodine absorption number
4.17 Lightening power of white pigments
4.18 Loss on ignition
4.19 Mechanical and related properties
4.20 Oil absorption
4.21 Particle size
4.22 Pellet strength
4.23 pH
4.24 Resistance to light
4.25 Resistivity of aqueous extract
4.26 Sieve residue
4.27 Soluble matter
4.28 Specific surface area
4.29 Sulfur content
4.30 Tamped volume
4.31 Tinting strength
4.32 Volatile matter
4.33 Water content
4.34 Water-soluble sulfates, chlorides and nitrates
References

5 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS AND FILLED MATERIALS
5.1 Density
5.2 Particle size
5.3 Particle size distribution
5.4 Particle shape
5.5 Particle surface morphology and roughness
5.6 Specific surface area
5.7 Porosity
5.8 Particle-particle interaction and spacing
5.9 Agglomerates
5.10 Aggregates and structure
5.11 Flocculation and sedimentation
5.12 Aspect ratio
5.13 Packing volume
5.14 pH
5.15 Zeta-potential
5.16 Surface energy
5.17 Moisture
5.18 Absorption of liquids and swelling
5.19 Permeability and barrier properties
5.20 Oil absorption
5.21 Hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties
5.22 Optical properties
5.23 Refractive index
5.24 Friction properties
5.25 Hardness
5.26 Intumescent properties
5.27 Thermal conductivity
5.28 Thermal expansion coefficient
5.29 Thermal degradation
5.30 Melting temperature
5.31 Glass transition temperature
5.32 Electrical properties
5.33 Relative permittivity
5.34 Electrical percolation
5.35 EMI shielding
5.36 Magnetic properties
5.37 Shape memory
References

6 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLERS AND FILLED MATERIALS
6.1 Reactivity
6.2 Chemical groups on the filler surface
6.3 Filler surface modification
6.4 Filler modification and material properties
6.5 Resistance to various chemicals
6.6 Cure in fillers presence
6.7 Polymerization in fillers presence
6.8 Grafting
6.9 Crosslink density
6.10 Reaction kinetics
6.11 Molecular mobility
References

7 ORGANIZATION OF INTERFACE AND MATRIX CONTAINING FILLERS
7.1 Particle distribution in matrix
7.2 Orientation of filler particles in a matrix
7.3 Voids
7.4 Matrix-filler interaction
7.5 Chemical interactions
7.6 Other interactions
7.7 Interphase organization
7.8 Interfacial adhesion
7.9 Interphase thickness
7.10 Filler-chain links
7.11 Chain dynamics
7.12 Bound rubber
7.13 Debonding
7.14 Mechanisms of reinforcement
7.15 Benefits of organization on molecular level
References

8 THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
8.1 Tensile strength and elongation
8.2 Tensile yield stress
8.3 Mullins’ effect
8.4 Elastic modulus
8.5 Flexural strength and modulus
8.6 Impact resistance
8.7 Hardness
8.8 Tear strength
8.9 Compressive strength
8.10 Fracture resistance
8.11 Wear
8.12 Friction
8.13 Abrasion
8.14 Scratch resistance
8.15 Fatigue
8.16 Failure
8.17 Adhesion
8.18 Thermal deformation
8.19 Shrinkage
8.20 Warpage
8.21 Compression set
8.22 Load transfer
8.23 Residual stress
8.24
Creep
References

9 THE EFFECT OF FILLERS ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED MATERIALS
9.1 Viscosity
9.2 Flow
9.3 Flow induced filler particle orientation
9.4 Torque
9.5 Viscoelasticity
9.6 Dynamic mechanical behavior
9.7 Complex viscosity
9.8 Shear viscosity
9.9 Elongational viscosity
9.10 Melt rheology
9.11 Yield value
References

10 MORPHOLOGY OF FILLED SYSTEMS
10.1 Crystallinity
10.2 Crystallization behavior
10.3 Nucleation
10.4 Crystal size
10.5 Spherulites
10.6 Transcrystallinity
10.7 Orientation
References

11 EFFECT OF FILLERS ON EPOSURE TO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS
11.1 Irradiation
11.2 UV radiation
11.3 Temperature
11.4 Liquids and vapors
11.5 Stabilization
11.6 Degradable materials
References

12 FLAMMABILITY OF FILLED MATERIALS
12.1 Definitions
12.2 Limiting oxygen index
12.3 Ignition and flame spread rate
12.4 Heat transmission rate
12.5 Decomposition and combustion
12.6 Emission of gaseous components
12.7 Smoke
12.8 Char
12.9 Recycling
References

13 INFLUENCE OF FILLERS ON PERFORMANCE OF OTHER ADDITIVES AND VICE VERSA
13.1 Adhesion promoters
13.2 Antistatics
13.3 Blowing agents
13.4 Catalysts
13.5 Compatibilizers
13.6 Coupling agents
13.7 Dispersing agents and surface active agents
13.8 Flame retardants
13.9 Impact modifiers
13.10 UV stabilizers
13.11 Other additives
References

14 TESTING METHODS IN FILLED SYSTEMS
14.1 Physical methods
14.1.1 Atomic force microscopy
14.1.2 Autoignition test
14.1.3 Bound rubber
14.1.4 Char formation
14.1.5 Cone calorimetry
14.1.6 Contact angle
14.1.7 Dispersing agent requirement
14.1.8 Dispersion tests
14.1.9 Dripping test
14.1.10 Dynamic mechanical analysis
14.1.11 Electric constants determination
14.1.12 Electron microscopy
14.1.13 Fiber orientation
14.1.14 Flame propagation test
14.1.15 Glow wire test
14.1.16 Image analysis
14.1.17 Limiting oxygen index
14.1.18 Magnetic properties
14.1.19 Optical microscopy
14.1.20 Particle size analysis
14.1.21 Radiant panel test
14.1.22 Rate of combustion
14.1.23 Scanning acoustic microscopy
14.1.24 Smoke chamber
14.1.25 Sonic methods
14.1.26 Specific surface area
14.1.27 Thermal analysis
14.2 Chemical and instrumental analysis
14.2.1 Electron spin resonance
14.2.2 Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
14.2.3 Inverse gas chromatography
14.2.4 Gas chromatography
14.2.5 Gel content
14.2.6 Infrared and Raman spectroscopy
14.2.7 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
14.2.8 UV and visible spectophotometry
14.2.9 X-ray analysis
References

15 FILLERS IN COMMERCIAL POLYMERS
15.1 Acrylics
15.2 Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer
15.3 Acrylonitrile-styrene-acrylate
15.4 Aliphatic polyketone
15.5 Alkyd resins
15.6 Bismaleimide
15.7 Cellulose acetate
15.8 Chitosan
15.9 Elastomers
15.10 Epoxy resins
15.11 Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer
15.12 Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer
15.13 Ethylene-ethyl acetate copolymer
15.14 Ethylene-propylene copolymers
15.15 Ionomers
15.16 Liquid crystalline polymers
15.17 Perfluoroalkoxy resin
15.18 Phenolic resins
15.19 Poly(acrylic acid)
15.20 Polyacrylonitrile
15.21 Polyamides
15.22 Polyamideimide
15.23 Polyamines
15.24 Polyaniline
15.25 Polyaryletherketone
15.26 Poly(butylene succinate)
15.27 Poly(butylene terephthalate)
15.28 Polycaprolactone
15.29 Polycarbonate
15.30 Polydicyclopentadiene
15.31 Polyetheretherketone
15.32 Polyetherimide
15.33 Polyether sulfone
15.34 Polyethylene
15.35 Polyethylene, chlorinated
15.36 Polyethylene, chlorosulfonated
15.37 Poly(ethylene oxide)
15.38 Poly(ethylene terephthalate)
15.39 Polyimide
15.41 Polymethylmethacrylate
15.42 Polyoxymethylene
15.43 Poly(phenylene ether)
15.44 Poly(phenylene sulfide)
15.45 Polypropylene
15.46 Polypyrrole
15.47 Polystyrene & high impact
15.48 Polysulfide
15.49 Polysulfone
15.50 Polytetrafluoroethylene
15.51 Polyurethanes
15.52 Poly(vinyl acetate)
15.53 Poly(vinyl alcohol)
15.54 Poly(vinyl butyral)
15.55 Poly(vinyl chloride)
15.56 Rubbers
15.56.1 Natural rubber
15.56.2 Nitrile rubber
15.56.3 Polybutadiene rubber
15.56.4 Polybutyl rubber
15.56.5 Polychloroprene
15.56.6 Polyisobutylene
15.56.7 Polyisoprene
15.56.8 Styrene-butadiene rubber
15.57 Silicones
15.58 Styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer
15.59 Tetrafluoroethylene-perfluoropropylene
15.60 Unsaturated polyesters
15.61 Vinylidene-fluoride terpolymers
References

16 FILLER IN MATERIALS COMBINATIONS
16.1 Blends, alloys and interpenetrating networks
16.2 Composites
16.3 Nanocomposites
16.4 Laminates
References

17 FORMULATION WITH FILLERS
References

18 FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PROCESSING METHODS
18.1 Blow molding
18.2 Calendering and hot-melt coating
18.3 Compression molding
18.4 Dip coating
18.5 Dispersion
18.6 Extrusion
18.7 Foaming
18.8 Injection molding
18.9 Knife coating
18.10 Mixing
18.11 Pultrusion
18.12 Reaction injection molding
18.13 Resin transfer molding
18.14 Rotational molding
18.15 Sheet molding
18.16 Spinning
18.17 Thermoforming
18.18 Welding and machining
References

19 FILLERS IN DIFFERENT PRODUCTS
19.1 Adhesives
19.2 Agriculture
19.3 Aerospace
19.4 Appliances
19.5 Automotive materials
19.6 Bottles and containers
19.7 Building components
19.8 Business machines
19.9 Cable and wire
19.10 Coated fabrics
19.11 Coatings and paints
19.12 Cosmetics and pharmaceutical products
19.13 Dental restorative composites
19.14 Electrical and electronic materials
19.15 Electromagnetic interference shielding
19.16 Fibers
19.17 Film
19.18 Foam
19.19 Food and feed
19.20 Friction materials
19.21 Geosynthetics
19.22 Hoses and pipes
19.23 Magnetic devices
19.24 Medical applications
19.25 Membranes
19.26 Noise damping
19.27 Optical devices
19.28 Paper
19.29 Radiation shields
19.30 Railway transportation
19.31 Roofing
19.32 Telecommunication
19.33 Tires
19.34 Sealants
19.35 Siding
19.36 Sports equipment
19.37 Waterproofing
19.38 Windows
References

20 HAZARDS IN FILLER USE
References

INDEX
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George Wypych has a Ph. D. in chemical engineering. His professional expertise includes both university teaching (full professor) and research & development. He has published 17 books: PVC Plastisols, (University Press); Polyvinylchloride Degradation, (Elsevier); Polyvinylchloride Stabilization, (Elsevier); Polymer Modified Textile Materials, (Wiley & Sons); Handbook of Material Weathering, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Handbook of Fillers, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Editions, (ChemTec Publishing); Recycling of PVC, (ChemTec Publishing); Weathering of Plastics. Testing to Mirror Real Life Performance, (Plastics Design Library), Handbook of Solvents, Handbook of Plasticizers, Handbook of Antistatics, Handbook of Antiblocking, Release, and Slip Additives (1st and 2nd Editions), PVC Degradation & Stabilization, PVC Formulary, Handbook of UV Degradation and Stabilization, Handbook of Biodeterioration, Biodegradation and Biostabilization, and Handbook of Polymers (all by ChemTec Publishing), 47 scientific papers, and he has obtained 16 patents. He specializes in polymer additives, polymer processing and formulation, material durability, and the development of sealants and coatings. He is included in the Dictionary of International Biography, Who's Who in Plastics and Polymers, Who's Who in Engineering, and was selected International Man of the Year 1996-1997 in recognition for his services to education.
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