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Groover's Principles of Modern Manufacturing SI Version, Global Edition

  • ID: 3961187
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 864 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF MANUFACTURING 1

1.1 What is Manufacturing? 1

1.2 Materials in Manufacturing 6

1.3 Manufacturing Processes 9

1.4 Production Systems 14

1.5 Manufacturing Economics 17

Part I Engineering Materials and Product Attributes 25

2 THE NATURE OF MATERIALS 25

2.1 Atomic Structure and the Elements 25

2.2 Bonding between Atoms and Molecules 28

2.3 Crystalline Structures 30

2.4 Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Structures 35

2.5 Engineering Materials 36

3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 39

3.1 Stress Strain Relationships 39

3.2 Hardness 52

3.3 Effect of Temperature on Properties 56

3.4 Fluid Properties 58

3.5 Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymers 60

4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 65

4.1 Volumetric and Melting Properties 65

4.2 Thermal Properties 68

4.3 Mass Diffusion 69

4.4 Electrical Properties 71

4.5 Electrochemical Processes 73

5 ENGINEERING MATERIALS 76

5.1 Metals and Their Alloys 76

5.2 Ceramics 88

5.3 Polymers 94

5.4 Composite Materials 101

6 DIMENSIONS, SURFACES, AND THEIR MEASUREMENT 107

6.1 Dimensions, Tolerances, and Related Attributes 107

6.2 Conventional Measuring Instruments and Gages 108

6.3 Surfaces 115

6.4 Measurement of Surfaces 119

6.5 Effect of Manufacturing Processes 121

Part II Solidification Processes 124

7 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL CASTING 124

7.1 Overview of Casting Technology 125

7.2 Heating and Pouring 127

7.3 Solidification and Cooling 131

8 METAL CASTING PROCESSES 141

8.1 Sand Casting 141

8.2 Other Expendable–Mold Casting Processes 145

8.3 Permanent–Mold Casting Processes 150

8.4 Foundry Practice 158

8.5 Casting Quality 162

8.6 Castability and Casting Metals 164

8.7 Product Design Considerations 165

9 GLASSWORKING 169

9.1 Raw Materials Preparation and Melting 169

9.2 Shaping Processes in Glassworking 170

9.3 Heat Treatment and Finishing 175

9.4 Product Design Considerations 176

10 SHAPING PROCESSES FOR PLASTICS 178

10.1 Properties of Polymer Melts 179

10.2 Extrusion 181

10.3 Production of Sheet and Film 190

10.4 Fiber and Filament Production (Spinning) 193

10.5 Coating Processes 194

10.6 Injection Molding 195

10.7 Compression and Transfer Molding 205

10.8 Blow Molding and Rotational Molding 207

10.9 Thermoforming 212

10.10 Casting 216

10.11 Polymer Foam Processing and Forming 217

10.12 Product Design Considerations 218

11 PROCESSING OF POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITES AND RUBBER 223

11.1 Overview of PMC Processing 223

11.2 Open–Mold Processes 227

11.3 Closed–Mold Processes 231

11.4 Other PMC Shaping Processes 233

11.5 Rubber Processing and Shaping 237

11.6 Manufacture of Tires and Other Rubber Products 242

Part III Particulate Processing of Metals and Ceramics 247

12 POWDER METALLURGY 247

12.1 Characterization of Engineering Powders 248

12.2 Production of Metallic Powders 252

12.3 Conventional Pressing and Sintering 254

12.4 Alternative Pressing and Sintering Techniques 260

12.5 Materials and Products for Powder Metallurgy 262

12.6 Design Considerations in Powder Metallurgy 263

13 PROCESSING OF CERAMICS AND CERMETS 268

13.1 Processing of Traditional Ceramics 268

13.2 Processing of New Ceramics 275

13.3 Processing of Cermets 278

13.4 Product Design Considerations 280

Part IV Metal Forming and Sheet Metalworking 282

14 FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING 282

14.1 Overview of Metal Forming 282

14.2 Material Behavior in Metal Forming 285

14.3 Temperature in Metal Forming 286

14.4 Strain Rate Sensitivity 288

14.5 Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming 290

15 BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN METAL WORKING 293

15.1 Rolling 293

15.2 Forging 302

15.3 Extrusion 317

15.4 Wire and Bar Drawing 327

16 SHEET METALWORKING 336

16.1 Cutting Operations 336

16.2 Bending Operations 343

16.3 Drawing 347

16.4 Dies and Presses for Sheet Metal Processes 354

16.5 Other Sheet–Metal–Forming Operations 360

16.6 Sheet Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses 363

16.7 Bending of Tube Stock 368

Part V Material Removal Processes 372

17 THEORY OF METAL MACHINING 372

17.1 Overview of Machining Technology 374

17.2 Theory of Chip Formation in Metal Machining 377

17.3 Force Relationships and the Merchant Equation 381

17.4 Power and Energy Relationships in Machining 386

17.5 Cutting Temperature 388

18 MACHINING OPERATIONS AND MACHINE TOOLS 392

18.1 Machining and Part Geometry 392

18.2 Turning and Related Operations 395

18.3 Drilling and Related Operations 403

18.4 Milling 408

18.5 Machining Centers and Turning Centers 415

18.6 Other Machining Operations 417

18.7 Machining Operations for Special Geometries 422

18.8 High–Speed Machining 428

19 CUTTING–TOOL TECHNOLOGY 432

19.1 Tool Life 432

19.2 Tool Materials 438

19.3 Tool Geometry 445

19.4 Cutting Fluids 455

20 ECONOMIC AND PRODUCT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS IN MACHINING 460

20.1 Machinability 460

20.2 Tolerances and Surface Finish 461

20.3 Machining Economics 466

20.4 Product Design Considerations in Machining 472

21 GRINDING AND OTHER ABRASIVE PROCESSES 476

21.1 Grinding 476

21.2 Related Abrasive Processes 492

22 NONTRADITIONAL MACHINING AND THERMAL CUTTING PROCESSES 497

22.1 Mechanical Energy Processes 498

22.2 Electrochemical Machining Processes 501

22.3 Thermal Energy Processes 505

22.4 Chemical Machining 514

22.5 Application Considerations 519

Part VI Property–Enhancing and Surface Processing Operations 523

23 HEAT TREATMENT OF METALS 523

23.1 Annealing 523

23.2 Martensite Formation in Steel 524

23.3 Precipitation Hardening 528

23.4 Surface Hardening 529

23.5 Heat Treatment Methods and Facilities 530

24 SURFACE PROCESSING OPERATIONS 534

24.1 Industrial Cleaning Processes 534

24.2 Diffusion and Ion Implantation 538

24.3 Plating and Related Processes 539

24.4 Conversion Coating 543

24.5 Vapor Deposition Processes 544

24.6 Organic Coatings 550

24.7 Porcelain Enameling and Other Ceramic Coatings 552

24.8 Thermal and Mechanical Coating Processes 553

Part VII Joining and Assembly Processes 556

25 FUNDAMENTALS OF WELDING 556

25.1 Overview of Welding Technology 557

25.2 The Weld Joint 559

25.3 Physics of Welding 562

25.4 Features of a Fusion–Welded Joint 565

26 WELDING PROCESSES 569

26.1 Arc Welding 569

26.2 Resistance Welding 578

26.3 Oxyfuel Gas Welding 585

26.4 Other Fusion–Welding Processes 589

26.5 Solid–State Welding 591

26.6 Weld Quality 597

26.7 Weldability 601

26.8 Design Considerations in Welding 602

27 BRAZING, SOLDERING, AND ADHESIVE BONDING 605

27.1 Brazing 605

27.2 Soldering 610

27.3 Adhesive Bonding 614

28 MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY 620

28.1 Threaded Fasteners 620

28.2 Rivets and Eyelets 627

28.3 Assembly Methods Based on Interference Fits 628

28.4 Other Mechanical Fastening Methods 631

28.5 Molding Inserts and Integral Fasteners 632

28.6 Design for Assembly 633

Part VIII Special Processing and Assembly Technologies 638

29 RAPID PROTOTYPING AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING 638

29.1 Fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing 639

29.2 Additive Manufacturing Processes 641

29.3 Cycle Time and Cost Analysis 648

29.4 Additive Manufacturing Applications 652

30 PROCESSING OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 656

30.1 Overview of IC Processing 657

30.2 Silicon Processing 660

30.3 Lithography 665

30.4 Layer Processes Used in IC Fabrication 669

30.5 Integrating the Fabrication Steps 675

30.6 IC Packaging 677

30.7 Yields in IC Processing 681

31 ELECTRONICS ASSEMBLY AND PACKAGING 686

31.1 Electronics Packaging 686

31.2 Printed Circuit Boards 688

31.3 Printed Circuit Board Assembly 695

31.4 Electrical Connector Technology 702

32 MICROFABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES 707

32.1 Microsystem Products 707

32.2 Microfabrication Processes 710

33 NANOFABRICATION TECHNOLOGIES 719

33.1 Nanotechnology Products and Applications 719

33.2 Introduction to Nanoscience 723

33.3 Nanofabrication Processes 727

Part IX Manufacturing Systems 734

34 AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 734

34.1 Automation Fundamentals 734

34.2 Hardware for Automation 737

34.3 Computer Numerical Control 741

34.4 Industrial Robotics 752

35 INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS 759

35.1 Material Handling 759

35.2 Fundamentals of Production Lines 760

35.3 Manual Assembly Lines 762

35.4 Automated Production Lines 766

35.5 Cellular Manufacturing 770

35.6 Flexible Manufacturing Systems 774

35.7 Computer–Integrated Manufacturing 778

Part X Manufacturing Support Systems 782

36 PROCESS PLANNING AND PRODUCTION CONTROL 782

36.1 Process Planning 783

36.2 Other Manufacturing Engineering Functions 790

36.3 Production Planning and Control 793

36.4 Just–In–Time Delivery Systems 800

36.5 Lean Production 802

37 QUALITY CONTROL AND INSPECTION 807

37.1 Product Quality 807

37.2 Process Capability and Tolerances 808

37.3 Statistical Process Control 810

37.4 Quality Programs in Manufacturing 814

37.5 Inspection Principles 818

37.6 Modern Inspection Technologies 820

Appendix: Answers to Selected Problems 829

INDEX 833

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Mikell P. Groover
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