Biosensors: Fundamentals and Applications

  • ID: 4301983
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 261 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This book presents the current trends and developments in different nanomaterials and polymers involved in biosensor fabrication.

Biosensors have emerged recently as an interesting field of research owing to a plethora of applications in our daily lives, including food and process control, environmental monitoring, defence, and clinical diagnostics.

This book focuses on the state-of-the-art of biosensor research and development for specialists and non-specialists. It introduces the fundamentals of the subject with relevant characteristics of transducer elements, as well as biochemical recognition molecules.

Different techniques for biomolecule immobilisation, the interaction of biomolecules with the sensor surface, and the interfacial properties are treated comprehensively with respect to their impact on the performance of a biosensor.

This book presents the current trends and developments in different nanomaterials and polymers involved in biosensor fabrication. The relative advantages and challenges of biosensor fabrication, along with the emerging paradigms and techniques that facilitate molecular-level detection in nanosensor devices, are discussed in depth.

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1 Fundamentals of Biosensors
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Developments in Biosensors
1.2.1 Electrochemical Biosensors
1.2.1.1 Amperometric Sensors
1.2.1.1.1  Cyclic Voltammetry
1.2.1.2  Potentiometric Sensor
1.2.1.3 Conductometric Sensors
1.2.1.4  Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy 
1.2.2 Optical-based Biosensor
1.2.2.1 Surface Plasmon Resonance
1.2.2.2 Chemiluminescence
1.2.2.3 Fibre Optic Biosensor
1.2.3 Piezoelectric Sensors
1.2.4 Calorimetric-based Biosensor
1.3 Conclusions
References

2 Biorecognition Elements in a Biosensor
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Immobilisation Methods
2.2.1 Adsorption
2.2.2 Covalent Bonding
2.2.3 Crosslinking
2.2.4 Entrapment
2.3 Principles of Biorecognition
2.3.1 Natural Biorecognition Elements
2.3.1.1  Enzymes
2.3.1.2  Antibodies
2.3.2 Semi-synthetic Biorecognition Element
2.3.2.1  Nucleic Acids
2.3.2.2  Aptamers
2.3.3 Synthetic Recognition Elements
2.3.3.1 Imprinted Polymers
2.4 Conclusions
References

3 Nanomaterial-based Biosensors
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Metal Nanoparticle-based Biosensors
3.3 Nanostructured Metal Oxide-based Biosensors
3.4 Carbon Nanotube-based Biosensors
3.5 Graphene-based Biosensors
3.6 Quantum Dot-based Biosensors
3.7 Conclusions
References

4 Conducting Polymer-based Biosensors
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Application of Polyaniline in Biosensors
4.3 Conducting Polypyrrole-based Biosensors
4.4 Polythiophenes-based Biosensors
4.5 Conclusions
References

5 Applications of Biosensors
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Biosensors for Food/Water Safety
5.2.1 Biosensors for Detection of Foodborne/Waterborne Pathogens
5.2.1.1  Biosensors for Escherichia Coli Detection
5.2.1.2  Biosensors for Salmonella Detection
5.2.2 Biosensors for Mycotoxin Detection
5.2.2.1  Biosensors for Aflatoxin Detection
5.2.2.2  Biosensors for Ochratoxin Detection
5.3 Biosensors for the Defence Industries
5.4 Biosensors for Clinical Diagnostics
5.4.1 Biosensors for Glucose Detection
5.4.2 Biosensors for Cholesterol Detection
5.4.3 Biosensors for Cancer Detection
5.5 Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring
5.6 Conclusions
References

6 Challenges and Prospects
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Challenges in Biosensing
6.2.1 Preparation of Samples
6.2.2 Separation of the Sample 
6.2.3 Immobilisation of Biomolecules on Suitable Matrices 
6.2.4 System Miniaturisation 
6.3 Future Prospects 
6.3.1 Paper-based Biosensors 
6.3.2 Wearable Sensors 
6.3.3 Biosensors for Detection of Cancer Biomarkers 
6.4 Conclusions 
References

Abbreviations
Index
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Bansi Dhar Malhotra received his Ph.D. from the University of Delhi, Delhi, India in 1980. He has published more than 290 papers in peer-reviewed journals, filed 10 patents, and edited/co-edited books on biosensors and polymer electronics. After his stint as the Chief Scientist and Head of the DST Centre on Biomolecular Electronics at the CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India, he moved to Delhi Technological University (DTU), India. He has more than 30 years of research experience in the field of biomolecular electronics and has supervised 28 students for their Ph.D. to date. He is a is a Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, the National Academy of Sciences, India and Academician of Asia Pacific Academy of Materials (APAM). His current activities include biosensors, nanobiomaterials, conducting polymers and ordered molecular assemblies including Langmuir–Blodgett films, self-assembled monolayers etc.

Chandra Mouli Pandey received his Ph.D. from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India in collaboration with Biomedical Instrumentation Section at CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, India (2015). He has published 18 research papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is currently working as a DST-INSPIRE Faculty in Department of Applied Chemistry, Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India. His main interest of research is development of biosensor for healthcare based on nanomaterials and bio-nanocomposites.

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