Nanomaterials for Water Remediation: Carbon-Based Materials, Volume 1

  • ID: 3797468
  • Book
  • 293 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This volume describes the various carbon materials being used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems.
Nanomaterials are being used to develop more cost-effective and high-performance water treatment systems. In the field of water research, nanomaterials have been extensively utilised for the treatment and remediation, in addition to pollution prevention, of this vital resource. Remediation is the process of transforming the toxic substances in polluted water to below the limits stipulated by national/international guidelines.

Volume 1 focuses on the carbon-based materials employed for water remediation. This book contains detailed information on various carbon materials including: carbon nanotubes, nanofibres, nanocellulose, dendrimers, mesoporous materials, molecularly imprinted materials, polymeric membranes and waste-derived nanocarbon materials. Polluted water is the main cause of severe environmental and health problems, and it is a well-established fact that carbon-based materials are very effective in the removal of both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater.

This book covers the broad aspects of nanotechnology, environmental science and water research, and will be beneficial to researchers involved in these areas. In addition, this book will be of considerable interest to researchers who are working towards their graduate and postgraduate degrees in these areas. A platform for all researchers is also provided as it covers considerable background from recent literature, including the abbreviations used. This book covers the fundamental knowledge and recent advancements of the research and development in the fields of nanotechnology, environmental science and water research.

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1 Physical and Chemical Factors Affecting the Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions and Organic Pollutants from Water onto Carbon Nanotubes
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Method of Synthesising Carbon Nanotube Adsorbents
1.2.1 Preparation and Purification of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
1.2.2 Sodium Hypochlorite Oxidisation
1.2.3 Potassium Hydroxide Activation
1.3 Removal of Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene Pollutants from Aqueous Solution
1.3.1 Characterisation of Adsorbents
1.3.2 Adsorption Properties
1.4 Removal of Lead Pollutants from Aqueous Solution
1.4.1 Effect of Different Diameters of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lead Adsorption
1.4.2 Effect of Different Oxygen Content of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Lead Adsorption
1.4.3 Adsorption Kinetic Studies
1.4.4 Adsorption Isotherms
1.4.5 Thermodynamic Studies
1.5 Removal of Dye Pollutants from Aqueous Solution
1.5.1 Characterisation of Adsorbents
1.6 Summary and Outlook

2 Electrospun Nanofibres for the Removal of Arsenic from Solutions
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Adsorption Kinetics
2.3 Electrospun Polymer Nanofibre Membranes for Arsenic Removal from Solutions
2.4 Conclusions

3 The Use of Nanocellulose and Nanochitin for the Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Water Remediation Processes
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Current Water Remediation Techniques and their Limitation
3.2.1 Chemical Precipitation
3.2.2 Membrane Separation
3.2.2.1 Ultrafiltration
3.2.2.2 Nanofiltration
3.2.2.3 Reverse Osmosis
3.2.3 Electrochemical Treatments
3.2.4 Ion-Exchange
3.2.5 Clay/Layered Double Hydroxides
3.2.6 Phytoremediation
3.2.7 Photocatalysis
3.2.8 Adsorption
3.2.8.1 Magnetic Nanoparticles and Nanosorbents
3.2.8.2 Activated Carbon Adsorption
3.2.8.3 Low-Cost Biomass Biosorption
3.3 Polysaccharides for Biosorption
3.4 Nanopolysaccharides
3.5 Hierarchical Structure of Cellulose and Chitin
3.6 Conclusions

4 Dendrimers and Mesoporous Materials for Heavy Metal Removal from Aqueous Systems
4.1 Dendrimers
4.2 Synthesis of Dendrimers
4.3 Mesoporous Materials
4.4 Synthesis of Mesoporous Materials
4.5 Heavy Metal Pollution
4.5.1 Hazardous Effects of Heavy Metals
4.6 Environmental Applications of Dendrimers
4.6.1 Use of Dendrimers for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
4.6.2 Polymer-Assisted Membrane Filtration for Heavy Metal Removal
4.7 Use of Mesoporous Materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater
4.8 Conclusions and Perspectives

5 Waste-Derived Nanocarbons: A Cleaner Approach Towards Water Remediation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Waste Materials as a ‘Carbon Precursor’ for the Synthesis of Carbon Nanoparticles
5.3 Advancements in Water Remediation using Waste-Derived Carbon Nanoparticles
5.3.1 Detecting/Removal of Soluble Toxic Metal Ions and Other Inorganic Pollutants
5.3.2 Detection/Removal of Organic Pollutants and Nanoparticles
5.3.3 Antimicrobial Treatment using Carbon Nanoparticles
5.4 Conclusion and Future Outlook

6 Molecularly-Imprinted Nanoparticles for the Removal of Arsenic from Environmental Water Sources
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Materials and Methods
6.2.1 Materials
6.2.2 Synthesis of the N-Methacryloyl-L-Cysteine Monomer and N-Methacryloyl-L-Cysteine-Arsenic Complex
6.2.3 Preparation of Arsenic-Imprinted and Non-Imprinted Nanoparticles
6.2.4 Instruments and Analysis
6.2.5 Rebinding Experiments and Related Equations
6.2.6 Control Experiments for Selectivity
6.2.7 Removal Efficiency in an Environmental Water Sample
6.3 Results and Discussion
6.3.1 Characterisation of Molecularly-Imprinted Nanoparticles
6.3.2 Rebinding Experiments
6.3.2.1 pH Dependence of Rebinding
6.3.2.2 Effect of Equilibrium Concentration
6.3.2.3 Effect of Time on Rebinding
6.3.3 Control Experiments for Selectivity
6.3.4 Reusability Experiments
6.4 Conclusions

7 Black but Gold: Carbon Nanomaterials for Wastewater Purification
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Carbon Nanotubes in Wastewater Purification
7.2.1 Carbon Nanotubes as Nanosorbants
7.2.1.1 Exceptionally High Specific Surface Area with Associated Adsorption Sites
7.2.1.2 Fast Adsorption Kinetics
7.2.1.3 Diverse Types of Interaction with Pollutants
7.2.1.4 Tunable Surface Chemistry
7.2.1.5 Broad-Spectrum Activity
7.2.1.6 Flexible Working Conditions
7.2.1.7 Possibility of Regeneration and Reuse
7.2.2 Carbon Nanotubes as Nanofilter Membranes
7.2.3 Carbon Nanotubes as Hybrid Catalysts
7.2.3.1 Carbon Nanotubes in Photocatalysis
7.2.3.2 Carbon Nanotubes in Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation
7.2.3.3 Carbon Nanotubes in Biocatalysis
7.2.4 Carbon Nanotubes in Microbial Fuel Cells
7.2.5 Carbon Nanotubes in Oil-Water Filtration
7.3 Graphene in Wastewater Treatment
7.3.1 Graphene as an Adsorbant
7.3.2 Graphene in Membrane Filters
7.3.3 Graphene in Hybrid Photocatalysis
7.4 Future Prospects and Conclusion

Abbreviations
Index
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