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Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 4226226
  • Book
  • September 2017
  • 280 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The first and only comprehensive reference/solutions manual for managing food safety in low-moisture foods 

The first book devoted to an increasingly critical public health issue, Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods reviews the current state of the science on the prevalence and persistence of bacterial pathogens in low-moisture foods and describes proven techniques for preventing food contamination for manufacturers who produce those foods.

Many pathogens, such as Salmonella, due to their enhanced thermal resistance in dry environments, can survive the drying process and may persist for prolonged periods in low-moisture foods, especially when stored in refrigerated environments. Bacterial contamination of low-moisture foods, such as peanut butter, present a vexing challenge to food safety, and especially now, in the wake of widely publicized food safety related events, food processors urgently need up-to-date, practical information on proven measures for containing the risk of contamination. While much has been written on the subject, until now it was scattered throughout the world literature in scientific and industry journals. The need for a comprehensive treatment of the subject has never been greater, and now this book satisfies that need.

  • Discusses a wide variety of foods and evaluates multiple processing platforms from the standpoint of process validation of all food safety objectives for finished food products
  • Takes a practical approach integrating the latest scientific and technological advances in a handy working resource
  • Presents all known sources and risk factors for pathogenic bacteria of concern in the manufacturing environment for low-moisture/water activity products
  • Characterizes the persistence and thermal resistance of bacterial pathogens in both the environment and most low-moisture food products

Control of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods is a much-needed resource for food microbiologists and food industry scientists, as well as managers and executives in companies that produce and use low-moisture foods. It also belongs on the reference shelves of food safety regulatory agencies worldwide. 

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

List of Contributors xi

1 Introduction and Overview 1
Richard Podolak and Darryl G. Black

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Definition of Low-Moisture Foods (LMF) and Water Activity Controlled Foods 2

1.3 Salmonella as a Continuing Challenge and Ongoing Problem in Low-Moisture Foods 4

1.4 Foodborne Outbreaks of Salmonella spp. and Other Implicated Microbial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 6

1.5 Major Safety Concerns in Low-Moisture Foods 16

1.6 Content and Brief Book Chapter Review 17

1.7 Goal of the Book 21

1.8 How to Use the Book 21

References 22

2 Regulatory Requirements for Low-Moisture Foods – The New Preventive Controls Landscape (FSMA) 29
Jeffrey T. Barach and George E. Dunaif

2.1 Introduction 29

2.2 FSMA Sanitation and cGMPs 32

2.3 FSMA Preventive Controls 34

2.4 Process Controls 35

2.5 Sanitation Controls 36

2.6 Supplier Controls 37

2.7 Summary of Requirements for Low-Moisture FSMA Regulated

Products 38

References 39

3 Potential Sources and Risk Factors 41
Elizabeth M. Grasso]Kelley, Ai Kataoka and Lisa Lucore

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Raw Ingredients Control and Handling 43

3.3 Pest Control 49

3.4 Salmonella Harborage in the Facility 55

3.5 Conclusions 62

References 62

4 Persistence of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 67
Elena Enache, Richard Podolak, Ai Kataoka and Linda J. Harris

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Factors Affecting Survival of Salmonella and Other Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 67

4.3 Recovery of Salmonella Cells Stressed by Low-Moisture Foods 75

4.4 Mechanism of Salmonella Survival in Food Product and Processing Environment 75

4.5 Other Vegetative Pathogens 79

4.6 Summary 79

References 80

5 Best Industry Practices to Control Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods 87
Lisa Lucore, David Anderson, Elizabeth M. Grasso]Kelley and Ai Kataoka

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Sanitation Practices 89

5.3 Current Good Manufacturing Practice 112

References 114

6 Heat Resistance of Salmonella and Other Bacterial Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods 121
Richard Podolak, Lisa Lucore and Linda J. Harris

6.1 Introduction 121

6.2 Factors Affecting Heat Resistance of Foodborne Pathogens 122

6.3 Use of Published Heat Resistance Data to Establish Lethal Process Lethality in Low-Moisture Foods 133

6.4 Summary 143

References 143

7 Validation Requirements in Heat-Processed Low-Moisture Foods 149
David Anderson, Nathan Anderson, Linda J. Harris and Wilfredo Ocasio

7.1 Introduction 149

7.2 Definitions 150

7.3 Tasks of Validation 150

7.4 Task 1: Assemble a Validation Team 151

7.5 Task 2: Identify the Hazard to be Controlled Through Hazard Analysis 151

7.6 Task 3: Identify a Validation Approach for the Control Measure 152

7.7 Task 4: Conduct the In-Production Validation 163

7.8 Task 5: Write the Results of the Validation in a Validation Report 165

7.10 Task 6: Implement the Control Measure, Monitors and Record Review 167

7.11 Task 7: Verify that the Control Measure is Operating as Intended 168

7.12 Task 8: Re-evaluate the Control Measure Periodically 169

7.13 Conclusion 170

References 171

8 Test Methods for Salmonella in Low-Moisture Foods 175
Elena Enache, Shaunti Luce and Lisa Lucore

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Sampling Plans 175

8.3 Types of Methods 184

8.4 Matrices Testing Challenges 192

8.5 Conclusion 194

References 194

9 Techniques to Determine Thermal Inactivation Kinetics for Pathogenic Bacteria and their Surrogate Organisms in Low-Moisture Foods 197
Shirin J. Abd, Carrie M.H. Ferstl and Wilfredo Ocasio

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Kinetics of Microbial Destruction 198

9.3 Experimental Design and Execution 200

References 215

10 Modeling and Statistical Issues Related to Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 219
Sofia M. Santillana Farakos, Michelle Danyluk, Donald Schaffner, Régis Pouillot, Linda J. Harris and Bradley P. Marks

10.1 An Introduction to Modeling Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 219

10.2 Developing a Predictive Model for Salmonella in Low Water Activity Foods 220

10.3 Model Validation 226

10.4 Models in Risk Assessment 228

10.5 Summary 234

References 234

11 Spoilage Microorganisms in Low-Moisture Foods 241
Melinda Hayman and Richard Podolak

11.1 Introduction 241

11.2 Microorganisms Associated with the Spoilage of Low-Moisture Foods 241

11.3 Factors Influencing Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods 244

11.4 Heat Resistance of Fungi in Low-Moisture Foods 247

11.5 Heat Resistance of Yeasts in Low-Moisture Foods 247

11.6 Preventing and Reducing Spoilage in Low-Moisture Foods 250

11.7 Conclusions 251

References 251

Index 255

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Darryl G. Black US Food and Drug Administration, Bedford Park, USA.

Richard Podolak Grocery Manufacturers Association, Washington DC, USA.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown