This Animal Pharm report is the first to cover the aquaculture medicines market segment in depth. A wide range of diseases affect fish and shrimp production and these are described in the report, together with the latest research on aetiology, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. The causes include viruses, bacteria, ecto- and endo- parasites, and fungi.
Available pharmaceuticals are described including antimicrobials, probiotics, bacteriophages, immunostimulants, antiparasitics etc. and there is a separate chapter on vaccines for viral and bacterial disease, fish vaccine administration and specialised techniques including oral, nasal administration and novel delivery systems.
The final chapter revisits some of the problem issues for the industry and suggest how these are being addressed now and in the future. Regulatory issues such as GM salmon, problems with medication, the environment, public health and welfare are fully discussed.
1.1 Seafood as a global source of human protein
1.2 The Aquaculture Industry
1.3 Aquatic species
1.3.7 Channel catfish
1.3.8 Aquatic plants
2. Aquaculture Farming Practices
2.1 Systems for culture of finfish
2.1.1 Pond Culture
2.1.2 Flow-Through System
2.1.3 Cage and Net Pen Systems
2.1.4 Recirculating aquaculture systems
2.2 Global and regional markets for aquaculture produce
2.2.2 South America
2.2.4 North America & Canada
2.2.5 Developing countries
2.2.6 Sub-Saharan Africa
2.2.8 The Middle East
2.3 The current major issues facing the aquaculture industry
2.3.1 Disease risk
2.3.2 Environmental issues
2.3.3 Availability of land and water
2.3.4 Climate change
2.3.5 Future outlook for these issues
3. The fish feed industry
3.1 Sources of fish feed
3.2 Alternative sources of fish feed
3.2.1 Single cell protein
3.2.2 Algae and seaweed
3.3 Commercial fish feed suppliers
3.4 Feed Additives
3.4.1 Regulatory Aspects
4. Diseases of aquatic species
4.1 Major viral diseases of fish
4.1.1 Infectious salmon anaemia
4.1.2 Infectious pancreatic necrosis
4.1.3 Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy Disease
4.1.4 Carp oedema virus
4.1.5 Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)
4.1.6 Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN)
4.1.7 Spring viraemia of carp (SVC)
4.1.8 Pancreas disease (PD) and sleeping disease (SD)
4.1.9 Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS)
4.1.10 Epizootic haematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV)
4.1.11 Viral nervous necrosis (VNN)
4.2 Major viral diseases of shrimp
4.2.1 White spot syndrome virus
4.2.2 Taura Syndrome
4.2.3 Yellow Head Virus
4.2.4 Infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis
4.2.5 Infectious myonecrosis
4.2.6 White tail disease
4.3 Major bacterial diseases of fish
4.3.1 Early Mortality Syndrome
4.3.3 Enteric Redmouth Disease
4.3.4 Salmon Rickettsial syndrome
4.3.8 Bacterial Kidney Disease
4.3.9 Winter Ulcer Disease
4.4 Parasitic disease in aquaculture
4.4.1 Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
4.4.2 Heteropolaria spp.
4.4.3 Sea Lice
4.4.4 Gyrodactylus salaris
4.4.6 Amoebic gill disease
4.5 Diseases caused by fungi and water moulds
4.5.1 Aphanomyces invadans
4.5.2 Saprolegnia parasitica
5. Medicines in aquaculture
5.1 The market and major players
6. Fish vaccines
6.1 General background on the fish vaccine sector
6.2 Autogenous vaccines
6.3 Vaccines for viral diseases
6.4 Vaccines for bacterial diseases
6.5 DNA Vaccines
6.6 Fish vaccine administration
6.6.1 Immersion vaccination
6.6.2 Injectable vaccines
6.6.3 Oral vaccination
6.6.4 Intranasal vaccination
6.6.5 Novel delivery systems
6.7 Practical vaccination of fish
6.8 Future challenges for fish vaccine development
6.9 General advice on use of vaccines in fin fish
7. Diagnostics for aquaculture species
7.1 Background to the market
7.2 Role of the OIE
8. Regulation and responsible use of aquaculture medicines
8.1 Introduction; the future importance of aquaculture
8.2 Regulation of medicines in aquaculture
8.3 Problems with medicines in aquaculture
8.4 Responsible use of medicines in aquaculture
List of Figures and Tables:
Figure 1.1. Trends in global farmed fish and beef production
Figure 1.2. The estimated global deficit of food fish supply, including aquaculture and wild caught, by 2030 (million metric tons). Courtesy Dr. Rohana Subasinghe of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Figure 1.3. The status of global capture fishing and aquaculture production and comparison of feed conversion efficiency of fish and other farmed livestock species (Chang, 2014).
Figure 1.4. World animal protein production by type 1950-2010
Table 1.1. World fisheries and aquaculture (fish) production (million tonnes) and utilisation (adapted from FAO report, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014). Excludes aquatic plants
Table 1.2. Selected statistics of fishery and aquaculture production in recent years
Figure 1.5. Examples of recent market report on the aquaculture sector demonstrating increasing commercial and research interest
Figure 1.6. Global aquaculture in the news
Figure 1.7. The diversity of the aquaculture industry in the Asia Pacific region (Chang 2014)
Table 1.3. Aquaculture (fish) production by region: quantity and percentage of World production, (adapted from FAO report, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014)
Figure 1.8. Global aquaculture production by region
Figure 1.9. World food fish aquaculture production in 2012 by species
Figure 1.10. The top 10 species groups in global aquaculture production in 2012 (x1000 metric tonnes).
Figure 1.11a. World aquaculture production of major fish species groups in 2010 based on total production
Figure 1.11b. World aquaculture production of major fish species groups in 2010 based on economic value
Table 1.4. The increase in world fishery production in groups of species in terms of weight produced (x 1000 tonnes) and the estimated value (USD millions)
Figure 1.12. Top 10 species in global aquaculture production 2012 (000’s tonnes; Statista 2015)
Figure 1.13. A grass carp
Figure 1.14. A Nile tipapia
Table 1.5. The main farmed mollusc groups (t=tonnes; FAO, 2010)
Figure 1.15. Photographs of a) giant tiger prawn and b) white-legged shrimp
Figure 1.16. An Atlantic salmon
Figure 1.17. A rainbow trout
Figure 1.18. A channel catfish
Figure 1.19. A summary of the global aquaculture sectors and regions
Figure 2.1. Illustration of various systems of aquaculture production
Figure 2.2. An example of an intensive aquaculture operation.
Figure 2.3. An example of a semi-intensive system of aquaculture
Figure 2.4. An example of an extensive system of aquaculture.
Figure 2.5. An illustration of recirculating aquaculture systems.
Figure 2.6. Tilapia farming in sub-Saharan Africa
Figure 2.7. Semi intensive aquaculture in Kenya using “Earthponds”
Figure 3.1. Traditional fish feed ingredient structure.
Table 3.1. Alternative sources of protein being evaluated for potential replacement of fish meal in fish feed
Figure 3.2. The Cargill aquaculture website
Figure 3.3. The Nutriad website
Figure 4.1. Some of the key health issues in aquaculture (Chang, 2014)
Figure 4.2. The World Bank Report on reducing disease risk in aquaculture
Figure 4.3. Emerging diseases as a driver of investment in medicines for aquaculture.
Table 4.1. Examples of viral diseases, species that are commonly affected and examples of methods of control/treatment.
Figure 4.4. Whitespot in shrimp
Figure 4.5. An example of enteric redmouth
Figure 4.6. Furunculosis in Atlantic salmon
Table 4.2. Examples of bacterial diseases, pathogens responsible, species commonly affected and examples of methods of methods of control/treatment.
Figure 4.7a. An example of Ich or White spot disease
Fig 4.7b. Simplified scheme of the life cycle of the fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis
Figure 4.8. Lice on Atlantic salmon
Figure 4.9. Lesions of amoebic gill disease
Table 4.3. Examples of parasitic/fungal diseases, species commonly affected and methods of control/treatment.
Figure 5.1. Zoetis announce acquisition of Pharmaq November 2105.
Figure 5.2. Aspects of the use of veterinary products in aquaculture (Chang 2014)
Figure 5.3. Merck (MSD) is a major supplier of pharmaceuticals and vaccines for aquaculture
Figure 5.4. Illustration of oxytetracycline product (Aquatet) available from Pharmaq (now Zoetis) for use in aquaculture.
Table 5.1. Examples of commercial antibiotic preparations for aquaculture
Figure 5.5. List of anti-infectives (antimicrobials) supplied by Merck for aquaculture
Table 5.2. Some examples of available probiotic products for use in fish
Figure 5.6a. The ‘Aquaphage’ website.
Figure 5.6b. Discussion of the principles of bacteriophage therapy in aquaculture on the Aquaphage
Figure 5.7. Publication on feed and feeding practices in aquaculture including information on the use of immune-stimulants
Figure 5.8a. Information on the immunostimulant product Vetregard (Pharmaq/Zoetis)
Figure 5.8b. The product data sheet for Vetregard (Pharmaq/Zoetis)
Figure 5.9. Information on the immunostimulant Aquavac Ergosan
Table 5.3. Some of the common anti-parasitic treatments used in fish farming.
Figure 5.10. The ‘Slice’ data sheet
Figure 5.11. The EWOS website
Figure 6.1. Use of vaccination in aquaculture (Chang 2014)
Figure 6.2. Virbac becomes a leader of the aquaculture health market (2012)
Figure 6.3. Range of fish vaccines produced by Hipra
Figure 6.4. An example of an autogenous vaccine manufacturer in the UK
Figure 6.5. An example of an autogenous vaccine manufacturer in Germany
Table 6.1. Some commercial vaccines for viral diseases in farmed fish
Table 6.2. Some commercial vaccines against bacterial diseases in farmed fish
Figure 6.6. 3D-printed microfish contain functional nanoparticles that enable them to be self- propelled, chemically powered and magnetically steered. The microfish are also capable of removing and sensing toxins. (Image credit: J. Warner, UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering)
Figure 6.7. Vaccination of fish by injection
Figure 6.8. An example of an automatic fish vaccination apparatus
Figure 7.1. The University of Stirling, Institute of Aquaculture website
Figure 8.1. The USDA website for the regulation and use of drugs in aquaculture.
Figure 8.2. Exponent, an example of a specialist consulting company in the environmental assessment of aquaculture medicines.
Figure 8.3. Authoritative publication on legal requirements and authorisation of fish vaccines
Figure 8.4. The relationship between production, antibiotic usage and vaccine introduction in the Norwegian salmon industry.
Figure 8.5. Use of veterinary products in aquaculture in Asia (Chang, 2014)
Figure 8.6. Vaccines versus antibiotics in Asian aquaculture (Chang, 2014)
Figure 8.7. Publication on the use of medicines and other chemicals in aquaculture in a district of Bangladesh
Figure 8.8. Advertisement for aquaculture products on the Alibaba website
Figure 8.9. The RUMA website
Figure 8.10. Wikipaedia website on antimicrobials in aquaculture.
Figure 8.11. The fishsite website on responsible use of veterinary medicines in aquatic food production.
Figure 8.12. FAO publication on improving biosecurity through responsible use of medicines in aquaculture
Figure 8.13. Commentary in Norway on the need for more scrutiny of chemicals used as medicines (in this case for sealice) in aquaculture
Figure 8.14. Announcement of UK grant for aquaculture disease research.