Bloody Brilliant! A History of Blood Groups and Blood Groupers

  • ID: 4071447
  • Book
  • 633 pages
  • AABB
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This one-of-a-kind book tells the fascinating story of blood groups and the people who study them.

“The story of blood groups always begins in Vienna with Karl Landsteiner.” So begins this uniquely fascinating tale of how the blood groups were discovered and the interesting people who made those discoveries. Meticulously referenced, this volume is also lavishly illustrated as it recalls the progression of knowledge in blood grouping that continues today. This is the story not only of Landsteiner, Levine, Wiener, Race, Sanger, and other early giants, but also of Mollison, Garratty, Marsh, Tippett, Issitt, Judd, and many, many others who have made their mark on the profession and trained others who even now are doing the same. Ten years in the making, this treasure is enlightening, engaging, and enjoyable to read—well worth the wait.

Chapters include:

  • Out Damned Spot! Forensic Applications of ABO
  • Who’s Your Daddy? ABO in Paternity Testing
  • Britain, Blood, and Bombs, 1930-1945
  • A Rh-ose by Any Other Name
  • Technologists to the Fore
  • 28 chapters in all!

By Steven R. Pierce, SBB(ASCP), and Marion E. Reid, PhD, FIBMS, DSc(Hon)

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Preface                                                               
About the Authors          

Section 1: ABO: The Birth of Blood Groups

1 Blood Groups—From Then ’Til Now Discovery                                                                                  
Response and Reconsideration                                                 
Beyond ABO                                                         
M, N, and P                                                         
Rh                                                             
The Antiglobulin Test                                                    
The Plot Thickens                                                       
References                                                         

2 Karl Landsteiner, Father of Blood Groups                                     
Beginnings                                                                                 
Medical School                                                       
The Young Researcher                                                    
Priority Issues                                                       
Decastello and Sturli: Another Blood Group                                         
Other Directions                                                      
Life in Vienna                                                        
References                                                         

3 ABO Grows Up                                                        
Transfusion History, 1600 to 1920                                                              
The Blood Groups Gain Attention                                                
Transfusion in World War I                                                 
Advances in ABO Blood Group Serology                                             
References                                                          

4 Genetics, Eugenics, and Blood Groups                                      
Heredity, 1900                                                                             
The Rise of Genetics                                                     
Genes and Blood Groups                                                   
Genes and Populations                                                                       
References                                                                                 

5 Karl Landsteiner in New York                                             
At “The Rockefeller”                                                                         
Landsteiner Returns to the Blood Groups                                                          
The Nobel Prize                                                                            
The Laureate at Work                                                                        
References                                                                                 

6 Out, Damned Spot! Early Forensic Applications of ABO                         
What Blood Can Tell                                                                         
Is It Blood?                                                                                 
Is It Human Blood?                                                                          
Whose Blood Is It?                                                                          
References                                                                                 

7 Who’s Your Daddy? ABO and Paternity Testing                                
Establishing Paternity                                                                        
Paternity Testing and the Courts: Europe                                                          
Paternity Testing and the Courts: Britain                                                          
Paternity Testing and the Courts: United States                                                     
Lights! Camera! Action!                                                                       
References                                                                                 

8 Blood and Race: Seroanthropology in the First Half of the 20th Century            
The Hirszfelds and the Beginnings of Seroanthropology                                              
Seroanthropology in Continental Europe                                                         
Seroanthropology in North and South America                                                     
Seroanthropology in Britain and Her Empire                                                      
Seroanthropology in Asia                                                                     
References                                                                                

9 Sugars and Splice: The Biochemistry and Immunochemistry of ABO               
Early Attempts: 1920s and 1930s                                                              
1940s: Morgan, Watkins, and Kabat                                                            
The Three “L’s”: Lewis, Lutheran, and Lectins                                                     
Cracking the Specificity                                                                      
Bombay—the ABH Null Phenotype                                                             
Epilogue: Morgan, Watkins, and Kabat                                                          
References                                                                                
Section 2: Rh and Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

10 Monkey Business: The Discovery of Rh                                    
Landsteiner, Wiener, and the Rhesus Monkey                                                     
The Rhesus Connection                                                   
Levine and Erythroblastosis Fetalis             
Priority                                                          
LW: A Sticky Wicket in the Discovery of Rh                                         
Rh Goes Public                                                       
End of the Landsteiner Era                                                 
References                                                          

11 Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn: Cause and Treatment                     
Erythroblastosis Fetalis—Historical Aspects                                                       
Treatment                                                           
Conclusion                                                          
References                                                          

12 Britain, Blood, and Bombs (1930-1945)                                    
Britain and the Blood Groups                                                                 
World War II and Blood Transfusion                                              
Wartime Blood Grouping                                                    
References                                                          

13 A Rh-ose by Any Other Name: Rh Specificity and Terminology                  
Not Just Rh+ and Rh–                                                                       
Rh in America, 1940-1943                                                   
Rh in England, 1940-1943                                                   
For and Against: Anti-e and Anti-d                                              
The International Rh Conference                                              
Wiener’s Campaign                                                      
References                                                         

14 Detecting Rh...and Beyond                                              
Early Detection Methods                                                                    
Blocking vs Incomplete Antibodies                                             
Advanced Detection: Capillary Tubes, Slides, and Albumin                                   
The Antiglobulin Test                                                    
References                                                          

15 There A-Rh-ose Such a Clatter: More Rh Antigens!                           
Du
Subdivisions of D                                                      
Compound Antigens and More                                                  
G                                                                                       
Deletions and Nulls                                                                         
Rosenfield’s Numerical Notations                                                               
References                                                                                

16 Preventing HDN: RhIG                                                  
Theories and Early Treatment                                                                 
Development of Rh Immune Globulin                                                           
The US Trials                                                                              
Encore: Rh Immune Globulin before Delivery                                                     
Rh Immune Globulin and the Blood Bank                                                        
References                                                                               
Section 3: Blood Groupers

17 Blood Bank Organizations                                               
International Activity                                                                        
Activity in the United States                                                                  
References                                                                               

18 Medical Technologists to the Fore                                         
Training in the United States—The Early Years                                                    
US Laboratory Workers and the ASCP                                                           
Local, State, and Regional Educational Efforts                                                      
Blood Bank Reagent Companies and Education                                                    
Training for the Military Blood Bank                                                            
Workers in Great Britain                                                                     
References                                                                                

19 Scientific Programs                                                
The Annual Meeting                                                                   
The Awards                                                                          
Standards and Accreditation                                                             
Publications                                                                          
References                                                                                

20 Rare Donor Programs and Immunohematology Reference Laboratories            
Rare Blood Donors                                                                         
Immunohematology Reference Laboratories to the Rescue                                            
Immunohematology Reference Laboratory Standards                                                
Reference Laboratories and Rare Donor Programs Outside the United States                               
Learning and Sharing: ICII and SCARF                                                           
References                                                                                

21 In a Fine and Nobel Tradition: Blood Groupers on Parade                      
Blood Groupers in Britain                                                                    
The British Mafia and Other Ex-Patriots                                           
Blood Groupers in the United States                                            
References                                                          
Section 4: Blood Grouping

22 Slide, Tile, and Tube: Test Systems, 1950-2000                              
Slides and Tiles                                                                            
Test Tubes                                                          
Pipets                                                           
Racks and Tube Holders                                                   
Centrifuges                                                         
Cell Washers                                                        
Grading Reactivity                                                      
References                                                          

23 Clump Together Now: Improving Antibody Detection                         
Enhancing Agglutination                                                                     
The Antiglobulin Test                                                    
Elution                                                            
Polybrene, LISS, LIP, and PEG                                                 
Red Cell Modification                                                    
Serological Approaches to AIHA                                               
References                                                          

24 Beyond the Tube                                                     
Capillary Tubes                                                                            
Eldon Cards                                                         
Microplates                                                         
Automation                                                         
Solid Phase                                                         
Column Agglutination                                                     
References                                                          

25 Applications of Serological Tests                                         
The Crossmatch and the Antibody Screen                                                        
Antibody Identification                                                   
Reagent Antisera                                                      
Monoclonal Reagents                                                     
References                                                         

26 Beyond ABO—Medicolegal and Anthropological Applications of Other?
Blood Groups                                                       
Forensic Serology                                                                          
Parentage Testing                                                                          
Non-Red-Cell Markers                                                                       
The Advent of DNA Testing                                                                   
Anthropology beyond ABO                                                                   
Blood Group Population Studies in the Second Half of the 20th Century                                 
References                                                                                
Section 5: The Blood Groups

27 Some Historical Highlights of the Blood Group Systems             
Organization and Terminology of the Blood Groups                                                
ABO, H, Lewis, P1PK, Globoside, FORS, and I Systems                                             
MNS System [MNS]                                                                        
Rh, LW, and RHAG Systems [RH, LW, RHAG]                                                    
Lutheran System [LU]                                                                      
Kell and Kx Systems [KEL, XK]                                                                
Duffy System [FY]                                                                         
Kidd System [JK]                                                                          
Diego System [DI]                                                                         
Yt System [YT]                                                                            
Xg System [XG]                                                                           
Scianna System [SC]                                                                        
Dombrock System [DO]                                                                     
Colton and Gill Systems [CO, GIL]                                                             
Gerbich System [GE]                                                                       
Chido/Rodgers, Knops, Cromer, and JMH Systems; Cost Collection; and Sd2
Indian System [IN]                                                                         
Ok System [OK]                                                                           
Raph System [RAPH]                                                                       
Lan and Jr Systems [LAN, JR]                                                                 
Vel System [VEL]                                                                          
CD59 System [CD59]                                                                      
AUG System [AUG]                                                                        
Unaffiliated Antigens                                                                       
References                                                                               
ABO, H, Lewis P1PK, Globoside, FORS, and I Systems [ABO, H, LE, P1PK, GLOB, FORS, I]               
MNS System [MNS]                                                                     
Rh, LW, and RHAG Systems [RH, LW, RHAG]                                                  
Lutheran System [LU]                                                                    
Kell and Kx Systems [KEL, XK]                                                             
Duffy System [FY]                                                                       
Kidd System [JK]                                                                        
Diego System [DI]                                                                       
Yt System [YT]                                                                          
Xg System [XG]                                                                         
Scianna System [SC]                                                                     
Dombrock System [DO]                                                                  
Colton and Gill Systems [CO, GIL]                                                          
Gerbich System [GE]                                                                    
Chido/Rodgers, Knops, Cromer, and JMH Systems;
Cost Collection; and Sd2 Antigen                    
Indian System [IN]                                                      
Ok System [OK]                                                        
Raph System [RAPH]                                                      
Lan and Jr Systems [LAN, JR]                                                 
Vel System [VEL]                                                       
CD59 System [CD59]                                                      
AUG System [AUG]                                                       
Unaffiliated Antigens      

28 Final Notes                                                         

Index                                                                 
Additional Resources

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