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Neuroprotective Natural Products. Clinical Aspects and Mode of Action

  • ID: 3977830
  • Book
  • 376 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Focusing on the molecular mechanisms of powerful naturally occurring agents and their implication for drug discovery, this timely book presents an overview of the most recent research advances in the field of bioactive natural products and natural drug formulations to combat today′s destructive diseases.

To this extent, the authors discuss the most severe neurological disorders in our modern civilization, such as Alzheimer′s, Parkinson′s and Huntington′s disease, as well as ischemic brain stroke and depression. The emerging diversity of active compounds is covered in detail, including flavonoids, cannabinoids and oleanolic acid, while experts in the field explain the chemistry, mode of action and clinical aspects of novel neuroprotective natural products. In each case, the benefits of treatments using natural products are addressed from the perspective of modern as well as traditional medicine.

With its multidisciplinary viewpoint, this is the ideal companion for medicinal and natural products chemists as well as neuroscientists, biochemists, pharmacologists, neurobiologists, and phytotherapists.

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List of Contributors xv

Dedication xix

Preface xxi

Editor Biography xxv

1 Neuroprotective Natural Products: Clinical Aspects and Modes of Action An Overview 1Goutam Brahmachari

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 An Overview of the Book 1

1.3 Concluding Remarks 6

2 Neuroprotective Agents: An Overview on the General Modes of Action 7Christina Volsko and Ranjan Dutta

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Neuroprotective Agents 7

2.3 Neurodegenerative Diseases 12

2.4 Neuroprotection in Common Neurodegenerative Diseases 13

2.5 Concluding Remarks 16

Acknowledgments 17

Abbreviations 17

References 17

3 Beneficial Upshots of Naturally Occurring Antioxidant Compounds against Neurological Disorders 23Sukanya Saha, Pritam Sadhukhan, and Parames C. Sil

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 Oxidative Stress 25

3.3 Neurological Disorders 28

3.4 Beneficial Effects of Different Antioxidants against Various Neurological Disorders 34

3.5 Concluding Remarks 40

Abbreviations 41

References 42

4 Natural Neuroprotectives for the Management of Parkinson s Disease 57Bharti Gaba, Shobhit Kumar, Shadab Md, Sanjula Baboota, Jasjeet. K. Narang, and Javed Ali

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Role of Antioxidants/Natural Neuroprotectives in PD 58

4.3 Concluding Remarks 74

Abbreviations 75

References 75

5 Neuroprotective Effect of Ayurvedic Preparations and Natural Products on Parkinson s Disease 91Anupom Borah, Amarendranath Choudhury, Rajib Paul, Muhammed K. Mazumder, and Swapnali Chetia

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Parkinsonian Symptoms and Ayurveda 92

5.3 Medicinal Plants in the Ayurvedic Formulation for Parkinson s Disease Therapy 94

5.4 Concluding Remarks 97

Abbreviations 97

References 98

6 Lipid Peroxidation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Diseases: Role of Natural Products as Cytoprotective Agents 107Carlos Fernández–Moriano, Elena González–Burgos, and Maria Pilar Gómez–Serranillos

6.1 Introduction 107

6.2 History and Context 117

6.3 Potential Therapeutic Agents with Natural Origin: Current Knowledge on the Discovery of Newer Drugs 119

6.4 Future Trends in Research 132

6.5 Concluding Remarks 133

Abbreviations 134

References 135

7 Marine–Derived Anti–Alzheimer s Agents of Promise 153Kapil Dev and Rakesh Maurya

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 Identification of Potent Anti–Alzheimer s Agents from Marine Sources 154

7.3 Molecules in Clinical Trials for Alzheimer s Disease from Marine Sources 171

7.4 Concluding Remarks 172

Acknowledgments 172

Abbreviations 172

References 173

8 Natural Products against Huntington s Disease (HD): Implications of Neurotoxic Animal Models and Transgenics in Preclinical Studies 185Abhijit Dey

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Methodology 186

8.3 Neurotoxic In Vitro and In Vivo Anti–HD Models 188

8.4 Anti–HD Natural Products and Implications of HD Models 200

8.5 Synergism: A Novel Approach against Neurological Disorders 212

8.6 Discussion 213

8.7 Concluding Remarks 215

Abbreviations 215

References 218

9 Possible Role of Neuroprotectants and Natural Products in Epilepsy: Clinical Aspects and Mode of Action 247Anil Kumar, Manveen Bhardwaj, and Harshpreet Kaur

9.1 Introduction 247

9.2 Global Prevalence of Natural Products in Epilepsy 248

9.3 Pathophysiology of Epilepsy 248

9.4 Role of Neurotransmitters in Neuronal Excitation 250

9.5 Role of Neuroprotectants in Seizures 252

9.6 Natural Plants against Epilepsy 256

9.7 Natural Plants Examined in Epilepsy 259

9.8 German Herbs in Epilepsy 262

9.9 Complement and Alternative Medicine 263

9.10 Marketed Formulation of Natural Products in India 264

9.11 Herbs That Induce Seizures 264

9.12 Interaction of Natural Products with Antiepileptic Drugs (AEDs) 264

9.13 Concluding Remarks 267

References 268

10 Neuroprotective Effects of Flavonoids in Epilepsy 279Hossein Hosseinzadeh and Marjan Nassiri–Asl

10.1 Introduction 279

10.2 Natural Flavonoids with Antiepileptic Potential 281

10.3 Discovery and Development of Newer Agents 285

10.4 Concluding Remarks 286

Abbreviations 286

References 287

11 The Role of Noncompetitive Antagonists of the N–Methyl–d–aspartate (NMDA) Receptors in Treatment–Resistant Depression 293Gianluca Serafini, Shawn Hayley, Mehdi Ghasemi, and Mario Amore

11.1 Introduction 293

11.2 Noncompetitive Antagonists of the NMDA Receptors: Ketamine and Its Mechanism of Action 294

11.3 Other Noncompetitive NMDA Antagonists: Selective GluN2B Subunit NMDA Antagonists 297

11.4 Other Noncompetitive NMDA Antagonists: Glycine Binding Site Modulators 298

11.5 AMPA Receptor Activation: A Possible Adjunctive Antidepressant Role? 299

11.6 Discussion and Future Directions 300

11.7 Concluding Remarks 301

Abbreviations 302

References 302

12 Safety and Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) 313Shri K. Mishra, Bharathi A. Venkatachalapathy, and Hadi M. Khanli

12.1 Introduction 313

12.2 Ashwagandha 314

12.3 Discussion 317

12.4 Concluding Remarks 317

Abbreviations 318

References 318

13 Cannabinoids: A Group of Promising Neuroprotective Agents 321Laura R. Caltana and Alicia Brusco

13.1 Introduction 321

13.2 The Cannabinoid System 322

13.3 Cannabinoids and Neuroprotection 325

13.4 Concluding Remarks 329

Abbreviations 330

References 330

Index 341

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Goutam Brahmachari
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