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RF and Microwave Circuit Design. Theory and Applications. Edition No. 1. Microwave and Wireless Technologies Series

  • ID: 3807835
  • Book
  • October 2021
  • 512 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

This textbook covers a typical modern syllabus in radio frequency or microwave design at final year undergraduate or first year postgraduate level. The content has been chosen to include all of the basic topics necessary to give a rigorous introduction to high-frequency technology. Both the content and presentation reflect the considerable experience which both authors have in teaching and research at university level.  The material is presented from first principles, and relies only on students having a reasonable grasp of basic electronic principles. One of the key features of the book is the inclusion of an extensive set of worked examples to guide the student reader who has no prior knowledge of the subject.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface

1. RF Transmission lines

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Voltage, current and impedance relationships on a transmission line

1.2 Propagation constant

1.2.1 Dispersion

1.2.2 Amplitude distortion

1.3 Lossless transmission lines

1.4 Matched and mismatched transmission lines

1.5 Waves on a transmission line

1.6 The Smith chart

1.6.1 Derivation of the chart

1.6.2 Properties of the chart

1.7 Stubs

1.8 Distributed matching circuits

1.9 Manipulation of lumped impedance using the Smith chart

1.10 Lumped impedance matching

1.10.1 Matching a complex load impedance to a real source impedance

1.10.2 Matching a complex load impedance to a complex source impedance

1.11 Equivalent lumped circuit of a lossless transmission line

1.12 Supplementary problems

1.13 Appendices

Appendix A1.1 Coaxial cable

A1.1.1  Electromagnetic field patterns in coaxial cable

A1.1.2  Essential properties of coaxial cables

Appendix A1.2 Coplanar waveguide

A1.2.1 Structure of coplanar waveguide (CPW)

A1.2.2  Electromagnetic field distribution on a CPW line

A1.2.3 Essential properties of coplanar (CPW) lines

A1.2.4  Summary of key points relating to CPW lines

Appendix A1.3 Metal waveguide

A1.3.1  Waveguide principles

A1.3.2 Waveguide propagation

A1.3.3 Rectangular waveguide modes

A1.3.4  The waveguide equation

A1.3.5 Phase and group velocities

A1.3.6  Field theory analysis of rectangular waveguides

A1.3.7 Waveguide impedance

A1.3.8  Higher-order rectangular waveguide modes

A1.3.9  Waveguide attenuation

A1.3.10  Sizes of rectangular waveguide, and waveguide designation

A1.3.11 Circular waveguide

Appendix A1.4 Microstrip

Appendix A1.5 Equivalent lumped circuit representation of a transmission line

References

2. Planar Circuit Design I: Designing using Microstrip

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Electromagnetic field distribution across a microstrip line

2.2 Effective relative permittivity,  

2.3 Microstrip design graphs and CAD software

2.4 Operating frequency limitations

2.5 Skin depth

2.6 Examples of microstrip components

2.6.1 Branch-line coupler

2.6.2 Quarter-wave transformer

2.6.3 Wilkinson power divider

2.7 Microstrip coupled-line structures

2.7.1  Analysis of microstrip coupled lines

2.7.2 Microstrip directional couplers

2.7.2.1 Design of microstrip directional couplers

2.7.2.2 Directivity of microstrip directional couplers

  2.7.2.3 Improvements to microstrip directional couplers

 2.7.3 Examples of other common microstrip coupled-line structures

  2.7.3.1 Microstrip DC break

  2.7.3.2 Edge-coupled microstrip band-pass filter

  2.7.3.3 Lange coupler

2.8 Summary

2.9 Supplementary problems

2.10 Appendix A2.1: Microstrip design graphs

References

3. Fabrication processes for RF and microwave circuits

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Review of essential materials parameters

3.2.1 Dielectrics

3.2.2 Conductors

3.3 Requirements for RF circuit materials

3.4 Fabrication of planar high-frequency circuits

3.4.1 Etched circuits

3.4.2 Thick-film circuits (direct screen printed)

3.4.3 Thick-film circuits (using photoimageable materials)

3.4.4 LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) circuits

3.4.5 Use of ink jet technology

3.5 Characterization of materials for RF and microwave circuits

3.5.1 Measurement of dielectric loss and dielectric constant

 3.5.1.1 Cavity resonators

 3.5.1.2 Dielectric characterization by cavity perturbation

 3.5.1.3 Use of  the split post dielectric resonator (SPDR)

 3.5.1.4 Open-resonator

3.5.1.5 Free-space transmission measurements

3.5.2 Measurement of planar line properties 

 3.5.2.1 The microstrip resonant ring

 3.5.2.2 Non-resonant lines

3.5.3 Physical properties of microstrip lines

3.6 Supplementary problems

references

4. Planar Circuit Design II:  Refinements to basic designs

4.1 Introduction

4.2  Discontinuities in microstrip

4.2.1 Open-end effect

4.2.2 Step width

4.2.3 Corners

4.2.4 Gaps

4.2.5 T-junctions

4.3 Microstrip enclosures

4.4  Packaged lumped-element passive components

4.4.1 Typical packages for RF passive components

4.4.2 Lumped-element resistors

4.4.3 Lumped-element capacitors

4.4.4 Lumped-element inductors

4.5  Miniature planar components

4.5.1 Spiral inductors

4.5.2 Loop inductors

4.5.3 Interdigitated capacitors

4.5.4 MIM (metal-insulator-metal) capacitors

4.6 Appendix 4.1: Insertion loss due to a microstrip gap

References

5. S-parameters

5.1 Introduction

5.2 S-parameter definitions

5.3 Signal flow graphs

5.4 Mason’s non-touching loop rule

5.5 Reflection coefficient of a 2-port network

5.6 Power gains of two-port networks

5.7 Stability

5.8 Supplementary Problems  

5.9 Appendix A5.1  Relationships between network parameters    

 A5.1.1 Transmission parameters (ABCD parameters)

 A5.1.2 Admittance parameters (Y-parameters)

 A5.1.3 Impedance parameters (Z-parameters)

References

6. Microwave Ferrites

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Basic properties of ferrite materials

6.2.1 Ferrite materials

6.2.2 Precession in ferrite materials

6.2.3 Permeability tensor

6.2.4 Faraday rotation

6.3 Ferrites in metallic waveguide

6.3.1 Resonance isolator

 6.3.2 Field displacement isolator

 6.3.3 Waveguide circulator

6.4 Ferrites in planar circuits

6.4.1 Planar circulators

 6.4.2 Edge-guided-mode propagation

 6.4.3 Edge-guided-mode isolator

 6.4.4 Phase shifters

6.5 Self-biased ferrites

6.6 Supplementary problems

References

7. Measurements

7.1 Introduction

7.2 RF and Microwave connectors

7.2.1 Maintenance of connectors

7.2.2 Connecting to planar circuits   

7.3 Microwave vector network analyzers

7.3.1 Description and configuration

7.3.2 Error models representing a VNA

7.3.3 Calibration of a VNA

7.4 On-wafer measurements

7.5 Summary

References

8. RF Filters

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Review of filter responses

8.3 Filter parameters

8.4 Design strategy for RF and microwave filters

8.5 Multi-element low-pass filter

8.6 Practical filter responses

8.7 Butterworth (or maximally-flat) response

 8.7.1 Butterworth low-pass filter

8.7.3 Butterworth band-pass filter

8.7.3 Butterworth band-pass filter

8.8 Chebyshev (equal ripple) response

8.9 Microstrip low-pass filter, using stepped impedances

8.10 Microstrip low-pass filter, using stubs

8.11     Microstrip edge-coupled band-pass filters  

8.12      Microstrip end-coupled band-pass filters

8.13      Practical points associated with filter design

8.14      Summary

8.15   Supplementary problems

8.16 Appendix A8.1 Equivalent lumped T-network representation of a transmission line

References

9. Microwave Small-Signal Amplifiers

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Conditions for matching

9.3 Distributed (microstrip) matching networks

9.4 DC biasing circuits

9.5 Microwave transistor packages

9.6 Typical hybrid amplifier

9.7 DC finger breaks

9.8 Constant gain circles

9.9 Stability circles

9.10  Noise circles

9.11 Low-noise amplifier design

9.12  Simultaneous conjugate match

9.13 Broadband matching

9.14 Summary

9.15 Supplementary problems

References

10. Switches and Phase Shifters

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Switches

 10.2.1 PIN diodes

 10.2.2 FETs (Field Effect Transistors)

 10.2.3 MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems)

 10.2.4 IPCS (Inline Phase Change Switch) devices

10.3 Digital phase shifters

 10.3.1 Switched-path phase shifter

 10.3.2 Loaded-line phase shifter

 10.3.3 Reflection-type phase shifter

 10.3.4 Schiffman 90 phase shifter

 10.3.5 Single switch phase shifter

10.4 Supplementary problems

References

11. Oscillators

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Criteria for oscillation in a feedback circuit

11.3 RF (transistor) oscillators

11.3.1 Colpitts oscillator

11.3.2 Hartley Oscillator

11.3.3 Clapp-Gouriet Oscillator

11.4 Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)

11.5 Crystal-controlled oscillators

11.5.1 Crystals

 11.5.2 Crystal-controlled oscillators

11.6 Frequency synthesizers

11.6.1 The phase-locked loop

11.6.1.1 Principle of a phase-locked loop

  11.6.1.2 Main components of a phase-locked loop

  11.6.1.3 Gain of a phase-locked loop

  11.6.1.4 Transient analysis of a phase-locked loop

11.6.2 Indirect frequency synthesizer circuits 

11.7 Microwave oscillators

11.7.1 Dielectric resonator oscillator

 11.7.2 Delay line stabilized oscillator

 11.7.3 Diode oscillators

  11.7.3.1 Gunn diode oscillator

  11.7.3.2 IMPATT diode oscillator

11.8 Oscillator noise

11.9 Measurement of oscillator noise

11.10 Supplementary problems

References

12. RF and Microwave Antennas

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Antenna parameters

12.3 Spherical polar coordinates

12.4 Radiation from a Hertzian dipole

12.4.1 Basic principles

 12.4.2 Gain of a Hertzian dipole

12.5 Radiation from a half-wave dipole

 12.5.1 Basic principles

 12.5.2 Gain of a half-wave dipole

 12.5.3 Summary of the properties of a half-wave dipole

12.6 Antenna arrays

12.7 Mutual impedance

12.8 Arrays containing parasitic elements

12.9 Yagi-Uda array

12.10 Log-periodic array

12.11 Loop antenna

12.12 Planar antennas

12.12.1 Linearly polarized patch antennas

12.12.2 Circularly polarized planar antennas 

12.13  Horn antennas

12.14 Parabolic reflector antennas

12.15 Slot radiators

12.16 Supplementary problems

12.17 Appendix:  Microstrip design graphs for substrates with r = 2.3

References

13. Power Amplifiers and Distributed Amplifiers

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Power amplifiers

 13.2.1 Overview of power amplifier parameters

  13.2.1.1  Power gain

 13.2.1.2  Power added efficiency (PAE)

  13.2.1.3 Input and output impedances

 13.2.2 Distortion

  13.2.2.1 Gain compression

  13.2.2.2 Third-order intercept point

13.2.3 Linearization

13.2.3.1 Pre-distortion

13.2.3.2 Negative feedback

13.2.3.3 Feedforward

13.2.4 Power combining

13.2.5 Doherty amplifier

13.3 Load matching of power amplifiers

13.4 Distributed amplifiers

 13.4.1 Description and principle of operation

 13.4.2 Analysis

13.5 Developments in materials and packaging for power amplifiers

References

14. Receivers and Sub-Systems

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Receiver noise sources

14.2.1 Thermal noise

14.2.2 Semiconductor noise

14.3 Noise measures

14.3.1 Noise figure (F)

14.3.2 Noise temperature (Te)

14.4 Noise figure of cascaded networks

14.5 Antenna noise temperature

14.6 System noise temperature

14.7 Noise figure of a matched attenuator

14.8 Superhet receiver

14.8.1 Single-conversion superhet receiver

14.8.2 Image frequency

 14.8.3 Key figures-of-merit for a superhet receiver

 14.8.4 Double-conversion superhet receiver

14.8.5  Noise budget graph for a superhet receiver

14.9 Mixers

 14.9.1 Basic mixer principles

 14.9.2 Mixer parameters

 14.9.3 Active and passive mixers

 14.9.4 Single-ended diode mixer

 14.9.5 Single balanced mixer

 14.9.6 Double balanced mixer

 14.9.7 Active FET mixers

14.10 Supplementary problems

14.11 Appendices

 Appendix A14.1 Error function table

 Appendix A14.2 Measurement of noise figure

References
Answers to selected supplementary problems

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Charles E. Free
Colin S. Aitchison
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