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The ICC Handbook of Cereals, Flour, Dough & Product Testing: Methods and Applications, Second Edition

  • ID: 4092025
  • Book
  • 531 pages
  • DEStech Publications, Inc
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  • Critical test methods and equipment for all grain-based food products — breads, cookies, cakes, pastries, breakfast cereals, noodles, pet foods and more
  •  Updated industry-standard resource for cereal, flour and dough testing
  •  Adds online testing, advanced data analysis, and many new tests for low-salt dough, baking powder, specialized flours and more
  •  Covers certification analysis for organic, ancient grains, GMOs, gluten-free
  •  Tests for wheat, corn, oats, rice, millet, rye, sorghum, spelt
  •  Produced with the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC)

This is an enlarged and updated version of a reference that explains virtually all important test methods regarding grain-based foods, from in-field, post-harvest through mill intake to processed products, including breads, cookies, cakes, crackers, noodles and more. The enlarged book adds information for handling larger data sets, improving data reliability, and integrating online testing methods with off- and in-line techniques. More specifically, this edition adds and explains tests for specialized flours, self-rising doughs, baking powders and grains. New material is provided on breadmaking and noodle testing, including Ramen. Throughout, an emphasis is placed on practical connections between testing, quality control and superior end-product properties. In addition, the book explains testing equipment, including specific devices and their applications.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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Preface

1. Introduction to Testing Methods and Their Applications
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN
The Reliability of Measurements
Food Safety and Quality Systems
References
Further Information on Testing and Standards
 
2. The Application of Cereal Testing Methods in Cereals Breeding Programmes
L. O’BRIEN and R. L. CRACKNELL
Introduction
Breeding Behaviour and its Influence on Application of Testing Methods
Factors Influencing Application of Testing Methods
Importance of Experimental Design
General Requirements of Early Generation Cereal Testing Methods
    The Importance of Testing a Representative Sample
    Physical Assessment and Tests of Grain
    Grain Processing
Converting Grain to Flour, Wholemeal or Grits
    Pre-treatment of Grain Prior to First Stage Processing
    Determining Grain Moisture Content
    Determination of Grain Protein Content
Pre-treatment of Grain Prior to First Stage Processing
Wheat
    Tests for Grain Hardness
    Tests for Grain Protein Content
    Estimating Flour Colour
    Estimating End-product Quality
    Physicochemical Tests of Quality
    Physical Dough Tests of Quality
    Moving from the Phenotype to the Genotype and to the Gene Level
    DNA Based Measurements of Quality
Durum Wheat
Barley
Testing for Malting Quality
    Grain Quality
    Grain Protein Content
    Micromalting
    Malt Quality
    Small-scale Tests
    DNA Based Selection
Oats
Maize (Corn)
    DNA Based Selection Methods
Some Useful Web Sites
References
 
 3. Testing Cereals in the Field and at the Store and its Relevance to End-product Performance
R.H. WILLIAMS, D.G. BHANDARI, S.C.W. HOOK and G.J. JELLIS
Introduction
Sulphur
Nitrogen
Orange Wheat Blossom Midge
Fusarium Mycotoxins
Amylase/Germination Testing
Moisture Determination
    Moisture Meters
    Sampling
    Temperature Effects
    Grinder Effects
    Operational Considerations
    Overall Accuracy of Meters
    Probes
    Measuring Situations
Storage Insects and Mites
Mycotoxin Testing (Out-loading)
Grain Condition Post-harvest (In-store)
    Grain Properties
    Physical Condition
    Admixture
    Ergot
    Seed Health
    Insect Damage
    Rodent Droppings
Conclusion
References
 
4. Using Cereal Testing at Mill Intake
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN
Introduction
Grains Testing at Intake
    Sampling
    Grain Appearance and Sensory Properties
    Impurities and Contaminants  Besatz, Dockage, Screenings
    Grain Safety
    Grain Microbiology
    The Bulk Density of Grain (Hectolitre Mass, Bushel Mass, Test Weight, Specific Weight)
    Grain Hardness
    Moisture Content
    Protein Content
    Gluten Content and Quality
    Measuring Alpha-amylase and Other Enzymic Activity
Testing Single Grain Varieties
Testing Agreed Specifications
The Test Milling of Grains
Organic, Spelt and Other Ancient Grains
Durum Wheat
Conclusions
References
 
5. Applications of Testing Methods in Flour Mills
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN
Introduction
An Outline of Grain Milling Processes
    Grain Processing
    Wheat
    The Adjustment of Wheat Moisture Content for Milling
    Rye/triticale
    Barley
Testing Wheat Flour Milling Stocks during Production
    Bran Specks in White Flour                    
    Moisture
    Protein Content
    Colour
    Ash
    Damaged Starch
Checking the Final Flour
    Moisture
    Protein Content
    Adding Dried Gluten
    Protein Quality
    Ash and Colour
    Measuring Alpha-amylase and other Enzymic Activity
    Damaged Starch
    Water Absorption Capacity
    Particle Size
    Extraneous Matter (Filth) Test
    Microbiology, Mycotoxins and Other Contaminants
    End-use Performance
    Dietary Fibre
Testing Wholemeal Wheat Flours
The Modification of Wheat Flour
    Bleaching of Bread Flours
    Chlorination of Cake Flours
    Heat Treatment
Additions to and Fortification of Wheat Flours
Analysing Animal Feeds
Malted Wheat and Barley Products for Foods
    Overview of the Manufacture of Malted Products
    Testing Malted Products
References
 
6. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Bread and Fermented Products
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN
Introduction
A Synopsis of Breadmaking Processes
    Sour-dough Processes
    Straight Dough Bulk Fermentation
    Sponge and Dough
    Rapid Processing (No-time Dough)
    Mechanical Dough Development
Dough Processing from Divider to Prover
Expansion in the Prover and Structure Setting in the Oven
The Relationship between Flour Properties and Bread Quality
    Assessing Dough Rheology during Mixing
    Assessing Dough Rheology after Mixing
    Gas Production and Gas Retention
    Fundamental Measurement of Dough Properties
    Dough Stickiness
    Applications of Dough Rheology Testing
Testing Rye Flours
Test Baking
Bread Flour Specifications
Assessing Bread and Fermented Product Quality
    External Character
    Internal Quality
    Texture, Eating Quality and Flavour
References
 
7. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Biscuits (Cookies), Cakes and Pastries
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN
Introduction
A Synopsis of Biscuit (Cookie) Making Processes
The Relationship between Flour Properties and Biscuit (Cookie) Quality
    Measuring Biscuit Dough Rheology and Consistency
    Measuring Batter Viscosity
Biscuit (Cookie) Flour Specifications
Assessing Biscuit (Cookie) Quality
A Synopsis of Cake Making Processes
The Relationship between Flour Properties and Cake Quality
    Measuring Batter Viscosity
Cake Flour Specifications
Assessing Cake Quality
    Moisture Content and Water Activity
A Synopsis of Cake Making Processes
The Relationship Between Flour Properties and Cake Quality
    Measuring Paste Rheology
    Measuring Paste Consistency
Pastry Flour Specifications
Assessing Pastry Quality
Test Baking for Biscuits, Cookies, Cakes and Pastries
    Biscuits and Cookies
    Cakes
    Pastry
References
 
8. Cereals Testing in the Manufacture of Extruded Products
ROBIN C.E. GUY
Manufacture of Foods Using Extrusion Cooking Technologies
Raw Materials Used to Manufacture Extruded Products
Chemical Analysis
Physical Analysis of Raw Materials
    Particle Interactions
    Particle Size
    Particle Hardness
The Assessment of Products
Physical Methods for Assessing Products
    Size and Shape
    Mass, Specific Density and Bulk Density
    Cellular Structures in Extrudates
    Image Analysis
    X-ray Tomography
    Moisture Content
    Colour of Extrudates
Chemical Analysis
Physical Texture Analysis
Sensory Analysis
References
 
9. Applications for Non-wheat Testing Methods
JOHN R.N. TAYLOR and KWAKU G. DUODU
Introduction
Maize
    Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
    Yellow and White Maize
    Waxy and High Maize
    Quality Protein Maize
    Prediction of Processing Quality
    Grain Density
    Stress Cracks and Kernel Breakage
    Grain Hardness and Vitreousness
    Fermentability
    Lime Cooking
Prediction of End-use Quality
    Porridge Making Quality
    Dry Masa Quality
    Popcorn Popping Quality
Sorghum
    Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
    Grain Colour
    Tannins
    Speciality Sorghums
    Prediction of Processing Quality
    Grain Density and Hardness
    Grain Hardness and Corneousness
    Fermentability
    Prediction of End-use Quality
    Foods
    Malt
 Millets
    Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
    Prediction of Processing Quality
    Dry Milling Quality
    Prediction of End-use Quality
    Foods
    Malt
Rice
    Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
    Prediction of Processing Quality
    Rice Processing
    Rice Types
    Kernel Dimensions
    Kernel Milling Quality
    Kernel Fissuring
    Degree of Milling
    Prediction of End-use Quality
    Grain Colour
    Gelatinisation Temperature and Pasting Characteristics
    Gel Consistency
    Hydration during Cooking
    Elongation Ratio
    Cooked Rice Texture
    Amylose Content
    Aroma
Oats
    Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
    Prediction of Processing Quality
    Oat Quality
    Milling Yield
    Prediction of End-use Quality
    Beta-glucan
Useful General References
References
 
10. Testing for Food Safety
ROLAND ERNEST POMS
 Introduction
 Use of Mycotoxin Analyses
    Context
    Regulatory and Contractual Compliance
    Mycotoxin-food Combinations and Frequency of Testing
    Conclusion
    References
Acoustic Testing for Deoxynivalenol (DON) in Wheat Grains
    Introduction
    The Development of the Acoustic Method
    Use of Acoustic Method for Analysis of DON in Grain
    Grain Samples
    The Dependence between Acoustic Signal Parameters and DON Content in Grains
    Acoustic Method Calibration, Validation and Grain Moisture Testing
    Acoustic Method Validation
    Future Trends in the Development of Acoustics
    Conclusions
    Acknowledgement
    References
Rapid Testing for Food Safety in Cereals and Flour: Gluten and Food Allergens
    Introduction
    Food Allergies  Food Intolerances
    Allergen Management
    Analysis
    Standardisation and Reference Materials
    In-house Validation, Collaborative Tests and Approvals
    Acknowledgements
    References
The Occurrence of, and the Analysis for, Pesticide Residues in Cereal Grains and Processed Cereal Products
    The Use of Pesticides on Cereal Crops
    Regulations
    Other Processed Cereal Products
    Pesticides that are Commonly Found and Should be Targeted in Cereals Analysis
    Other Important Pesticides
    Plant Growth Regulators
    Glyphosate
    Post-harvest/Storage Pesticides
    Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Cereal Grains
    Rice
    Oats
    Wheat
    Maize
    Methods of Analysis
    Laboratory Samples and Sample Preparation
    Extraction Efficiency
    Multi Residue Methods (MRMs)
    Single/Selective Residue Methods (SRMs)
    References
Testing for Acrylamide
    Introduction
    Analysis of Acrylamide in Cereal Products
    Sampling, Pre-treatments and Extraction
    Extract Clean-up
    Chromatographic Separation and Detection
    Conclusion
    References
GMO Testing Methods: Analytical Approaches, Method Validation and Sampling Strategy
    Introduction
    Sampling
    Analytical Approaches
    DNA-based Methods
    Quality of DNA Extracts
    Target Taxon Reference-systems
    Screening Methods
    Event-specific Methods
    Method Validation
    Protein-based Methods
    References
 
11. Testing for Animal Feed Production
EVA MARIA BINDER, PETRA HUBMAYER and GEORG MITTERER
Introduction
Testing for Microbiological Contaminants in Animal Feed
Agricultural and Other Chemicals
    Dioxins
    Heavy Metals
    Pesticides
Mycotoxins
    Mycotoxins Relevant in Animal Production
    Testing of Mycotoxins
Conclusion
References
 
12. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Asian Noodle Products
LARISA CATO
Introduction
Classification of Asian Noodles
    White Salted Noodles
    Yellow Alkaline Noodles
Quality Requirements for Asian Noodles
    Flour and Noodle Colour
    Flour and Noodle Texture
Methods for Testing Noodle Quality
    Sensory Evaluation of Noodles
    Sensory Evaluation of Udon Noodles
    Sensory Evaluation of Ramen Noodles
    Objective Evaluation of Asian Noodles
    Noodle Colour
    Image Analysis
    Noodle Texture
Summary
References
 
13. Cereals Testing Equipment and Kits
Equipment Manufacturers       
Introduction
    Brabender® GmbH & Co. KG
    Chopin Technologies®
    Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH
    Perten Instruments AB
    Stable Micro Systems
    C-Cell
Testing Kit Suppliers
    Megazyme
    R-Biopharm AG
 
14. An Overview of ICC Cereals Testing Methods
Introduction
ICC Standard methods
    Sampling
    Testing Grains and Flour
    Chemical Analysis
    Rheological Testing
    Microbial and Contaminant Testing
    Rapid Methods
    Recommended Methods
    Draft Standard Methods
 
Index

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Currently the director of BakeTran in the U.K., Stanley Cauvain is widely recognized as one of the world’s leading specialists in analyzing and testing materials and methods for cereal products, milling, and baking. He is a Fellow of the ICC Academy and a founding editor of the journal Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods. - See more at: http://www.destechpub.com/product/icc-handbook-cereals-flour-dough-product-testing-methods-applications-second-edition/#sthash.pPKJ66E8.dpuf
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