Keratin-based Biomaterials and Bioproducts

  • ID: 4031489
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 192 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This book presents the structure and properties of keratin and their possible applications.

Demand for products made from renewable, sustainable and eco-friendly raw materials is increasing, and will further increase substantially in the future. Awareness of the adverse impacts of synthetic products on the environment, increasingly stringent governmental regulations on the use and disposable of non-biodegradable products, and affordability of consumers are some of the drivers for ‘bioproducts’. One of the most economical and practical approaches to develop bioproducts is to use abundant low-cost agricultural byproducts and coproducts. Residues left after harvesting food crops, byproducts generated during production of biofuels, and conversion of animals and plants into food are some of the readily available raw materials suitable for development of bioproducts.

Keratins are unique biopolymers that have distinct structure, properties and applications. Keratins are the major constituents in hairs, feathers, claws, hooves and other parts in humans and animals. Unlike many body parts, keratins are dispensable and are removed periodically. Examples include hairs and nails. Although keratins have unique functionality and structure, there are limited industrial uses of keratin. Keratin is being used commercially in cosmetics and some medicines. However, substantial amounts of keratinaceous materials are being disposed as waste in landfills.

This book presents the structure and properties of keratin and their possible applications. Information in this book will be useful to researchers in academia and industry working on bioproducts and also on tissue engineering and drug delivery. Brief information on the products developed has also been included. Researchers, students, agriculturists, and farmers will be able to understand the potential of developing various keratin-based bioproducts.

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Preface

Acknowledgements

1 Types of Keratin
1.1 Classification of Keratin
1.2 Keratins in Humans
1.3 Keratin in Wool and Hooves
1.4 Water Fowl Keratin
References

2 Extraction of Keratin
2.1 Extraction of Keratin from Wool
2.2 Keratin Extraction from Feathers
2.3 Keratin Extraction from Horn and Hooves
References

3 Fermentation/Degradation of Keratin
3.1 Degradation of Keratin into Hydrolysate
3.2 Treatment of Keratin for Conversion into Animal Feed
3.3 Biofuel from Keratin
3.4 Enzyme Production
References

4 Keratin-Based Films
4.1 Films/Biocomposites from Keratin
4.2 Films from Wool Keratin
4.3 Thermoplastic Feather Films
References

5 Hydrogels
5.1 Hydrogels made with Keratin Obtained from Feathers
5.2 Hydrogels made using Keratin Obtained from Wool
5.3 Hydrogels from Human Hair
References

6 Bioabsorbents
6.1 Bioabsorbents from Keratin Obtained via Feathers for Removal of Heavy Metals
6.2 Bioasorbents from Keratin Obtained via Wool
6.3 Keratin as Sorbent for Dyes
6.4 Keratin for Oil Sorption 
References

7 Biocomposites
7.1 Feathers for Composite Applications
7.2 Composites using Wool Fibres/Wool Keratin
7.3 Composites from Keratin Obtained via Horn
References

8 Keratin-Based Fibres
8.1 Normal (Microfibres)
8.2 Keratin Nanofibres
References

9 Keratin Micro/Nanoparticles
References

10  Miscellaneous Applications
10.1 Cosmetic Applications of Keratin
10.2 Flame-Retardants
10.3 Supercapacitors
10.4 Haemostatic Wound Dressing
10.5 Finishing of Wool Textiles
10.6 Microbial Fuel Cells
10.7 Substitutes for Nail Plates
10.8 Keratin as a Fertiliser
10.9 Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering
References

Abbreviations

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