Power Sector Report Volume 4: GTD - Generation and T&D - Infrastructure

  • ID: 3788068
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 257 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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A Comprehensive Analysis Of The Infrastructure Of All Sectors
The power sector is composed of the entities which generate, transport and distribute electricity to consumers. The power sector consists of the electrical utility industry, other utilities, industry and commerce which generate and consume electricity, and includes private generators. The power sector is colossal, the global infrastructure is enormous and the financial resources required correspondingly large.

The electrical utilities, merchant generators or independent power producers (IPPs), are the primary tier of the power sector, for they are the only participants whose sole business is the provision of power. In almost every country, whatever the utility structure, state-controlled, mixed or wholly liberalised, there are independent power producers, IPPs, generating power for sale to the grid or specific customers. These differ from captive power producers or auto-producers, which generate for their own needs and sell the surplus. The second tier consists of non-electrical utilities and industrial captive power producers (CPPs).

The electrical utilities overwhelmingly dominate the overall power sector, with 91% of generation, 93% of transmission and 87% of distribution. Captive industrial generators which are recorded account for 5% to 7% of the three segments of GTD, and hidden generators for a further unknown amount.

41% of final electricity consumption is by industry, 23% by commerce and 28% is residential and the balance by public services and railways.

Then there are the industrial and commercial consumers of electricity, who do not generate their own power. The non-generating customers own equipment from the point of connection, principally a substation/transformer and a custodial meter to operate and measure the transfer of power from generator to customer. As operators of this equipment, these customers are participants in the power sector.
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Executive Summary
The Power Sector
Infrastructure
Supply Side Measures to Reduce Man Made Emissions
Emission Types And End-Of-Pipe Control Measures
Cost Reductions And the Learning Rate for Ccs

The Power Sector Report

The Structure of this Report

1.Introduction to the Power Sector
The Scale of the Power Sector
The Participants in the Power Sector

2.The Elements of An Electrical Network

3.Utility Sectors

4.Other Utility Sectors, As Generators And Consumers

5.Industrial And Captive Generation

6.Distributed Power

7.The Use of Electricity By Sector

8.The Historical Development of the Power Sector

9.The Development of Installed Generating Capacity in the Power Sector

10.Installed Generating Capacity By Energy Source, 1990 to 2020

11.Annual Demand for Generating Capacity in the Power Sector, Additions And Replacement

12.Transmission And Distribution Line Lengths By Country

13.Annual Demand for T&D Lines, Additions And Replacement

14.Network Voltages
Global Transmission And Distribution Voltages
Europe
Cis
Middle East
North Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Asia Pacific
North America
Latin America

15.The Value Chain - from Materials to Capex
The Value Chain at 6 Levels

16.Price Trends And Factors Driving Prices
Price Trends
Ppi - Producer Price Index
Industry
Production Capacity
Manufacturing Input Cost Composition

17.Land-Based Underground Cables - Hv, Mv & Lv

18.The Submarine Cable Market- Offshore Wind Power, Oil & Gas

19.Advanced Technology, Superconductors

20.N-1 Standard, N-2, 2N, Redundancy And Replacement
Network Failure
Transformer Failure
Industrial Reliability
Network Reliability
N-1 And the Networks
Contingency Planning for Network Failure

21.Aqcs - Air Quality Control Systems
Ghgs, Greenhouse Gases
Air Pollutants
Sources of Emissions
Air Pollutants
Supply Side Measures to Reduce Man Made Emisssions
Emission Types And End-Of-Pipe Control Measures
Particulate Matter
Heavy Metals - Lead, Mercury, Cadmium
The Development And Penetration of Aqcs Technology
22.Ccs - Carbon Capture And Storage
The Carbon Cycle, Climate Change And Greenhouse Gases
Carbon Capture And Storage (Ccs) - Current Status
Eor, Enhanced Oil Recovery.
23.Electrification
The Impact of Increased Electrification On Future Markets
Electrical Goods And Aspirations: the Household Electrification Wheel
Factors Driving the Increase in Numbers of Electrical Connections

24.Currents, Circuits And Phases
Currents - Ac And Dc
Circuits
Overview of Infrastructure

Methodology
Market Sizing And Bottom Up Forecasting
The Sanity Check And Validation

Figures
Figure 1: the Uk Electrical Power Transmission And Distribution System
Figure 2: the Global Utility Landscape
Figure 3: Composition of the Retail Cost of Electricity
Figure 4: Industry Uses of Different Energy Sources in the Us
Figure 5: Energy Use By Type of Industry in the Us (All Types of Energy)
Figure 6: % of Total Machine Drive Electricity Used in Manufacturing in the Us
Figure 7: Machine Drive Electricity Use As a Percentage of Total Delivered Energy Use By Each Industry in the Us
Figure 8: World Generation Capacity Mw, Transmission And Distribution Lines in Circuit Km, from 1900 to 2015
Figure 9: World Transmission And Distribution Lines in Circuit Km, Development from 1900 to 2015
Figure 10: World Generating Capacity in Gw, Development from 1900 to 2050
Figure 11: World Generating Capacity in Gw, Development By Region from 1980 to 2030
Figure 12: Installed Capacity By Fuel in Gw, 1990 to 2020
Figure 13: Installed Capacity And Annual Demand for Generating Capacity in Gw, 1900 to 2050
Figure 14: Cumulative New And Replacement Demand for Generating Capacity in Gw, 1900 to 2050
Figure 15: New And Replacement Demand for Generating Capacity in Gw Unstacked, 1900 to 2050
Figure 16: Replacement Capacity As a % of Total Annual Demand 5 Year Totals, 2016-2050
Figure 17: Transmission Line Lengths for Major Countries, 1900 to 2015
Figure 18: Distribution Line Lengths for Major Countries, 1900 to 2015
Figure 19: Installed Transmission Lines And Annual Additions ‘000 Km, 1900 to 2050
Figure 20: Installed Distribution Lines And Annual Additions ‘000 Km, 1900 to 2050
Figure 21: Annual Demand, New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in ‘000 Km, 1900 to 2050
Figure 22: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in ‘000 Km, 1900 to 2050
Figure 15: Global Transmission Lines By Voltage, Km, 2014
Figure 16: Global Distribution Lines By Voltage, Km, 2014
Figure 17: Distribution Voltages in Europe (Eu 27)
Figure 24: Prices of Copper And Aluminium 1960-2014
Figure 25: Commodity Price Index 1996 to 2016
Figure 26: Industrial Metals Prices 2007 to 2016
Figure 27: Labour Compensation Cost, Including Direct Pay, Social Insurance Expenditures, And Labour-Related Taxes (Us = 100).
Figure 28: Labour Costs Including Wages And Salaries, Social Insurance And Labour-Related Taxes
Figure 29: Minimum Wages in China in Yuan Per Month 1995 to 2012
Figure 30: Underground Cable As a Percent of the Total Network in European Countries
Figure 31: Underground Cable As a Percent of the Total Network in Cis Countries
Figure 32: Underground Cable As a Percent of the Total Network in Mena Countries
Figure 33: Underground Cable As a Percent of the Total Network in Asia Pacific Countries
Figure 34: Underground Cable As a Percent of the Total Network in Pacific Countries
Figure 35: Percent of Population in Urban Areas, 1960-2010 By Region
Figure 36: Market Shares of Different Offshore Segments
Figure 37: Undersea Communications Cables Linking the World
Figure 38: a High Voltage Substation With Four Transformers, Three Active And One Redundant
Figure 39: Possible Reductions in Ghg Emissions By 2050
Figure 40: Beijing After Rain And On a Day With Smog
Figure 41: Sources of Emissions
Figure 42: Countries Responsible for Emissions
Figure 43: the Carbon Cycle And Storage
Figure 44: % of Carbon Emissions from Heat And Power Generation, 2014
Figure 45: % of Carbon Emission from the World Coal-Fired Fleet, 2014
Figure 46: Actual And Expected Operation Dates for Large-Scale Ccs Projects in the Pipeline, By Region And Lifecycle Stage.
Figure 47: Technological Learning Rates of Selected Energy Related Technologies
Figure 48: Additions of Electrified Households Between 2015 And 2050 By Region
Figure 49: Countries With Greatest Population Declines By 2050
Figure 50: the Household Electrification Wheel
Figure 51: Population Growth % in Each Decade By Region
Figure 52: Average Household Size, World, 1900 to 2050
Figure 53: World Electrification - % of Households With Electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 54: World Electrification - Number of Households With And Without Electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 55: Share of People Without Electricity Access for Developing Countries, 2008
Figure 56: Regional Totals of Electrified Households 2010 to 2050
Figure 57: Selected Major Countries - % of Households With Electricity, 1900-2050
Figure 58: Single Phase Power
Figure 59: Three Phase Power
Figure 60: the Composition of Annual Demand for Capacity, New Plus Replacement

Tables
Table 1: Ownership of Assets in the Power Sector By Owner Type
Table 2: the World’S Electrical Utility Landscape
Table 3: Infrastructure of Utilities
Table 4: Indian Utilities’ Generating Capacity 1947 -2015 By Fuel
Table 5: Indian Captive Power Plant Generating Capacity 1947 -2015 By Fuel
Table 6: Sale of Diesel Gensets in India By International Manufacturers > 1 Mw from 1990 to 2004
Table 7: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, Europe
Table 8: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, Cis
Table 9: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, Mena
Table 10: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 11: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, Asia Pacific
Table 12: Installed Generating Capacity in Mw, 1980 to 2030, the Americas
Table 13: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, World
Table 14: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Europe
Table 15: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Cis
Table 16: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Middle East
Table 17: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, North Africa
Table 18: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 19: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Asia Pacific
Table 20: Installed Generating Capacity Mw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, Lac
Table 21: Installed Generating Capacitymw By Fuel Type 1990 to 2020, North America
Table 22: New And Replacement Demand for Generating Capacity, Mw, 2016 to 2035
Table 23: Total Demand for Generating Capacity, Mw, 2016 to 2050
Table 24: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Europe
Table 25: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Europe
Table 26: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Cis
Table 27: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Cis
Table 28: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Mena
Table 29: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Mena
Table 30: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 31: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015- 2050, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 32: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Asia Pacific
Table 33: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015- 2050, Asia Pacific
Table 34: New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments By Country in Mw, 2015-2030, Americas
Table 35: Total New And Replacement Demand in 5 Year Segments in Gw And % of Replacement, 2015-2050, Americas
Table 36: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Europe
Table 37: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Europe
Table 38: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Cis
Table 39: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Cis
Table 40: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Mena
Table 41: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Mena
Table 42: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 43: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 44: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Asia
Table 45: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Asia
Table 46: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Pacific
Table 47: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Pacific
Table 48: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, North America
Table 49: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, North America
Table 50: Transmission Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Latin America
Table 51: Distribution Line Lengths in Ckm, 1980-2030, Latin America
Table 52: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in Ckm, 2016 to 2035, World
Table 53: Total Demand for Transmission Lines in Ckm, 2016 to 2050, World
Table 54: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in Ckm, 2016 to 2035, World
Table 55: Total Demand for Distribution Lines in Ckm, 2016 to 2050, World
Table 56: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Europe
Table 57: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Europe
Table 58: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Europe
Table 59: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Europe
Table 60: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Cis
Table 61: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Cis
Table 62: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Cis
Table 63: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Cis
Table 64: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Mena
Table 65: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Mena
Table 66: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Mena
Table 67: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Mena
Table 68: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 69: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 70: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 71: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Sub-Saharan Africa
Table 72: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Asia
Table 73: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Asia
Table 74: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Asia
Table 75: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Asia
Table 76: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Pacific
Table 77: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Pacific
Table 78: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Pacific
Table 79: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Pacific
Table 80: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, North America
Table 81: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, North America
Table 82: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, North America
Table 83: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, North America
Table 84: New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, Latin America
Table 85: Total New And Replacement Demand for Transmission Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Latin America
Table 86: New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km, 2015 to 2030, the Americas
Table 87: Total New And Replacement Demand for Distribution Lines in 5 Year Segments By Country in Km And % of Replacement, 2015 to 2050, Americas
Table 88: Global Transmission Lines By Voltage, Km, 2014
Table 89: Global Distribution Lines By Voltage, Km, 2014
Table 90: Albania Transmission And Distribution
Table 91: Austria Transmission And Distribution
Table 92: Baltics Transmission And Distribution
Table 93: Belgium Transmission And Distribution
Table 94: Bosnia & Herzegovina Transmission And Distribution
Table 95: Bulgaria Transmission And Distribution
Table 96: Croatia Transmission And Distribution
Table 97: Cyprus Transmission And Distribution
Table 98: Czech Republic Transmission And Distribution
Table 99: Denmark Transmission And Distribution
Table 100: Finland Transmission And Distribution
Table 101: France Transmission And Distribution
Table 102: Germany Transmission And Distribution
Table 103: Greece Transmission And Distribution
Table 104: Hungary Transmission And Distribution
Table 105: Iceland Transmission And Distribution
Table 106: Ireland Transmission And Distribution
Table 107: Italy Transmission And Distribution
Table 108: Luxembourg Transmission And Distribution
Table 109: Macedonia Transmission And Distribution
Table 110: Malta Transmission And Distribution
Table 111: Netherlands Transmission And Distribution
Table 112: Norway Transmission And Distribution
Table 113: Poland Transmission And Distribution
Table 114: Portugal Transmission And Distribution
Table 115: Romania Transmission And Distribution
Table 116: Serbia Transmission And Distribution
Table 117: Slovakia Transmission And Distribution
Table 118: Slovenia Transmission And Distribution
Table 119: Spain Transmission And Distribution
Table 120: Sweden Transmission And Distribution
Table 121: Switzerland Transmission And Distribution
Table 122: Turkey Transmission And Distribution
Table 123: United Kingdom Transmission And Distribution
Table 124: Armenia Transmission And Distribution
Table 125: Azerbaijan Transmission And Distribution
Table 126: Belarus Transmission And Distribution
Table 127: Georgia Transmission And Distribution
Table 128: Kazakhstan Transmission And Distribution
Table 129: Kyrgyzstan Transmission And Distribution
Table 130: Moldova Transmission And Distribution
Table 131: Russia Transmission And Distribution
Table 132: Tajikistan Transmission And Distribution
Table 133: Turkmenistan Transmission And Distribution
Table 134: Ukraine Transmission And Distribution
Table 135: Uzbekistan Transmission And Distribution
Table 136: Bahrain Transmission And Distribution
Table 137: Iran Transmission And Distribution
Table 138: Iraq Transmission
Table 139: Israel Transmission And Distribution
Table 140: Jordan Transmission And Distribution
Table 141: Kuwait Transmission And Distribution
Table 142: Lebanon Transmission
Table 143: Oman: Transmission
Table 144: Qatar Transmission
Table 145: Saudi Arabia Transmission And Distribution
Table 146: Syria Transmission And Distribution
Table 147: United Arab Republic Transmission
Table 148: Yemen Transmission And Distribution
Table 149: Algeria Transmission And Distribution
Table 150: Egypt Transmission And Distribution
Table 151: Libya Transmission And Distribution
Table 152: Morocco Transmission And Distribution
Table 153: Sudan Transmission And Distribution
Table 154: Tunisia Transmission And Distribution
Table 155: Angola Transmission
Table 156: Benin Transmission And Distribution
Table 157: Burkina Faso Transmission And Distribution
Table 158: Cameroon Transmission And Distribution
Table 159: Central African Republic Transmission And Distribution
Table 160: Cote D’Ivoire Transmission And Distribution
Table 161: Djibouti Transmission And Distribution
Table 163: Ethiopia Transmission And Distribution
Table 164: the Gambia Transmission And Distribution
Table 165: Ghana Transmission And Distribution
Table 166: Guinea Bissau Transmission And Distribution
Table 167: Guinea Equatorial Transmission
Table 168: Kenya Transmission And Distribution
Table 169: Lesotho Transmission And Distribution
Table 170: Liberia Transmission And Distribution
Table 171: Madagascar Transmission And Distribution
Table 172: Malawi Transmission
Table 173: Mauritius Transmission And Distribution
Table 174: Mozambique Transmission And Distribution
Table 176: Namibia Transmission And Distribution
Table 177: Nigeria Transmission And Distribution
Table 178: Rwanda Transmission
Table 179: Senegal Transmission And Distribution
Table 180: Seychelles Transmission
Table 181: South Africa Transmission And Distribution
Table 182: Tanzania Transmission
Table 183: Togo Distribution
Table 184: Uganda Transmission And Distribution
Table 185: Zambia Transmission And Distribution
Table 186: Zimbabwe Transmission And Distribution
Table 187: Afghanistan Transmission And Distribution
Table 188: Bangladesh Transmission And Distribution
Table 189: Bhutan Transmission And Distribution
Table 190: Cambodia Transmission And Distribution
Table 191: China Transmission And Distribution
Table 192: India Transmission And Distribution
Table 193: Indonesia Transmission And Distribution
Table 194: Japan Transmission And Distribution
Table 195: South Korea Transmission And Distribution
Table 196: Laos Transmission And Distribution
Table 197: Malaysia Transmission And Distribution
Table 198: Maldives Transmission And Distribution
Table 199: Myanmar Transmission And Distribution
Table 200: Nepal Transmission
Table 201: Pakistan Transmission And Distribution
Table 202: Philippines Transmission And Distribution
Table 203: Sri Lanka Transmission And Distribution
Table 204: Singapore Transmission And Distribution
Table 205: Taiwan Transmission And Distribution
Table 206: Thailand Transmission And Distribution
Table 207: Vietnam Transmission And Distribution
Table 208: United States Transmission And Distribution
Table 209: Canada Transmission
Table 210: Mexico Transmission And Distribution
Table 211: Antigua Transmission And Distribution
Table 212: Argentina Transmission And Distribution
Table 213: Bahamas Transmission And Distribution
Table 214: Bolivia Transmission
Table 215: Brazil Transmission And Distribution
Table 216: Cayman Islands Distribution
Table 217: Chile Transmission
Table 218: Columbia Transmission
Table 219: Costa Rica Transmission And Distribution
Table 220: Dominican Republic Transmission
Table 221: Ecuador Transmission
Table 222: El Salvador Transmission And Distribution
Table 223: Guatemala Transmission
Table 224: Jamaica Transmission And Distribution
Table 225: Nicaragua Transmission And Distribution
Table 226: Panama Transmission And Distribution
Table 227: Paraguay Transmission And Distribution
Table 228: Peru Transmission
Table 229: Puerto Rico Transmission And Distribution
Table 230: Uruguay Transmission
Table 231: Venezuela Transmission
Table 232: Costs And Mark-Up from Bill of Materials to Capex
Table 233: Manufacturers of Subsea Power Cable And Communications Cable
Table 234: Installed Superconductors
Table 235: Superconductor Manufacturers
Table 236: Reductions in Emissions By the Main Aqcs Technologies
Table 237: Penetration of End-Of-Pipe Aqcs Measures
Table 238: the Global Coal-Fired Generating Fleet 2015
Table 239: Levelised Cost of Electricity for New-Build Power Plants With And Without Ccs
Table 240: Electrification in North America - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 241: Electrification in Europe - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 242: Electrification in the Cis - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 243: Electrification in Mena - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 244: Electrification in S-S Africa - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 245: Electrification in Asia - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 246: Electrification in the Pacific - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 247: Electrification in Latin America - % of Households With Access to Electricity, 1950 to 2050
Table 248: Products And Technologies Used in Generating Plants
Table 249: Products And Technologies Used in Transmission
Table 250: Products And Technologies Used in Distribution
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1. Introduction To The Power Sector: The scale of the power sector is outlined as an introduction, in capacity and $ with commentary on its composition by the constituent sectors - generation, transmission and distribution.

2. The Elements Of An Electrical Network: The transmission and distribution networks transport and deliver electricity from generators to consumers. To accomplish this they transform it up and down to different voltage levels, with step-up and step-down transformers. In the T&D industry, power and distribution transformers are probably the major single component of equipment, except for the cables through which electricity is transmitted and distributed, and they are the most costly single item. Transformers are needed at all stages in an electrical supply system when the voltage level changes.

3. Utility Sectors: The 135,000 electricity, gas and water & waste utilities are shown regionally on a global map and the 11,000 electrical utilities are analysed by region and major country, with a breakdown of public/private ownership. A table summarises the electrical utility sector in every country.

4. Other Utility Sectors, As Generators And Consumers: The other utilities are identified - oil, gas, water & waste, telecoms, railways - they are large generators and consumers of electricity, and some have transmission and distribution networks.

5. Industrial And Captive Generation: Industry is a significant generator of power and an even larger consumer, drawing from the grid more than it supplies in most but not all countries. Industry is an important owner of transmission and distribution assets such as transformers. “Hidden power “, mostly private generators under 1 MW, is a segment attracting increasing attention. It has been poorly documented and has been underestimated in the past but its scale is now being recognised.

6. Distributed Power: The status of distributed power is outlined together with captive power, cogeneration and “hidden power”, together with analysis of the impact on the retail costs of electricity.

7. The Use Of Electricity By Sector: Use by end-sector, with further analysis by type of industrial use and purpose of use.

8. The Historical Development Of The Power Sector: A brief history of the development of the electricity power systems from their earliest start to the present day.

9. The Development Of Installed Generating Capacity In The Power Sector: The development of generating capacity is charted from 1900 to the present day and forecast to 2050. It is tabulated at six ten year intervals from 1980 to 2030 in the PDF report, with annual figures from 1980 to 2020 provided in the Excel database. This analysis is provided globally, regionally and for 184 countries.

10. Installed Generating Capacity By Energy Source, 1990 To 2020: Installed capacity is analysed by energy source; coal, gas, oil, nuclear, hydro, wind, solar PV, solar thermal, biomass, MSW & waste, geothermal and ocean/marine. It is tabulated globally and for 8 regional totals at eight intervals in the PDF - 1990, 2000 and annually from 2015 to 2020 - and in the Excel database annually from 1980 to 2020.

11. Annual Demand For Generating Capacity In The Power Sector, Additions And Replacement: Global installed capacity and annual demand is charted annually from 1900 to 2015 and forecast to 2050. Demand is analysed by new and replacement installations globally, by regions and for 184 countries, in five year segments from 2016-2020 to 2031-2035. Demand is also shown with replacement as a % of total demand.

12. Transmission And Distribution Line Lengths By Country: Growth of the transmission and distribution networks is charted globally from 1900 to 2015. Installed transmission and distribution line lengths are tabulated at 10 year intervals from 1980 to 2030 in the PDF report and annually in the Excel database. This analysis is provided globally, regionally and for 216 countries.

13. Annual Demand For T&D Lines, Additions And Replacement: Global installed line lengths and annual demand for T&D lines is charted annually from 1900 to 2015 and forecast to 2050. Demand is analysed by new and replacement installations globally, by regions and for 216 countries, in five year segments from 2016-2020 to 2031-2035. Demand is also shown with replacement as a % of total demand.

14. Network Voltages: The global network base for transmission is analysed by region in four voltage groups - 35-89 kV, 90-199 kV, 200-329 kV, =300 kV, and subsea. Distribution is analysed by region and four groups - MV OH, MV UG, LV OH, LV UG and subsea. Transmission and distribution are not defined by voltage but by function and there are considerable variations around the world as to the point of hand-over. A table demonstrates the substantial differences in Europe. This chapter contains 141 tables analysing voltage levels for as many countries.

15. The Value Chain - From Materials To Capex: The cost of any product can be measured at various stages, from being a piece of unworked metal, to its installation in working order and finally as a share of capital expenditure. Different price levels apply through the supply chain, and the point of interest in the chain depends on the business to which the value is being applied. The report analyses the value chain at 6 levels, from BOM (bill of materials) to capex, with all mark-ups included. In using the market information in this and other reports it is essential to specify which point in the value chain is being used. Capex can be 2½ times the factory gate price, over 3 times manufacturing cost and 5 times materials cost.

16. Price Trends And Factors Driving Prices: In recent years the prices of electrotechnical products have been volatile due to variations in many factors which affect them. Price trends are reviewed with commentary on PPI - Producer Price Index, industry trends, production capacity, and the manufacturing input cost composition.

17. Land-Based Underground Cables - Hv, Mv & Lv: Insulated underground land cables are not the most profitable segment of the power cable market nor the one with the highest long term growth prospects but together with bare conductors it has the most stable demand. EHV is the most profitable segment reflecting increased profitability with more advanced technology. There is steady and increasing demand for insulated MV and LV cable in the utility sector, driven by growing utility transmission expansion, undergrounding due to urbanisation. All voltage levels are used in the industrial sector, from HV in heavy industry such as steel manufacture and milling, down to a myriad of LV applications in the residential, commercial and automotive sectors. This chapter contains charts of the incidence of underground insulated cable use by voltage in major countries. And examines drivers, high costs and the impact of urbanisation.

18. The Submarine Cable Market- Offshore Wind Power, Oil & Gas: Submarine cable is a premium growth market. The technical barriers to entry are relatively high and order backlogs are solid. These cables also achieve margins of 15-20% EBITDA which are significantly higher than the average for the cable industry. Over the last five years a number of developments have created demand for submarine cable. The technology and market issues are explored in this chapter.

19. Advanced Technology, Superconductors: Superconductors are materials that have no resistance to the flow of electricity; they are one of the last great frontiers of scientific discovery. Some materials, cooled below a material-specific temperature called “critical temperature” (Tc) undergo a phase transition into the superconducting state. Markets for superconducting wire are in many ways similar to early descriptions of the market for transistors. Today, transistors are ubiquitous, and are used in virtually every application that harnesses electricity. In a similar fashion, superconducting wire has market applications that are virtually limitless. The fundamental value proposition of superconducting wire is the elimination of electrical loss, along with its accompanying heat, resulting in the efficient transmission of vast amounts of electricity using materials and equipment that are a fraction of the size and weight required for conventional copper wire electrical cables and equipment. The technology, development and market status are explored in this chapter.

20. N-1 Standard, N-2, 2N, Redundancy And Replacement: Redundancy is a crucial consideration in infrastructure design and has major implications for market size calculations. The following factors are reviewed; the impact of network failure, transformer failure, industrial reliability, network reliability, N-1 and the networks, contingency planning for network failure and electricity distribution.

21. The Environmental Equation: Environmental emissions will be reduced with a combination of measures and policies instituted by the power generation industry and industry in general. Renewables can deliver a saving in carbon of 21%, CCS (carbon capture and storage) in both industry and the generating sector can deliver one fifth (19%) of GHG reductions by 2050. The other reductions will be attributed to, efficiency in end-use (12%), fuel efficiency (24%), switching of fuel for end-use (11%), power generation efficiency and fuel saving (7%), and nuclear power (6%).

22. AQCS - Air Quality Control Systems: Emissions consist of two categories, GHGs or greenhouse gases, and air pollutants. This chapter outlines the sources of emissions, supply side measures to reduce them, and end-of-pipe control measures for the principal air pollutants SO2, NOx and PM, particulate matter. The development and penetration of AQCS (air quality control systems) technologies for SO2, NOx and PM are tabulated - FGD, SCR, LNB, ESP, fabric filters, HED - for the major emitting countries.

23. CCS - Carbon Capture And Storage: The carbon cycle, climate change and greenhouse gases are outlined. The current status of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is outlined with an assessment of progress in industry and the generating sector.

24. Electrification: The impact of increased electrification on future markets is described with its advantages in terms of electrical goods and aspirations, which vary according to the sophistification of the electrical market in a country. Factors driving the increase in numbers of electrical connections are assessed with tables of electrification levels for every country, from 1950 to 2050.

25. Currents, Circuits And Phases: Currents - AC and DC, circuits, and an overview of infrastructure
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