March to Sustainability: Zero Liquid Discharge - Market Opportunities and Outlook for India by 2020

  • ID: 4085120
  • Report
  • 173 Pages
  • Sustainability Outlook
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USD 4 billion Market Potential of ZLD across 5 industries by 2020

FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Adani Power
  • G. D. Technology
  • JSW Energy
  • MPPGCL
  • RRVUNL
  • Technology Providers:
  • MORE

March to Sustainability: Zero Liquid Discharge, an in-depth market assessment report, quantifies the market opportunity for ZLD at USD 4 billion (INR 270 billion) across five water intensive and highly polluting industries in India, i.e. Thermal Power (coal fired), Distillery (molasses based), Iron & Steel, Textile (wet processing) and Pulp & Paper (large wood based) by 2020.

This market assessment report is a primer for Zero Liquid Discharge in India, which describes the current scenario, illustrates the outlook for 2020 and quantifies the market opportunity with a focus on five highly polluting and water intensive industries, i.e. Thermal Power (Coal fired), Distillery (molasses based), Iron & Steel, Textile (wet processing) and Pulp & Paper (large wood based). A mixed method approach was adopted to estimate the market potential for ZLD across the five sectors of focus, covering the following dimensions:

Thermal Power (Coal fired)

  • Time Lens (Present and Future Scenario)
  • Technology lens
  • Company-wise prediction

Distillery (molasses based)

  • Geographical lens (state-wise)
  • Time Lens (Present and Future Scenario)
  • Technology lens

Iron & Steel

  • Time Lens (Present and Future Scenario)
  • Technology lens
  • Company-wise prediction

Textile (wet processing)

  • Geographical lens (state-wise)
  • Time Lens (Present and Future Scenario)
  • Technology lens

Pulp & Paper (largewood based)

  • Geographical lens (state-wise)
  • Time Lens (Present and Future Scenario)
  • Technology lens

Key Features

  • Growth of Market Opportunity for ZLD by 2020
  • Policy Tracker
  • State-wise Analysis
  • Technology-wise Analysis
  • Company wise Analysis
  • Roadmap of ZLD Policy Evolution across five sectors of focus in India

The cumulative market potential across the five industries of focus would be nearly INR 270 billion (USD 4 billion) by 2020, with the highest market potential for ZLD in the thermal power sector. Molasses based distilleries sector follows second in terms of market share of ZLD. This is in line with the fact that distillery industry has a national mandate in the pipeline. The distillery sector has a relatively strong business case for ZLD due to the additional revenue from by-products generated as a result of adoption of bio-compositing as a route for achieving ZLD in the sector. Iron & Steel industry too has high penetration for ZLD as in the case of distillery sector however, as the country tries to achieve the goal of tripling its crude steel production capacity, the sector would see increased market opportunity for ZLD.

The opportunity for ZLD in the textile sector has changed considerably due to the change in policy scenario. However, with increasing concerns on water scarcity and water pollution, it can be expected that the market will slowly take up ZLD by 2020. The Pulp & Paper sector at present does not have any ZLD mandate however the Charter for Water Recycling & Pollution Prevention in Pulp & Paper Industry aims at making the industry efficient and sustainable in terms of water use. The industry is currently operating well below the global standards and is highly inefficient in terms of water use and also a major contributor to the pollution of India’s water resources. Thus, there is a high probability that the large wood based pulp & paper mill will be targeted first to lead the Pulp & Paper industry towards Zero liquid Discharge. Once the industry achieves the global best level of water consumption, it is likely that the market opportunities for ZLD solutions would open for the sector and the investment would pick up by 2020.

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FEATURED COMPANIES

  • Adani Power
  • G. D. Technology
  • JSW Energy
  • MPPGCL
  • RRVUNL
  • Technology Providers:
  • MORE

Sustainable Water Management in Industry: Topic du jour?

Objective of the Report

Methodology

2 India’s Water Woes
2.1 Inconspicuous Water Reserves, Conspicuous Crisis 

3 Addressing the Problem: Zero Liquid Discharge for Industries 
3.1 Evolution of Zero Liquid Discharge in India: Policy Landscape 
3.2 Other Regulations Supporting ZLD: Ground Water Extraction Rules, 2015
3.3 Outlook for the Policy Agenda

4 Towards the Solution: Technological Landscape of ZLD 

5 The Rising Tide of ZLD in India: Key Accelerators for the Market
5.1 Policy is the Strongest Driver
5.2 Water Scarcity, Increasing Competition for Access
5.3 Increasing Industrial Water Productivity
5.4 Recovery of Water and Other Valuable Resources

6 Challenges for Adoption of ZLD in Industry 
6.1 Low Price of Water 
6.2 Reducing Cost Competitiveness in the National and Global Market
6.3 Lack of Financing Sources
6.4 Disposal of Solid By-product
6.5 Escalated Carbon Footprint of the Industry
6.6 Lack of Clarity in Policy
6.7 Technology Limitations
6.8 Limited Available Space

7 Action Agenda and Outlook for ZLD in India
7.1 Exploring New Models of Operation & Implementation
7.2 Capacity Building for Technology

8 ZLD: INR 270 Billion (USD 4 billion) Market Potential in Thermal Power, Textile, Distilleries, Iron & Steel  and Pulp & Paper Industries by 2020 

9 Thermal Power Industry (Coal Based): INR Y Billion (USD Z Million) ZLD Potential Market by 2020
9.1 Thermal Power Plants: The Water Guzzlers at Risk
9.2 Cooling Tower and Ash Handling Unit: Mammoth Water Consumer, Scope for Optimization Exists
9.3 Market Opportunity for ZLD to Increase Six Folds by 2020
9.4 ZLD to Increase End Product Price by 3%
9.5 Air Cooled Condensers: The Way Forward 

10 Distillery Industry: Opportunity Exists even though Inroads have been made into the Market 
10.1 ZSD Market Demand to Reach INR Y billion (USD Z Million) for Molasses Based Distillery
10.2 Bio-composting – Most Widely Used ZSD Pathway for Molasses Based Distilleries
10.3 Understanding the Cost Structure for ZSD in Distillery
10.4 Additional Revenue from By-product (Compost) of ZSD Leads to Partial Recovery of Expenses

11 Iron & Steel Industry: INR Y Billion (USD Z Million) ZLD Potential Market by 2020
Policy: Step towards Water Management
Industry Snapshot
11.1 Pig Iron Based Steel Production: Water Intensive, High Recovery Potential 
11.2 Sponge Iron Producers:  Low Pollution Potential, Recovery without Tertiary Treatment 
11.3 ZLD Market: Headway Made, INR Y Billion Opportunity Exists 
11.4 Low Impact on Production Cost, Reduced Operational Risk

12 Textile (Wet Processing) Industry: INR Y Billion (USD Z Million) ZLD Potential Market by 2020….Zero Liquid Discharge: Moving Beyond the Impasse
12.1 ZLD Technology for Textile Industry (Wet Processing)
12.2 Understanding the Cost Structures of ZLD for Textile Industry (Wet Processing)
12.3 Business Case for ZLD in Textile (Wet Processing) Industry

13 Pulp & Paper Industry: INR Y billion (USD Z Million) ZLD Market Contingent on Policy Push 
13.1 ZLD Economically Unviable at Current Levels of Water Consumption
13.2 Global Best Water Consumption + Indian Policy = INR Y Million (USD Z Million) ZLD Market in Pulp & Paper
13.3 ZLD Technology for Pulp & Paper (Large Wood Based) 
13.4 Current Effluent Disposal Norms not the Most Suited
13.5 ZLD Difficult, not Impossible in Pulp & Paper Sector
13.6 Business Case for ZLD in Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Sector 

List of Figures
Figure 1: Aggregated Global Water Gap
Figure 2: Stage of Groundwater Development
Figure 3: Baseline Water Stress
Figure 4: Current Industrial Water Usage and Predictions for 2050
Figure 5: State Wise Industrial Water Consumption and Wastewater Generation in the Ganga Basin 
Figure 6: Unfolding of ZLD in India
Figure 7: Pictorial Representation of ZLD Value Chain
Figure 8: Components of ZLD System
Figure 9: Depth of Water Level in India 
Figure 10: Projected Water Demand 
Figure 11: Industrial Water Productivity (IWP) of Water
Figure 12: Effect of Recovery on Overall Operating Cost (in INR) 
Figure 13: Total Cost of Water around the World 
Figure 14: Specific Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Different Fuels (in kg CO/kWh) 
Figure 15: Amount of Risk Associated for Service Provider in relation to their Involvement
Figure 16: Potential Cumulative Market Opportunity for ZLD by 2020 (in INR Million)
Figure 17: Potential Cumulative Operating Expenditure for ZLD by 2020 (in INR Million/Annum)
Figure 18: Impact of ZLD on Production Cost
Figure 19: Category-wise Distribution Installed Thermal Capacity (As on 30.09.2016)
Figure 20: All India Installed Thermal Capacity 
Figure 21: Water Requirement in a 500 MW Thermal Power Plant with No Ash Water Recirculation
Figure 22: Water Requirement in a 500 MW Thermal Power Plant with Ash Water Recirculation
Figure 23: Water Requirement in a 500 MW Thermal Power Plant with High Concentration Slurry Disposal 
Figure 24: Estimated Cumulative Market Potential for Coal Based Thermal Power Industry
Figure 25: Estimated Cumulative OPEX for Coal Based Thermal Power Industry 
Figure 26: Cumulative Market Potential as per Technology for Coal Based Thermal Power Industry by 2020
Figure 27: ZLD Market Potential for 21 Companies under Study by 2020
Figure 28: Impact of ZLD on End Product Price 
Figure 29: Estimated Cumulative Market Potential in Distilleries (molasses based)
Figure 30: Estimated Cumulative OPEX in Distilleries (molasses based)
Figure 31: Total Market Size in Molasses Based Distillery for ZSD in Ganga Basin and Non Ganga Basin States by 2020
Figure 32: State-wise Market Size for ZSD in Molasses Based Distillery by 2020
Figure 33: Most Prevalent Technological Pathways to Achieve ZSD for Molasses Based Distilleries
Figure 34: Cumulative Market Potential as per Technology for Molasses Based Distillery by 2020 
Figure 35: CAPEX and OPEX Break-up for Bio-composting (Option 1) of the Concentrate
Figure 36: CAPEX and OPEX Break-up for Incineration (Option 2) of the Concentrate 
Figure 37: Total Annual Finished Steel Production (alloy + non-alloy) Trend
Figure 38: Crude Steel Production (2015-16)
Figure 39: Water Consumption and Effluent Discharge in Pig Iron Based Steel Plant 
Figure 40: ZLD Pathway in Iron & Steel Industry
Figure 41: Water Consumption and Effluent Discharge in DRI Based Steel Plant 
Figure 42: Estimated Cumulative Market Potential for Iron & Steel Industry
Figure 43: Estimated Cumulative OPEX for Iron & Steel Industry 
Figure 44: Cumulative Market Potential as per Technology for Iron & Steel Industry by 2020
Figure 45: Company-wise Market Potential for ZLD by 2020
Figure 46: Impact of ZLD on End Product Price in Iron & Steel Industry
Figure 47:  Estimated Cumulative Market Potential in Textile (Wet Processing) Industry
Figure 48: Estimated Cumulative OPEX in Textile (Wet Processing) Industry
Figure 49: Cumulative Market Potential as per Technology for Textile (Wet Processing) Industry by 2020
Figure 50: Total Market Size for ZLD in Textile (Wet Processing) Industry in Ganga Basin and Non Ganga Basin States by 2020
Figure 51: State-wise Market Size for ZLD in Textile (Wet Processing) Industry by 2020 
Figure 52: Technology Options Available for ZLD in Textile (Wet Processing)
Figure 53: Percentage Break-up (CAPEX and OPEX) for Different Components for ZLD in Textile (Wet Processing)
Figure 54: Amount of Water Recovered across Different Components of ZLD in Textile Industry
Figure 55: Comparison of Impact of ZLD on the End Product Price
Figure 56: Specific Water Consumption with Various Dyestuff
Figure 57: Production Share of Different Types of Pulp & Paper Mills in India (Based on Raw Materials Used)
Figure 58: CAPEX and OPEX Projections for Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Industry by 2020
Figure 59: ZLD Market Projections for Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Industry for Ganga Basin and Non Ganga Basin States by 2020 
Figure 60: Market Potential for ZLD in Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Industry across Different States by 2020
Figure 61: Technological Option for ZLD in Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Industry
Figure 62: Market Potential as per Technology for Large Wood Based Pulp & Paper Industry by 2020
Figure 63: Major Findings from the Pilot Project in Pulp & Paper Industry by TWIC
Figure 64: Average Water Consumption in Pulp & Paper Industry
Figure 65: ZLD Cost Compared to Overall Production Cost in the Present Scenario and as Projected for 2020

List of Tables
Table 1: Places on the Ganga Basin which do not Meet the CPCB Criteria
Table 2: Sector Wise Water Consumption and Wastewater  Generation in the Ganga Basin
Table 3: Notification on Reducing Specific Water Consumption and Achieving Zero Liquid Discharge for Thermal Power Units
Table 4: New Emission Norms for Thermal Power Units
Table 5: Groundwater Withdrawal Limit as per Groundwater Category
Table 6: Typical Operating Conditions of a MEE
Table 7: Different ZLD Technologies Currently Prevalent 
Table 8: Comparison of Different Evaporation and Membrane Technologies
Table 9: Revenue Loss in First Quarter of 2016 due to Power Plant Shutdown
Table 10: Expected Effluent Recovery Potential in Current and Future Scenario 
Table 11: CAPEX-OPEX Scenario for Different Configurations
Table 12: CAPEX-OPEX Scenario for Different Configurations
Table 13: State-wise Annual Water Requirement to Meet Additional Steel Production Target by 2025-26
Table 14: Specific Water Consumption of Some Steel Plants (Integrated Operations)
Table 15: CAPEX-OPEX Scenario for Different Configurations
Table 16: CAPEX-OPEX Scenario for Different Configurations
Table 17: Freshwater Consumption Target for Pulp &Paper Industry in Ganga Basin States
Table 18: Effluent Generation Norms for Pulp & Paper Industry in Ganga Basin States

Annexures
Annexure 1: Methodology Adopted for Sizing the Market Potential of Zero liquid Discharge
Annexure 2: Business Models for Implementation of ZLD
Annexure 3: Key Policies and Schemes Promoting Industrial Water Conservation 
Annexure 4: Effluent Disposal Standards for Industries in Focus
Annexure 5: Effluent Characteristics of Textile, Distillery and Pulp & Paper Industry
Annexure 6: Industrial Sectors Already Practicing Zero Liquid Discharge
Annexure 7: State-wise Installed Capacity of Molasses Based Distilleries in Million Liters (2012-2013)
Annexure 8: Thermal Power Industry Contact List (Companies Analyzed)
Annexure 9: List of New Thermal Power Plants (Proposed & Under Implementation) 
Annexure 10: Iron & Steel Industry Contact List
Annexure 11: List of Technology Suppliers/Vendors for ZLD 
Annexure 12: List of Organizations in Ganga Basin which Received Notice from NGT
Annexure 13: List of Industries Issued Closure Notice by CPCB Regarding Failure of Installation of Online Monitoring Systems

Glossary

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Technology Providers:

  • Dow Water & Process Solutions
  • Driplex Water Engineering Ltd.
  • Econ Industries
  • Evoqua Water Technologies
  • Felix Industries Pvt. Ltd.
  • France Evaporation
  • G. D. Technology
  • GE power water & process technologies
  • Geist Woow
  • Hager + Elasser
  • Hindustan Dorr-Oliver Ltd.
  • Hitachi Aqua-Tech Engineering Pte Ltd
  • Hyflux
  • ID & WT
  • IDE Technologies
  • Lesico Cleantech
  • Max Green Eco Energy
  • McKim & Creed
  • Microvision Group
  • OVIVO Water
  • Oasys Water
  • Praj Industries Limited
  • SS Techno Ltd.
  • SSP Pvt. Ltd.
  • Siemens Water
  • Suez Environment
  • Sunpower Group
  • Tamilnadu Water Investment Company (TWIC) Limited
  • Thermax Global
  • Transparent Energy Systems Pvt. Ltd.
  • Triveni Engineering & Industries Ltd.
  • VA TECH WABAG Ltd.
  • VEOLIA
  • WesTech Engineering Inc.
  • Wipro Water
  • Wock Oliver

Thermal Sector:

  • APPGCL
  • Adani Power
  • CESC
  • CSPGCL
  • DVC
  • GMR
  • GSECL
  • JSW Energy
  • KPCL
  • Lanco
  • MAHAGENCO
  • MPPGCL
  • NLC
  • NTPC
  • RRVUNL
  • Reliance Power
  • TANGEDCO
  • TSGENCO
  • Tata Power
  • UPRVUNL
  • WBPDCL

Iron & Steel:

  • Arcelor-Mittal India Limited
  • Bhushan Steel
  • ESSAR Steel
  • Electrosteel Steels Limited
  • JSW Steel
  • Jindal Steel & Power Ltd
  • MESCO Steel
  • NMDC
  • Neelachal Ispat
  • RINL
  • SAIL
  • Tata Steel
  • Uttam Galva Steel Limited
  • Welspun Group



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