Mobile Base Station Report 2016 Ed 3 - HetNet, Towers and Small Cell Sites, A time of transition for mobile telephony

  • ID: 3927512
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 122 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • America Movil
  • AT&T Inc
  • China Mobile Ltd
  • China Telecom
  • Deutsche Telekom AG
  • Softbank Group Corp
  • MORE
Mobile telephone networks are in transition. Network architecture must manage high data-traffic growth rates, and support new 4G services and the increased demand for broadband and Internet access. In the developed countries a high level of coverage has been achieved but capacity is inadequate as data traffic escalates beyond all expectations. In the developing countries both coverage and capacity are wanting. Macro base stations with towers cover large cells and long distances but they fail to reach effectively inside buildings, where 70-80% of mobile broadband traffic is generated. A new network concept has been launched - the HetNet, which combines large and small cell sites and different radio technologies like cellular and Wi-Fi. The first commercial HetNets are being rolled out. HetNets are the networks of the future with macro-micro coordination to improve Quality of Service.

Today’s mobile infrastructure:

This report quantifies the macro infrastructure of base stations, ground based and rooftop towers and poles, forecasts growth and $ value to 2020 in every country, with analysis of ownership and market shares of tower vendors. 

Tomorrow:

The report outlines the new infrastructure, the HetNet, the macro-micro network. It outlines the technologies of macro and of micro cells and base stations, estimates current penetration and projects demand.
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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • America Movil
  • AT&T Inc
  • China Mobile Ltd
  • China Telecom
  • Deutsche Telekom AG
  • Softbank Group Corp
  • MORE

Executive Summary

1. Mobile Telecoms Network Definitions
HetNet
Cells
Base transceiver station (BTS)
Base station controller (BSC)
Mobile switching centre (MSC)
Ground based tower (GBT)
Rooftop tower (RTT)

2. Telecoms Network Technology And Deployments
Network technology
HetNet/Heterogeneous network
Cells
Types of base station
Macro cells
Small cells
Micro cells
DAS
Metro cells
Pico cells
Femtocells
Small cells or DAS?
Wi-Fi

3. Network Distribution Of Ground Based Towers, Rooftop Towers, Das, Street Poles

4. Rising Volume Of Data Traffic
Timeline of mobile development

5. Backhaul
Macro and micro backhaul

6. Base Transceiver Stations (Bts) For Macro Cells And Small Cells

7. Installed Base Of Macro Cell Sites

8. Expenditure On Macro Cell Sites
Prices of tower base stations
NORTH AMERICA
The development of mobile telephony in the United States
EUROPE
The development of mobile telephony in Europe
CIS
The development of mobile telephony in the CIS
MENA
North Africa
Egypt
Algeria
Tunisia
Asia Pacific
China
India
Japan
The development of mobile telephony in Japan
Indonesia
Vietnam
Thailand
Brazil
Mexico
Argentina

9. Small Cells - Compact Base Stations (C-Bts) - Developments And Installed Base
Introduction
The early developments of small cells
Why were these early micro/pico cellular 2G base stations not successful?
The penetration of small cell base stations
Market segments
Small cell shipments to 2015
Cost of deployment of small cells

10.   Expenditures On Small Cell Sites

11.   Manufacturers Of Lattice Towers And Monopoles
Chinese manufacturers
Other Asian manufacturers
North American manufacturers
Brazil
Turkey

12.   Backhaul Vendors

13.   Infrastructure Sharing
Tower infrastructure companies
The economics of telcos and towercos
Reduced time-to-market
The towerco business model

14.   Energy Costs And Sources

15.   The Towerco Market
Tower infrastructure companies
United States
Europe
CIS
Asia Pacific
India
China
Japan
Indonesia
MENA
Sub-Saharan Africa
South America

16.   Top Ten Telcos

1) China Mobile Ltd - $280 billion
2) Verizon Communications Inc - $202.5 billion
3) AT&T Inc - $173 billion
4) Vodafone Group plc - $88 billion
5) Deutsche Telekom AG - $85 billion
6) America Movil - $74.5 billion
7) Telefonica SA - $72.3 billon
8) Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation - $71.5 billion
9) Softbank Group Corp - $70.3 billion
10) China Telecom - $53.9 billion
17.   Criteria For Market Evaluation

Glossary

Methodology

Figures
Figure 1: Elements of the connections between the mobile phone and the network
Figure 2: HetNets
Figure 3: Types of macro cell ground based towers (GBT)
Figure 4: Street poles
Figure 5: Macro cell rooftop towers (RTT)
Figure 6: Micro cells base stations
Figure 7: Metro cell bas station
Figure 8: Pico cells base stations
Figure 9: Some examples of femtocells offered by member companies of the Femto Form
Figure 10: Mobile network coverage and evolving technologies
Figure 11: US total data consumption by device type in petabytes/month, 2014 to 2020
Figure 12: Data traffic from wireless and mobile devices 2010 to 2020
Figure 13: A backhaul network
Figure 14: Mobile traffic by cell site type by 2020
Figure 15: Demand for cellular base stations, macro and micro.
Figure 16: Global installed base of telecoms towers, 2015-2020
Figure 17: Global installed telecoms towers by region, 2016
Figure 18: Installed telecoms towers (active), USA and Canada, 2015 - 2020
Figure 19: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2015-2020
Figure 20: Installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2015-2020
Figure 21: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2015-2020
Figure 22: Installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2015-2020
Figure 23: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2015-2020
Figure 24: Global installed telecoms towers, China and India, 2015-2020
Figure 25: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in Asia Pacific excluding China and India by country, 2015-2020
Figure 26: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in LAC, 2015-2020
Figure 27: Expenditure on telecoms towers, 2015 to 2020
Figure 28: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, USA/Canada nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 29: The structure of tower ownership in Europe
Figure 30: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, Europe, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 31: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, CIS, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 32: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, Mid.East, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 33: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, North Africa, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 34: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 35: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, China and India, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 36: Illegal rooftop towers in India
Figure 37: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, Rest of Asia Pacific, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 38: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, Brazil and Mexico, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 39: Capex on new telecoms towers and replacements, LAC, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Figure 40: Evolution of network design from the move from voice services to data usage
Figure 41: The Gartner Hype Curve
Figure 42: Cumulative shipments of small cells, 2011 to 2016
Figure 43: Cumulative shipments of small cells by cell type, 2013 to 2016
Figure 44: Annual shipments of small cells by type, 2014 to 2017
Figure 45: Total cost of installation of small cells by cost component
Figure 46: Small cell sites expenditure at installed cost by residential/non-residential, 2011 to 2020
Figure 47: Cost of BTS, backhaul, installation and owner’s cost
Figure 48: Structure of a mobile network
Figure 49: Breakdown of tower expenses, capex and opex, as a % of total cost in a typical site
Figure 50: Number of countries permitting sharing or co-location of passive infrastructure for telcos
Figure 51: Example of infrastructure sharing of 2 tenants and 4 tenants, antennas and base stations
Figure 52: Number of bad-grid and off-grid towers, in 2014 and projected for 2020.
Figure 53: Number of towers owned by independent towercos & MNOs in regions and countries

Tables
Table 1: Prefixes for units of data speed
Table 2: The distribution of macro cell sites by type
Table 3: Distribution of GBTs and urban cell sites; RTTs, DASs and street poles in 2016.
Table 4: 4G LTE penetration, top 20 countries, Q4 2015
Table 5: Global installed telecoms towers in thousands, by region, 2015-2020
Table 6: Installed telecoms towers, North America by country, 2015-2020
Table 7: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2015-2020
Table 8: Global installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2015-2020
Table 9: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2015-2020
Table 10: Global installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2015-2020
Table 11: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2015-2020
Table 12: Global installed telecoms towers, Asia by country, 2015-2020
Table 13: Global installed telecoms towers, Pacific by country, 2015-2020
Table 14: Installed telecoms towers, South America by country, 2015-2020
Table 15: Installed telecoms towers, Central America by country, 2015-2020
Table 16: Expenditure on telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 17: Expenditure on new construction of telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 18: Expenditure on replacements of aged assets in telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 19: Costs of constructing a telecoms towers in selected countries and regions
Table 20: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, USA and Canada nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 21: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Europe, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 22: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, CIS, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 23:  Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Middle East nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 24: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, North Africa, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 25: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 26: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, China and India nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 27: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Asia nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020 (including China and India)
Table 28: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Pacific, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 29: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, South America, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 30: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements, Central America, nominal $ million, 2015 - 2020
Table 31: Small cells expenditure at installed cost by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 32: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Europe by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 33: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in North America by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 34: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Asia Pacific by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 35: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity
Table 36: Backhaul vendors, macro cell and small cell
Table 37: Share of towerco ownership of towers by region, 2016
Table 38: Incidence of sharing in regions and selected countries
Table 39: Number of independent towers in regions and selected countries, installed base, 2016
Table 40: Top telecom tower companies in the United States with number of towers installed, 2012, 2014 and 2016
Table 41: Tower portfolios of operator-promoted tower infrastructure companies/telecom operators and of third party tower companies in India, 2015
Table 42: Numbers of towers owned by Japanese telecoms operators

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • America Movil
  • AT&T Inc
  • China Mobile Ltd
  • China Telecom
  • Deutsche Telekom AG
  • Softbank Group Corp
  • MORE

Chapter 1 - Telecoms Network Definitions:
There can be confusion about the precise meaning of the basic terms used in telecoms networks, and this leads to miscounts of populations of towers and poles, cells and base stations. This chapter contains definitions and explanations of the terms used in the report; HetNet, Cells, Base transceiver station (BTS),Base station controller (BSC), Mobile switching centre (MSC), Ground based tower (GBT), Rooftop tower (RTT).

Chapter 2 - Mobile Telecoms Network Technology And Deployments:
Network technology is evolving rapidly and the mobile phone infrastructure is developing to meet new demands. The focus is shifting from coverage to capacity, driven by the massive rise in data traffic. The concept of the HetNet/Heterogeneous network is outlined, with a discussion of cells and base stations incorporated in the HetNet; ground based and rooftop macro cellular, small/micro cellular, metro cellular, pico cellular, femtocell, DAS and Wi-Fi.  

Chapter 3 - Network Distribution Of Ground Based Towers, Rooftop Towers, Das And Street Poles:
Regional distribution of macrocellular GBTs and urban cell sites, including RTTs, DAS and street poles.

Chapter 4 - Rising Volume Of Data Traffic:
Demand for capacity has risen with the continuing geographical expansion of networks, increasing penetration of mobile ownership, advancing technology and ramping data usage. Data traffic by wireless and mobile devices is charted, showing the exponential growth of mobile data traffic since 2010 and up to 2020, and the technology progression is outlined from 1G, to 2G, GSM, 3G, 4G and LTE. This is straining not only network capacity but the smart phone devices as well. This has been dramatically underlined in September 2016 with the crisis which quickly brought about the demise of Samsung’s flagship high-end smartphone, the Galaxy Note 7 when it repeatedly caught fire. The electronics industry faces an increasing amount of power being shrunk into vanishingly small circuits which overheat and sometimes catch fire. 

Chapter 5 - Backhaul:
Backhaul, the intermediate links between the core network or backbone network and the small subnetworks at the "edge" of the entire hierarchical network is discussed. Backhaul typically makes up 25%-30% of the total capex cost of a macro cell RAN (radio access network). Some analysts forecast that this could grow substantially for street level metro cell deployments.

Chapter 6 - Base Transceiver Stations (Bts) For Macro Cells And Small Cells:
Forecasts of all base station capex, analysed by macro site additions, macro site upgrades and replacements, and new small cell sites from 2015 to 2020. Total mobile traffic analysed by cell type. 

Chapter 7 - Installed Base Of Macro Cell Sites: 

This chapter is concerned with macro cell GBTs, RTTs and street pole base stations, and does not include small cell base stations. The installed base of macro towers and poles is forecast to 2020 for the world, regions and is analysed by 213 countries.

Chapter 8 - Expenditure On Macro Cell Sites:
The market for construction of new macro base stations (BTS), ground-based, rooftop and street poles, upgrades and replacement of aged assets is estimated and forecast from 2015 to 2020, for the world, regions and is analysed by 213 countries. Market commentary is provide by regions and major countries.

Chapter 9 - Small Cells - Compact Base Stations (C-Bts) - Developments And Installed Base:
The steady growth of the macro cellular infrastructure does not fully reflect the real rate of expansion of the networks. With mobile data traffic expected to double annually, small cell base stations are set to play an important role in expanding the capacity of wireless networks. Small cells provide flexibility and increased QoS capabilities. Past development of small cells is analysed to help predict the future path. Shipments are tabulated by cell type. The cost components of a small cell installation are analysed. 

Chapter 10 - Expenditures On Small Cell Sites:
Global expenditure on installing small cells with related costs and backhaul are estimated for 2015 and projected annually to 2020 globally, for regions and 33 countries with current micro capacity. Capex is analysed by residential/non-residential and by cell type segment. 

Chapter 11 - Manufacturers Of Lattice Towers And Communications Monopoles:
Global production capacity and market shares for the top 44 producers, with profiles of the major companies, together with total country production capacity. Profiles are given for the leading suppliers.

Chapter 12 - Backhaul Vendors:
Backhaul vendors can be divided into two distinct groups. The macro backhaul vendors are now in a mature industrial ecosystem, but typically for a new technology the small cell vendors are in the earliest stage of development, consisting of a large number of small companies and start-ups, many of which will fail or be acquired by larger rivals, before the industry coalesces into a mature ecosystem. The top 48 companies are listed by participation in the macro and/or small cell backhaul markets. 

Chapter 13 - Infrastructure Sharing
Tower sharing allows operators to cut down on capital expenditure. Infrastructure cost for operators is estimated to decline by 16% to 20%. Network sharing may take many forms, ranging from passive sharing of cell sites and masts to sharing of radio access networks (RANs) and other active elements such as network roaming and the core. In countries where there are a large number of MNOs, there is a higher likelihood of more competitive and innovative services being introduced. Sharing has taken two forms. In some countries the telcos cooperate with each other in sharing or setting up joint–ventures to provide passive or active infrastructure for each party. In other countries independent towercos have become a well-established vehicle for infrastructure sharing. In yet other countries both methods are established or being introduced. The various forms of infrastructure sharing are outlined. A breakdown of tower construction cost by component is given.

Chapter 14 - Energy Costs And Sources:
Energy accounts for 30% of the network operating costs of an MNO due to the need for diesel base generators where towers are off-grid or as standby to grid supply when grid-connected. The emergence of the trend towards hybrid renewable systems of solar PV and wind power is discussed. 

Chapter 15 - The Towerco Market:
Infrastructure and network sharing, either between operators or via independent tower owners, is growing rapidly but has a distinct regional pattern. MNOs share assets with jointly-owned infracos in Europe, Japan and many other regions. Independent towercos started in the United States and are also prevalent in India, in China since 2015, in Southeast Asia and are making headway rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The incidence of sharing is given by regions and major countries with total numbers of macro towers and the numbers owned by towercos.  Detailed market profiles of the towerco market are given for each region and for the leading countries.

Chapter 16 - Top Ten Telcos:
The top 10 telcos in the world are ranked by market capitalisation with brief profiles.

Chapter 17 - Criteria For Market Evaluation:
As the telecoms market evolves and its drivers change the criteria for market evaluation need to be changed - from numbers of subscribers, to ARPU (average revenue per user), and now to ARPA (average revenue per account).

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  • AT&T Inc
  • America Movil
  • China Mobile Ltd
  • China Telecom
  • Deutsche Telekom AG
  • Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation
  • Softbank Group Corp
  • Telefonica SA
  • Verizon Communications Inc
  • Vodafone Group plc
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