3D Recording, Documentation and Management of Cultural Heritage

  • ID: 3830189
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 400 Pages
  • Whittles Publishing
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Geospatial Technology for Cultural Heritage
An integrated treatment of cultural heritage recording, modelling and conservation which is a perfect tool for understanding and planning conservation.

Innovation is human nature. We are always searching for new tools – to move, entertain, automate and help us in all forms of work. Never before in our history have we been able to capture our memories, record our surroundings and communicate so rapidly, to so many people in such a wide variety of forms. We have a natural tendency to create, improve, and invent and are compelled to do so. Yesterday´s technology is old with funding and grants awarded to those who innovate with the next big idea.

Documentation of our cultural heritage is experiencing an explosion of innovation. New tools have appeared in the last decades including the laser scanner, rapid prototyping, high dynamic range spherical and infra-red imagery, drone photography, augmented and virtual reality and computer rendering in multiple dimensions. They give us visions and data that are at once seductive, intriguing and even sometimes deceptive. Their applications are used in conservation education, research, risk assessment, planning and design. The past generation had only the film camera, paper and pencil, tape measures and slide rules – now we carry computers with cameras in our pockets.
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Chapter 1: Introduction - Current Trends in Cultural Heritage and Documentation, Mario Santana Quintero and Rand Eppich
1 .1 Innovation is human nature
1 .2 Innovation in contrast to conservation
1 .3 Current trends, challenges and recommendations
1.3.1 Trend 1 - Widening definition of the conservation profession
1.3.2 Trend 2 - Enlarging scale of cultural heritage
1.3.3 Trend 3 - Developing new themes in cultural heritage
1.3.4 Trend 4 - Increasing threats
1.3.5 Trend 5 - Increasing pace of innovation
1.3.6 Trend 6 - Fragmentation of data
1 .4 Recommendations
1.4.1 Ensure that multidisciplinary teams are formed
1.4.2 Establish principles, guidelines and specifications
1.3.3 Engage communities
1.4.4 Train and educate
1.4.5 Identify good practice
1.4.6 Focus on risk assessment and sustainability
1.4.7 Focus on value-centred assessment
1 .5 Conclusions

Chapter 2: Conservation Techniques in Cultural Heritage, Minna Silver
2 .1 From a moment to preserving the past in 3D
2.1.1 Encapsulating a moment in the past
2.1.2 Protection, preservation and conservation
2.1.3 Three-dimensional view to the past
2 .2 The duty to protect and preserve
2.2.1 Developments in protection
2.2.2 Safeguarding bodies
2.2.3 Challenges for protection and preservation
2 .3 Landscapes, sites and structures in 3D
2.3.1 Landscapes and contexts
2.3.2 Applying remote sensing from air and space
2.3.3 Penetrating the ground: searching for sites and structures
2.3.4 Digging deep at sites
2.3.5 On-site conservation and site conservation
2 .4 Prehistory in Mind
2.4.1 From the first foot prints to rock art
2 .5 Sacred spaces of Ancient Greece and stumbling blocks
2.5.1 The Acropolis - the crumbling sacred rock of the Athenians
2.5.2 Augmented reality and sculptural modelling in 3D in Olympia
2 .6 Reconstructing Ancient Roman public and domestic spaces
2.6.1 Virtual villas and palaces in ‘eternal’ Rome
2.6.2 The forum, insulae and villas in Pompeii and Herculaneum
2 .7 Documenting caravan cities in the Ancient East
2.7.1 Hatra, Palmyra and Petra revisited
2 .8 Capturing and saving architecture from the Common Era
2.8.1 Saving sacred spaces: churches, mosques and synagogues
2.8.2 Buddhist and Hindu temples
2.8.3 Modelling historical castles, palazzos, houses and gardens
2 .9 Viewing walls, ceilings and floors
2.9.1 Wall paintings
2.9.2 Mosaics
2 .10 Documenting detailed features and artefacts
2.10.1 Relevant methods for 3D
2.10.2 Sculptured monuments, statues and ornamentation
2.10.3 Some types of artefacts and materials
2 .11 Inscriptions, tablets, scrolls and codices
2.11.1 Monumental Inscriptions
2.11.2 Small inscriptions and coins
2.11.3Papyrus and parchment rolls, wax and wood tablets, palm leaves, bark and paper
2 .12 Graves, tombs and human remains
2.12.1 Funerary monuments
2.12.2 Underground Etruscan and Greco-Roman tombs and catacombs
2.12.3 3D printing of Tutankhamen’s tomb
2.12.4 Sarcophagi
2.12.5 Scientific approaches to studying human remains
2.13 Underwater / maritime / nautical archaeology

Chapter 3: Cultural Heritage Management Tools: The Role of GIS and BIM, Anna Osello and Fulvio Rinaudo
3 .1 Introduction
3 .2 GIS
3.2.1 GIS and cultural heritage
3.2.2 GIS for cultural heritage documentation
3.2.3 GIS challenges in cultural heritage documentation
3.2.4 GIS planning for cultural heritage documentation
3 .3 BIM (building information modelling)
3.3.1 BIM and cultural heritage
3.3.2 Challenges of BIM for the 3D recording of cultural heritage
3.3.3 Examples of using BIM in the management of cultural heritage
3 .4 Conclusions
References and further reading

Chapter 4: Basics of Photography for Cultural Heritage Imaging, Geert Verhoeven
4 .1 Introduction
4 .2 The nature of electromagnetic radiation
4.2.1 Matter, charge and energy
4.2.2 Visible or invisible: it is a matter of wavelength
4.2.3 Radiometry, photometry, visual psychophysics and their units
4 .3 Imaging visible optical radiation
4.3.1 General principle of imaging
4.3.2 Human vision and colour perception
4.3.3 Digital imaging sensors
4.3.4 Metamerism
4.3.5 Colour in the camera chain
4 .4 Digitally recording images
4.4.1 Signals and noise
4.4.2 Pixels: quantised points samples that need reconstruction
4.4.3 The Nyquist criterion
4.4.4 Spatial resolution and resolving power
4 .5 Essential lens and sensor characteristics
4.5.1 Image formation in a pinhole camera
4.5.2 Focal length, principal distance and image scale
4.5.3 Prime lens versus zoom lens
4.5.4 Lens mounts
4.5.5 Aberrations
4.5.6 The PSF - diffraction and blur
4.5.7 Sensor size
4.5.8 Field of view
4.5.9 Digital crop factor
4.5.10 Lens classification - wide-angle, normal and long focus lenses
4 .6 Key photographic foundations
4.6.1 Photographic exposure: the secret exposed
4.6.2 White balance
4.6.3 Colour description
4.6.4 File formats: RAW - JPEG - TIFF
4.6.5 Image metadata
4 .7 Conclusion

Chapter 5: Basics of Image-Based Modelling Techniques in Cultural Heritage 3D Recording, Efstratios Stylianidis, Andreas Georgopoulos and Fabio Remondino
5 .1 Cultural heritage 3D documentation
5.1.1 The documentation of cultural heritage
5.1.2 The geometric documentation of cultural heritage
5.1.3 Tools for the geometric docmentation of cultural heritage
5.1.4 ICT at the service of cultural heritage
5 .2 Image properties
5.2.1 Classification of images
5.2.2 Image characteristics
5.2.3 Geometric properties of images
5 .3 Sensors and cameras
5.3.1 Digital cameras.
5 .4 Data collection
5.4.1 Planning and image acquisition
5.4.2 Control points
5 .5 Photogrammetric procedures
5.5.1 Image pre-processing general guidelines
5.5.2 Interior orientation
5.5.3 Exterior orientation
5.5.4 Image triangulation
5 .6 Photogrammetric production
5.6.1 Dense image matching
5.6.2 DSM / DTM modelling
5.6.3 Quality issues for DSM / DTM
5.6.4 Production of a digital orthoimage
5 .7Case studies of image-based modelling techniques in cultural heritage 3D recording
5.7.1 Example 1: Monitoring the deformations of a Byzantine church
5.7.2 Example 2: Virtual restoration
5.7.3 Example 3: Virtual reconstruction

Chapter 6: Basics of Range-Based Modelling Techniques in Cultural Heritage 3D Recording, Pierre Grussenmeyer, Tania Landes, Michael Doneus and José Luis Lerma
6 .1 Introduction
6 .2 A few definitions
6.2.1 Point cloud and coordinates
6.2.2 Angular and spatial resolution
6.2.3 Point density
6.2.4 Intensity and RGB point clouds
6 .3 Classification of terrestrial laser scanner systems
6.3.1 Pulse-based scanners
6.3.2 Phase-based laser scanners
6.3.3 Triangulation-based scanners
6.3.4 Handheld scanners
6.3.5 Miscellaneous aspects related to laser scanners
6 .4 Errors in TLS measurements
6.4.1 Instrumental errors
6.4.2 Errors related to the scanned object
6.4.3 Environmental errors
6.4.4 Methodological errors
6 .5 Processing of TLS data
6.5.1 Pre-processing of point clouds
6.5.2 Point cloud registration and/or georeferencing
6.5.3 Segmentation
6.5.4 Modelling
6.5.5 Model texturing
6 .6 ALS data processing
6.6.1 Data acquisition
6.6.2 Type of scanning system, footprint size and echo detection
6.6.3 Date of data acquisition
6.6.4 Point density
6.6.5 Georeferencing
6.6.6 Choice of filtering software and parameter
6.6.7 Visualisation
6 .7 TLS and ALS cultural heritage applications
6.7.1 Applications of TLS in architecture
6.7.2 Applications of TLS in archaeology
6.7.3 Applications of ALS

Chapter 7: Cultural Heritage Documentation with RPAS/UAV, Fabio Remondino and Efstratios Stylianidis
7 .1 Introduction
7.1.1 Terminology
7.1.2 Platforms
7.1.3 History
7.1.4 Regulations
7 .2 Data acquisition and processing
7.2.1 On-board instruments and sensors
7.2.2 Flight planning
7.2.3 Image acquisition
7.2.4 Photogrammetric image processing
7 .3 Final remarks
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