Surface passivation of silicon solar cells describes a technology for preventing electrons and holes to recombine prematurely with one another on the wafer surface. It increases the cell's energy conversion efficiencies and thus reduces the cost per kWh generated by a PV system.
In the past few years, new tools have been developed to ensure low cost of ownership for high volume production of passivated silicon solar cells. Different deposition techniques (ALD, PECVD, APCVD) and different materials (SiO2, Al2O3, Si3N4) have been tested during the development process of more than 10 years. Now, the silicon solar cell manufacturing industry is picking up the concept of rear side passivation. The next generation silicon solar cells in production will be the PERC (Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell) type using all the reported achievements including novel tool concepts and process technologies.
This timely overview of silicon solar cell surface passivation, written by the leading experts in the field, is a key read for students and researchers working with silicon solar cells, as well as solar cell manufacturers.
- Chapter 2: Introduction to surface passivation of industrial crystalline silicon solar cells
- Chapter 3: Material properties of AlOx for silicon surface passivation
- Chapter 4: Material properties of Al2O3 grown on Si: interface trap density (Dit) and fixed charge density (Qf)
- Chapter 5: PECVD-AlOx
- Chapter 6: Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide for silicon surface passivation - background and materials science
- Chapter 7: Al2O3 by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition
- Chapter 8: Surface passivation of industrial PERC solar cells
- Chapter 9: Al2O3 passivation in industrial solar cells: n-PERT
- Chapter 10: Double-layer dielectric stacks for advanced surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells
- Chapter 11: Hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) as surface passivation layer
- Chapter 12: Microwave PE CVD reactor and process for industrial high throughput fabrication of aluminum oxide layers for solar cell applications
- Chapter 13: Spatial atomic layer deposition of A12O3: Levitrack, a one-pass ALD system with throughputs exceeding 6,000 wafers/h
- Chapter 14: Spatial Al2O3 ALD: from Lab to Fab
Joachim John is Program Manager and Management Team member in the PV department of the Interuniversity Micro Electronic Centre (IMEC) in Leuven, Belgium. He received his Master degree from the Albert Ludwig University in Freiburg, Germany and his Ph.D. from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, both in physics. He is session chairman and committee member of the EU PVSEC, IEEE PVSC, Si-PV/n-PV and the SNEC, respectively. He serves as reviewer for several journals. He is expert team member of the PV Technology Platform of the European Commission. He has published more than 200 papers, given more than 40 invited presentations and holds 5 patents.