Underlying these multiple symptoms is consumer capitalism, which systematically immiserates those whom it purports to liberate. Returning to Marx s theory, Stiegler argues that consumerism marks a new stage in the history of proletarianization. It is no longer just labour that is exploited, pushed below the limits of subsistence, but the desire that is characteristic of human spirit.
The cure to this malaise is to be found in what Stiegler calls a pharmacology of the spirit . Here, pharmacology has nothing to do with the chemical supplements developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The pharmakon, defined as both cure and poison, refers to the technical objects through which we open ourselves to new futures, and thereby create the spirit that makes us human. By reference to a range of figures, from Socrates, Simondon and Derrida to the child psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott, Stiegler shows that technics are both the cause of our suffering and also what makes life worth living.
Introduction: A Continent on the Move 1
1 Myriad Challenges and Opportunities 5
2 A Demographic Dividend or Just More People? 21
3 Tropical Dilemmas: Disease, Water, and More 35
4 Educating Future Generations 55
5 To War Rather than to Prosper 69
6 Accountability and the Wages of Corrupt Behavior 91
7 The Infrastructural Imperative 116
8 Harnessing Mobile Telephone Capabilities 134
9 China Drives Growth 151
10 Strengthening Governance 173
11 Creating Responsible Leadership 189
Select Bibliography 244