+353-1-416-8900REST OF WORLD
+44-20-3973-8888REST OF WORLD
1-917-300-0470EAST COAST U.S
1-800-526-8630U.S. (TOLL FREE)

Photomechanical Materials, Composites, and Systems. Wireless Transduction of Light into Work

  • ID: 3939439
  • Book
  • 432 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
1 of 4

Photomechanical effects in materials convert light into mechanical work. The wirelessly triggered mechanical response can transform the shape, stiffness, or surface topography of the material.

This book details the intercoupling between the mechanical response, chemistry, physics, and optics of the material system. The interdisciplinary coverage is a product of a team of leading and diverse authors to elucidate the subject matter. Chapters address specific types of materials – polymers, single crystals, and nanocomposites – along with applications as shape–memory devices, adaptive surfaces, and actuators; before concluding with an outlook on future directions and challenges.

An exhaustive review of the history, current state, and future opportunities for harnessing light to accomplish useful work in materials, Photomechanical Materials, Composites, and Systems: Wireless Transduction of Light into Work offers a valuable one–stop reference and resource that:

  • Reviews the history and future development of a rapidly growing and dynamic area of photomechanical effects in materials
  • Describes photomechanical materials and mechanisms, along with key applications
  • Deals with an interdisciplinary topic of advanced materials research with extensive description of current and future applications in optics, medicine, and robotics
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
2 of 4

List of Contributors xi

Preface xv

1 A Historical Overview of Photomechanical Effects in Materials, Composites, and Systems 1Toru Ube and Tomiki Ikeda

1.1 Introduction 1

References 25

2 Photochromism in the Solid State 37Oleksandr S. Bushuyev and Christopher J. Barrett

2.1 Molecular Photoswitches in the Solid State 37

2.2 Molecular and Macroscopic Motion of Azobenzene Chromophores 39

2.3 Photomechanical Effects 41

2.4 Solid–State Photochromic Molecular Machines 54

2.5 Surface Mass Transport and Phase Change Effects 62

2.6 Photochromic Reactions in Framework Architectures 65

2.7 Summary and Outlook 68

References 69

3 Photomechanics: Bend, Curl, Topography, and Topology 79Daniel Corbett, Carl D. Modes, and Mark Warner

3.1 The Photomechanics of Liquid–Crystalline Solids 81

3.2 Photomechanics and Its Mechanisms 82

3.3 A Sketch of Macroscopic Mechanical Response in LC Rubbers and Glasses 92

3.4 Photo– and Heat–Induced Topographical and Topological Changes 97

3.5 Continuous Director Variation, Part 1 97

3.6 Mechanico–Geometric Effects, Part 1 100

3.7 Continuous Director Variation, Part 2 100

3.8 Continuous Director Variation, Part 3 103

3.9 Mechanico–Geometric Effects, Part 2 106

3.10 Director Fields with Discontinuities Advanced Origami! 107

3.11 Mechanico–Geometric Consequences of Nonisometric Origami 110

3.12 Conclusions 110

References 112

4 Photomechanical Effects in Amorphous and Semicrystalline Polymers 117Jeong JaeWie

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Polymeric Materials 119

4.3 The Amorphous Polymer State 119

4.4 The Semicrystalline Polymer State 121

4.5 Absorption Processes 124

4.6 Photomechanical Effects in Amorphous and Semicrystalline Azobenzene–Functionalized Polymers 126

4.7 Molecular Alignment 132

4.8 Annealing and Aging 138

4.9 Sub–Tg SegmentalMobility 142

4.10 Cross–Link Density 145

4.11 Concluding Remarks 146

References 148

5 Photomechanical Effects in Liquid–Crystalline Polymer Networks and Elastomers 153Timothy J. White

5.1 Introduction 153

5.2 Optically Responsive Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks 159

5.3 Literature Survey 165

5.4 Outlook and Conclusion 169

References 171

6 Photomechanical Effects in Polymer Nanocomposites 179Balaji Panchapakesan, Farhad Khosravi, James Loomis, and Eugene M. Terentjev

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Photomechanical Actuation in Polymer Nanotube Composites 180

6.3 Fast Relaxation of Carbon Nanotubes in Polymer Composite Actuators 186

6.4 Highly Oriented Nanotubes for Photomechanical Response and Flexible Energy Conversion 191

6.5 Photomechanical Actuation Based on 2–D Nanomaterial (Graphene) Polymer Composites 205

6.6 Applications of Photomechanical Actuation in Nanopositioning 213

6.7 Future Outlook 224

Acknowledgments 225

References 225

7 Photomechanical Effects in Photochromic Crystals 233Lingyan Zhu, Fei Tong, Rabih O. Al–Kaysi, and Christopher J. Bardeen

7.1 Introduction 233

7.2 General Principles for Organic Photomechanical Materials 234

7.3 History and Background 234

7.4 Modes of Mechanical Action 240

7.5 Photomechanical Molecular Crystal Systems 242

7.6 Future Directions 260

7.7 Conclusion 264

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

8 Photomechanical Effects in Piezoelectric Ceramics 275Kenji Uchino

8.1 Introduction 275

8.2 Photovoltaic Effect 276

8.3 Photostrictive Effect 288

8.4 Photostrictive Device Applications 294

8.5 Concluding Remarks 299

References 300

9 Switching Surface Topographies Based on Liquid Crystal Network Coatings 303Danqing Liu and Dirk J. Broer

9.1 Introduction 303

9.2 Liquid Crystal Networks 304

9.3 Conclusions 322

References 322

10 Photoinduced Shape Programming 327Taylor H.Ware

10.1 One–Way Shape Memory 329

10.2 Two–Way Shape Memory 343

10.3 Summary and Outlook 358

References 358

11 Photomechanical Effects to Enable Devices 369M. Ravi Shankar

11.1 Introduction 369

11.2 Analog Photomechanical Actuators 371

11.3 Discrete–State (Digital) Photomechanical Actuators 373

11.4 Photomechanical Mechanisms and Machines 387

References 388

12 Photomechanical Effects in Materials, Composites, and Systems: Outlook and Future Challenges 393Timothy J.White

12.1 Introduction 393

12.2 Outlook and Challenges 393

12.3 Conclusion 401

References 401

Index 405

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
3 of 4

Loading
LOADING...

4 of 4
Timothy J. White
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
5 of 4
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Order Online - visit: https://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/3939439
Adroll
adroll