Underutilized Spectrum: Wireless Transmission - Technologies, Applications and Markets

  • ID: 4060473
  • Report
  • 252 Pages
  • PracTel Inc
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One of the main issues in the developing of 5G communications is the limited amount of an available spectrum. The industry is trying to find solutions to ease this problem.

Among multiple methods to cope with scarcity of available spectrum, two directions seem very promising. They are:

  • Intensification of utilization already occupied spectrum windows
  • Identification and utilization of vacant (or almost vacant) spectrum windows.

This report addresses only the second approach; and particular it concentrates on the following technologies:

  • Optical Wireless Communications (OWC)
    • VLC - Visible Light Communication
    • FSF - Free Space Fiber
  • CR/SDR – Cognitive/Software Defined Radio
  • TV White Space Communications (TVWSC)
  • E-band Radio.

OWC includes VLC and FSF. Both these technologies utilize - free (or more precisely, very lightly occupied) frequency spectrum.

OWC is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency transmission for several use cases. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems, serve for signal distribution inside of premises, and provide secure, jam-free communication. OWC is license-free and can potentially deliver high-speed data rates in the order of tens Gb/s. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. VLC, for high-speed, secure, indoor/outdoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 and other standards; as well as FSF for indoor and outdoor communications.

Both technologies are using free space as a communications medium; though they utilize such a medium in different ways and have both similar and specific communications channel properties.

Cognitive/Software Defined Radio allows the analysis of spectrum occupancy in a particular area and particular time.  Based on such an analysis, cognitive engine can adjust frequency bands on SDR (together with other parameters) in such a way that transmission will fill up unoccupied windows (if they exist).

TVWSC is an example of one of the first commercial applications of CR/SDR.

E-band radios attract attention of the 5G community due to their features, such as “light” licensing, lightly occupied spectrum and the range of several kilometers together with multi-gigabit per second speed of transmission.

The report surveys the industries, addresses technical and marketing specifics of all mentioned technologies and concentrates on their standardization.

Attachments present the survey of resent patents related to TVWS, IEEE802.22 and IEEE 802.11af, and IEEE802.15.7.

The report was developed for a wide audience of engineers and managers that are working with advanced communications technologies.

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1.0 Introduction   
1.1 5G Concern   
1.2 OWC   
1.2.1 Structure   
1.2.2 LED as Communications Transmitter   
1.2.3 Free Space Fiber   
1.3 TVWSC   
1.4 CR/SDR   
1.5 E-band Radio   
1.6 Scope   
1.7 Research Methodology   
1.8 Target Audience   

2.0 LED Specifics   
2.1 General   
2.2 Spectrum   
2.3 Types   
2.4 LED Modulation   
2.4.1 Limitations   
2.5 LED Evolution   
2.5.1 General   
2.5.2 Benefits   
2.5.3 Market Characteristics   
2.5.4 Factors   

3.0 Visible Light Communications   
3.1 General   
3.1.1 Drivers   
3.1.2 Industry Activity   
3.1.2.1 UC-Light Center   
3.1.2.2 Li-Fi Consortium   
3.2 VLC Standards Development   
3.2.1 IEEE 802.15.7 Standard   
3.2.1.1 Considerations   
3.2.1.2 Project   
3.2.1.2.1 Coexistence   
3.2.1.2.2 Essence   
3.2.1.2.3 Base   
3.2.1.2.4 Use Cases   
3.2.1.2.5 Physical Layer   
3.2.1.2.5.1 General   
3.2.1.2.5.2 Responsibilities   
3.2.1.2.5.3 Types   
3.2.1.2.5.4 Error Protection   
3.2.1.2.5.5 Rates   
3.2.1.2.5.6 Frequency Plan   
3.2.1.2.5.7 PHY Services   
3.2.1.2.5.8. Regulations   
3.2.1.2.6 MAC Layer   
3.2.1.2.6.1 Topologies   
3.2.1.2.6.2 Responsibilities   
3.2.1.2.6.3 Functionalities   
3.2.1.2.7 Security   
3.2.2 IEEE 802.15.7r Standard   
3.2.3 IEEE 802.15.13 Standard   
3.2.4 VLCA   
3.2.4.1 General   
3.2.4.2 Jeita   
3.3 Details   
3.3.1 Communications Channel   
3.3.2 Transmitter   
3.3.3 Receiver   
3.3.3.1 Image Sensors   
3.3.4 Major Characteristics   
3.3.4.1 General   
3.3.4.2 Modulation   
3.3.4.3 VLC Channel: Characteristics Summary   
3.3.4.4 Limiting Factors   
3.3.5 Applications: Summary   
3.3.5.1 ITS   
3.3.5.2 Optical Wireless LAN   
3.3.5.3 Medical   
3.3.5.4 Localization   
3.3.5.5 City Wide Wireless Network   
3.3.5.6 Summary   
3.4 Companies and Organizations   
Axrtek   
Casio   
Firefly   
Fraunhofer IPMS   
LVX   
LightBee   
Nakagawa Laboratories   
Oledcomm   
Outstanding Technology   
PureVLC-PureLi-Fi   
Qualcomm   
Renesas   
SmartSignals   
Supreme Architecture   
TCL/Sunpartner   
3.5 Market   
3.6 5G View   
3.6.1 Attocell   
3.6.2 Cell Structures   

4.0 Free Space Fiber   
4.1 General   
4.2 Major Characteristics   
4.3 Protection   
4.4 Applications   
4.4.1 Major Use Cases   
4.4.2 Requirements   
4.4.3 Inter-satellite Links   
4.4.4 Intra-building Communications   
4.4.5 Inter-building Communications   
4.5 FSF Communications Benefits and Limitations: Summary   
4.5.1 Weather Factor   
4.5.2 Building Swaying   
4.6 Design Issues   
4.7 Customers   
4.8 FSF Market   
4.8.1 General   
4.8.2 Market Drivers   
4.8.2.1 Market Segments   
4.8.3 Competition   
4.8.3.1 Fiber Optics Systems   
4.8.3.2 Microwave   
4.8.3.3 PONs   
4.8.4 Forecast   
4.8.4.1 General   
4.8.4.2 Model Assumptions   
4.8.4.3 Structure   
4.8.4.4 Market Estimate   
4.9 Vendors   
CableFree   
Canon USA   
CBL   
Dailianxu Engineering Company   
fSONA   
Guilin   
LightPointe   
PAV   
Plaintree   
RedLine   
Space Photonics   
4.10 Standards   
4.10.1 ITU G.640   
4.10.2 ITU-R P.1814-2007   
4.10.3 ARIB STD-T50 (OPTICAL WIRELESS LAN SYSTEM) v4-2009   
4.11 VLC and FSF   

5.0 Software Defined and Cognitive Radios   
5.1 General   
5.2 Purpose   
5.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU)   
5.3.1 SDR   
5.3.1.1 Multi-tiers: SDR   
5.3.2 Cognitive Radio   
6.3.2.1 Details   
5.4 Regulations   
5.4.1 FCC   
5.4.1.1 Equipment Type   
5.4.1.2 Process   
5.4.1.3 Application Guide   
5.4.1.4 First Approval   
5.4.2 ITU   
5.4.3 Ofcom   
5.5 Standardization   
5.5.1 ITU-R   
5.5.2 ETSI   
5.5.2.2 Major Points   
5.5.3 3GPP   
5.5.4 IEEE   
5.5.5 NASA   
5.6 Design Issues   
5.7 Properties   
5.7.1 Layers   
5.7.2 Features: Details   
5.7.2.1 Versatility   
5.7.3 Issues   
5.8 SDR Implementations   
5.9 Applications   
5.9.1 Commercial   
5.9.2 CR/SDR in Military   
5.9.2.1 SCA   
5.9.2.1.1 ESSOR: European Secure SOftware Defined Radio   
5.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC)   
5.10 CR/SDR: Benefits   
5.11 Impact - CR   
5.11.1 Geographical Differences   
5.12 Market   
5.12.1 Landscape   
5.12.1.1 Factors   
5.12.2 Cost   
5.12.3 Different Perspective   
5.12.4 Market Drivers-Summary   
5.12.5 Market Forecast   
5.12.5.1 Model Assumptions   
5.12.5.2 Estimate   
5.12.5.3 Segments   
5.12.5.4 Geography   
5.12.5.5 Components   
5.13 Industry   
Aeronix (SDR Components)   
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)   
AirSpan (BS)   
Airbus DS   
Analog Devises (Chipsets)   
BAE Systems   
Cambridge Consultants (PHY, Base Station)   
Carlson Wireless (Platform)   
Coherent Logix (SDR)   
General Dynamics (SDR)   
DataSoft (SDR Design, SW)   
Datron World Communications (SDR)   
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)   
Elbit   
Ettus Research (Platform)   
Etherstack (Software)   
Ericsson (BS)   
Green Hills (Software)   
Harris (SDR)   
Huawei (Platform)   
Intel (Platform)   
Lockheed Martin (SDR)   
Lyrtech-Nutaq (DSP and FPGA)   
Motorola Solutions (BS)   
Nokia (Base Station)   
Northrup Grumman   
Objective Interface Systems (Software)   
Octasic (SDR)   
Redline Communications (Platform)   
Rockwell Collins (Radios)   
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)   
Thales (Radio)   
TI (Chips)   
Vanu (Base Stations)   
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)   
xG Technology (CR)   
ZTE (Platforms)   
Commercial CR/SDR Application: TVWSC   

6.0 TV White Spaces   
6.1 White Spaces Communications - Principles   
6.1.1 Definition   
6.1.2 Rational   
6.1.3 Ecosystem and Use Cases   
6.2 Standardization and Industry   
6.2.1 Broadband Internet Wireless Access   
6.2.1.1 WS Alliance   
6.2.1.1.1 Wi-FAR   
6.2.1.1.2 WSAConnect   
6.2.1.2 Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF) – WS   
6.2.1.2.1 General   
6.2.1.2.2 Contributions   
6.2.2 TVWSC IEEE-related Standards   
6.2.2.1 IEEE 802.11af - 2013   
6.2.2.1.1 General: Expectations – Wi-Fi on Steroids   
6.2.2.1.2 Differences   
6.2.2.1.3 Benefits   
6.2.2.1.4 Specifics   
6.2.2.1.5 Building Blocks   
6.2.2.1.6 PHY   
6.2.2.1.7 Summary   
6.2.2.2 IEEE 802.22 – 2011   
6.2.2.2.1 General   
6.2.2.2.2 WG 802.22 and FCC   
6.2.2.2.3 Mechanism   
6.2.2.2.4 Physical Layer – Major Characteristics   
6.2.2.2.4.1 Frames   
6.2.2.2.5 Cognitive Functions and MAC   
6.2.2.2.6 MAC Features   
6.2.2.2.7 Summary-IEEE802.22   
6.2.3 ECMA-392-2012   
6.3 Industry   
Adaptrum   
Aviacomm   
Carlson Wireless   
KTS   
Redline Communications   
Saankhya Labs Pvt. Ltd   
6.4 M2M and TVWS   
6.4.1 Weightless Technologies   
6.4.2 Weightless SIG   
6.4.3 Weightless-W   
6.4.3.1 Weightless-W Specifics   
6.4.3.2 Changes   

7.0 E-band Radio   
7.1 Benefits   
7.1.1 Typical Characteristics   
7.2 Market   
7.3 Industry   
Aviat   
DragonWave   
E-band Communications   
Filtronic/Escape Communications   
Fujitsu   
Intracom   
Infineon   
LightPointe   
Loea   
NEC   
Siklu   

8.0 Conclusions   
ATTACHMENT I: WS-related Patents   
ATTACHMENT II: 802.22-related Patents   
ATTACHMENT III: 802.11af-related Patents   
ATTACHMENT IV: 802.15.7-related Patents    

List of Figures
Figure 1: OWC Illustration   
Figure 2: LED Structure   
Figure 3: LED Spectrum   
Figure 4: White LED Properties Illustration   
Figure 5: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. ($B)   
Figure 6: Estimate: Lighting LED Market –U.S. (Bil. Units Shipped)   
Figure 7: LED Price Factor   
Figure 8: Cost and Brightness- Light Sources   
Figure 9: Characteristics   
Figure 10: Topologies   
Figure 11: Illustration-VLC Channel   
Figure 12: VLC Market Categories   
Figure 13: Estimate: VLC Market – Global ($B)   
Figure 14: VLC Market Geography (2017)   
Figure 15: Simplified FSF Channel Diagram   
Figure 16:  FSF Market Segments   
Figure 17:  Estimate: FSF Market Value ($M)   
Figure 18:  FSF Market Geography   
Figure 19: Conceptual View: CR/SDR   
Figure 20: Reconfigurable BS   
Figure 21: ETSI SDR: Functional Architecture   
Figure 22: SDR and OSI Reference Model   
Figure 23: CR – Cell Network   
Figure 24: PSC Specifics   
Figure 25: Global Sales: SDR-based Equipment ($B)   
Figure 26: SDR/CR Market Segments   
Figure 27: SDR Market Geography (2016)   
Figure 28: Components   
Figure 29: Illustration – E-band Radio – Backhauling Mobile Network   
Figure 30: Regulations   
Figure 31: E-Band Radio Generations-Characteristics   
Figure 32: Estimate: Global Market-SC Backhaul-E-band Radio ($B)   

List of Tables
Table 1: VLC and FSF   
Table 2: Wavelengths (nm)   
Table 3: Properties - Laser vs. LED   
Table 4: Light Sources Characteristics   
Table 5: Use Cases - VLC   
Table 6: Devices and Characteristics   
Table 7: PHY   
Table 8: Frequency Plan   
Table 9: VLC/RF Properties   
Table 10: VL, IR and RF Communications ITS Applications Comparison   
Table 11: Locations Technologies-VLC Place   
Table 12: SDR Tiers   
Table 13: CR Features   
Table 14: U.S. – PSC Users   
Table 15: SDR Market Drivers   
Table 16: TVWS Regulations   
Table 17: IEEE WS-related Standards   
Table 18: 802.22 – Major Characteristics   
Table 19: Iceni Characteristics   

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  • Adaptrum
  • Aeronix
  • Airbus DS
  • AirNet Communications
  • AirSpan
  • Analog Devises
  • Aviacomm
  • Axrtek
  • BAE Systems
  • CableFree
  • Cambridge Consultants
  • Canon USA
  • Carlson Wireless
  • Casio
  • CBL
  • Coherent Logix
  • Dailianxu Engineering Company
  • DataSoft
  • Datron World Communications
  • Digital Receiver Technology
  • DragonWave
  • E-band Communications
  • Elbit
  • Ericsson
  • Etherstack
  • Ettus Research
  • Filtronic/Escape Communications
  • Firefly
  • Fraunhofer IPMS
  • fSONA
  • Fujitsu
  • General Dynamics
  • Green Hills
  • Guilin
  • Harris
  • Huawei
  • Infineon
  • Intel
  • Intracom
  • KTS
  • LightBee
  • LightPointe
  • Lockheed Martin
  • Loea
  • LVX
  • Lyrtech-Nutaq
  • Motorola Solutions
  • Nakagawa Laboratories
  • NEC
  • Nokia
  • Northrup Grumman
  • Objective Interface Systems
  • Octasic
  • Oledcomm
  • Outstanding Technology
  • PAV
  • Plaintree
  • PureVLC-PureLi-Fi
  • Qualcomm
  • Redline Communications
  • Renesas
  • Rockwell Collins
  • Saankhya Labs Pvt. Ltd Aviat
  • Siklu
  • SmartSignals
  • Space Photonics
  • Spectrum Signal Processing
  • Supreme Architecture
  • TCL/Sunpartner
  • Thales
  • TI
  • Vanu
  • xG Technology
  • Xilinx
  • ZTE
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