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Charged Aerosol Detection for Liquid Chromatography and Related Separation Techniques

  • ID: 3831963
  • Book
  • July 2017
  • Region: Global
  • 544 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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The first book devoted exclusively to a highly popular, relatively new detection technique

Charged Aerosol Detection for Liquid Chromatography and Related Separation Techniques presents a comprehensive review of CAD theory, describes its advantages and limitations, and offers extremely well–informed recommendations for its practical use. Using numerous real–world examples based on contributors′ professional experiences, it provides priceless insights into the actual and potential applications of CAD across a wide range of industries.

Charged aerosol detection can be combined with a variety of separation techniques and in numerous configurations. While it has been widely adapted for an array of industrial and research applications with great success, it is still a relatively new technique, and its fundamental performance characteristics are not yet fully understood. This book is intended as a tool for scientists seeking to identify the most effective and efficient uses of charged aerosol detection for a given application. Moving naturally from basic to advanced topics, the author relates fundamental principles, practical uses, and applications across a range of industrial settings, including pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, biotech, and more.

  • Offers timely, authoritative coverage of the theory, experimental techniques, and end–user applications of charged aerosol detection
  • Includes contributions from experts from various fields of applications who explore CAD′s advantages over traditional HPLC techniques, as well as its limitations
  • Provides a current theoretical and practical understanding of CAD, derived from authorities on aerosol technology and separation sciences
  • Features numerous real–world examples that help relate fundamental properties and general operational variables of CAD to its performance in a variety of conditions

Charged Aerosol Detection for Liquid Chromatography and Related Separation Techniques is a valuable resource for scientists who use chromatographic techniques in academic research and across an array of industrial settings, including the biopharmaceutical, biotechnology, biofuel, chemical, environmental, and food and beverage industries, among others.

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List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgment xxv

Section 1 Fundamentals of Charged Aerosol Detection 1

1 Principles of Charged Aerosol Detection 3
Paul H. Gamache and Stanley L. Kaufman

1.1 Summary 3

1.2 History and Introduction to the Technology 4

1.3 Charged Aerosol Detection Process 9

1.4 CAD Response Model 31

1.5 Performance Characteristics 40

2 Charged Aerosol Detection: A Literature Review 67
Ian N. Acworth and William Kopaciewicz

2.1 Introduction 67

2.2 CAD History and Background 74

2.3 Application Areas 79

3 Practical Use of CAD: Achieving Optimal Performance 163
Bruce Bailey, Marc Plante, David Thomas, Chris Crafts,and Paul H. Gamache

3.1 Summary 163

3.2 Introduction 164

3.3 Factors Influencing CAD Performance 168

3.4 System Configurations 177

3.5 Method Transfer 180

3.6 Calibration and Sensitivity Limits 182

4 Aerosol ]Based Detectors in Liquid Chromatography: Approaches Toward Universal Detection and to Global Analysis 191
Joseph P. Hutchinson, Greg W. Dicinoski, and Paul R. Haddad

4.1 Summary 191

4.2 Introduction 192

4.3 Universal Detection Methods 194

4.4 Factors Affecting the Response in Charged Aerosol Detection 198

4.5 Gradient Compensation 204

4.6 Response Models 205

4.7 Green Chemistry 206

4.8 Temperature Gradient Separations 209

4.9 Supercritical CO2 Separations 210

4.10 Capillary Separations 211

4.11 Global Analysis and Multidimensional Separations 212

4.12 Conclusions 215

Section 2 Charged Aerosol Detection of Specific Analyte Classes 221

5 Lipid Analysis with the Corona CAD 223
Danielle Libong, Sylvie Heron, Alain Tchapla, and Pierre Chaminade

5.1 Introduction 223

5.2 Principles of Chromatographic Separation of Lipids 227

5.3 Application: Strategy of Lipid Separation 235

5.4 Literature Review: Early Use of Corona CAD in Lipid Analysis 257

5.5 Calibration Strategies 264

6 Inorganic and Organic Ions 289
Xiaodong Liu, Christopher A. Pohl, and Ke Zhang

6.1 Introduction 289

6.2 Technical Considerations 291

6.3 Applications 300

7 Determination of Carbohydrates Using Liquid Chromatography with Charged Aerosol Detection 311
Jeffrey S. Rohrer and Shinichi Kitamura

7.1 Summary 311

7.2 Liquid Chromatography of Carbohydrates 312

7.3 Charged Aerosol Detection 314

7.4 Why LC ]CAD for Carbohydrate Analysis? 315

7.5 Early Applications of CAD to Carbohydrate Analysis 316

7.6 Additional Applications of CAD to Carbohydrate Analysis 317

8 Polymers and Surfactants 327
Dawen Kou, Gerald Manius, Hung Tian, and Hitesh P. Chokshi

8.1 Summary 327

8.2 Introduction 328

8.3 Polymer Analysis 328

8.4 Polyethylene Glycol 329

8.5 Surfactants336

9 Application of Charged Aerosol Detection in Traditional Herbal Medicines 341
Lijuan Liang, Yong Jiang, and Pengfei Tu

9.1 Summary 341

9.2 Introduction 342

9.3 Factors that Affect the Sensitivity of CAD 343

9.4 Application of CAD in Quality Analysis of Traditional Herbal Medicines 345

9.5 Conclusion 353

References 353

Section 3 Industrial Applications of Charged Aerosol Detection 355

10 Charged Aerosol Detection in Pharmaceutical Analysis: An Overview 357
Michael Swartz, Mark Emanuele, and Amber Awad

10.1 Summary 357

10.2 Introduction 358

10.3 Analytical Method Development 359

10.4 Analytical Method Validation 361

10.5 CAD in Analytical Method Transfer 363

10.6 CAD in Formulation Development and Ion Analysis 364

10.7 Carbohydrate Analysis by CAD 368

10.8 CAD in Stability Analyses 371

10.9 Conclusion 373

References 374

11 Impurity Control in Topiramate with High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Validation and Comparison of the Performance of Evaporative Light Scattering Detection and Charged Aerosol Detection 379
David Ilko, Robert C. Neugebauer, Sophie Brossard, Stefan Almeling, Michael Turck, and Ulrike Holzgrabe

11.1 Summary 379

11.2 Introduction 380

11.3 Material and Methods 382

11.4 Results and Discussion 383

11.5 Conclusion 390

12 Applying Charged Aerosol Detection to Aminoglycosides: Development and Validation of an RP ]HPLC Method for Gentamicin and Netilmicin 393
Arul Joseph and Abu Rustum

12.1 Introduction 393

12.2 Development and Validation of an RP ]HPLC Method for Gentamicin Using Charged Aerosol Detection 395

12.3 Application of Strategy to Netilmicin Sulfate 410

12.4 Conclusion 420

Acknowledgments 420

References 420

13 Determination of Quaternary Ammonium Muscle Relaxants with Their Impurities in Pharmaceutical Preparations by LC ]CAD 425
Agata Blazewicz, Magdalena Poplawska, Malgorzata Warowna –Grzeskiewicz, Katarzyna Sarna, and Zbigniew Fijalek

13.1 Summary 425

13.2 Introduction 426

13.3 Experimental 429

13.4 Results and Discussion 431

13.5 Conclusion 445

Acknowledgments 445

References 446

14 Charged Aerosol Detection of Scale Inhibiting Polymers in Oilfield Chemistry Applications 449
Alan K. Thompson

14.1 Summary 449

14.2 Background to Scale Inhibition in Oilfields 450

14.3 Historical Methods of Analysis 455

14.4 Charged Aerosol Detection for Polymeric Scale Inhibitors 459

14.5 Conclusions and Further Work 468

References 469

15 Applications of Charged Aerosol Detection for Characterization of Industrial Polymers 471
Paul Cools and Ton Brooijmans

15.1 Introduction 471

15.2 Liquid Chromatography of Polymers 472

15.3 Solvents 475

15.4 Quantitative Detection of Polymer Molecules 476

15.5 Size Exclusion Chromatography and Charged Aerosol Detection 479

15.6 Gradient Polymer Elution Chromatography and CAD 486

15.7 Liquid Chromatography Combined with UV, CAD, and MS Detection 490

15.8 Typical Examples of Industrial Applications Using LC –MS –CAD 492

15.9 Epilogue 497

Acknowledgments 497

References 497

Index 501

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Paul H. Gamache
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