Desalination and Water Reuse: Scarcity Solutions for Cities & Industry

  • ID: 4313865
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 586 Pages
  • Global Water Intelligence
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Overview

The dynamics between desalination, reuse and traditional water sources depend heavily on differing regulations, costs and political climates from local to regional contexts. Local water scarcity issues, along with water reuse and recycling policies that can be difficult to design and implement, meaning that navigating this fragmented market remains a challenge. However, with new technologies, shifting public opinion and developing water recycling programs to enhance existing utility systems, there are now major opportunities to provide cost-effective and sustainable innovative solutions. Understanding these solutions will become increasingly critical as more competitors enter the market.

Desalination & Water Reuse will provide an in-depth analysis of both the municipal and industry sectors showing the main drivers, trends, and restraints affecting the market for advanced treatment technologies for desalination and reuse in each country. It will tell you where the best prospects are, who is active in the market and what they are doing. In addition, it will compare desalination and reuse, their drivers and differences, and why utilities would choose one over the other.

This report compares emerging technologies in this trend towards alternative water sources, which are opening up new opportunities for both municipal and industry sectors. The type of reuse and availability of desalination varies from region to region, and this report will identify the most common treatment technologies in each area/country and how the location for desalination and reuse affects this, so you can tailor the right solution for the right market.

This report is an essential guide for EPC contractors to understand the client’s needs, developers to identify procurement models, financing requirements and which projects are more likely to gain traction, in each region, and for end users to find out what alternative solutions are available based on their unique circumstances.

The report will cover the most relevant applications of the market including; direct potable reuse, indirect potable reuse, non-potable use, industrial, groundwater recharge, surface water enhancement and recreational applications.

Data and interviews behind this report make use of DesalData - the author’s industry renowned network and desalination tracking database - making it the most comprehensive and reliable report on the market.

Key Features

Report Includes:

Global Overview - The desalination and water reuse sector is incredibly fragmented; this report is the only tool that explains the different approaches in specific regions, and defines and compares which solution is most beneficial. It will tell you which reuse applications are viable in each country and how regional water quality standards are affecting the uptake of desalination and reuse projects. In addition, it will uncover the most recent trends such as indirect potable reuse reclaimed water for industrial use.

Technologies - in-depth analysis and comparisons of core and emerging technologies and their regional considerations in desalination and reuse for both municipal and industry sectors. Find out how they meet industry needs and what place they have in the market, the recent trends and where they are commonly adopted. We will show you the clear trends in the reuse market in terms of the treatment technologies used and the destination of reuse water.

Global market forecasts and market size data - We will show the growth in desalination and reuse capacity and how this capacity breaks down by technology, end user and procurement model. We will also give a breakdown of installed capacity by technology type, procurement model, and reuse destination.

Country-by-country profiles - covering municipal and industrial desalination and reuse, showing where the most interesting developments are taking place from the Middle East to China, so you can identify the main trends and opportunities and plan your strategy for involvement.

Plants and Project Opportunities - We will list the top plants and major upcoming projects for both utilities and industrial desalination and reuse, helping you to understand the need for desalination as a water supply solution in a certain country, the procurement models they use, and how you can access the market.

Industry - We show you how increased pressure on industry to find alternative clean water sources, reducing freshwater withdrawals and conforming to tightening regulations are driving the adoption of zero liquid discharge practices, municipal wastewater reclamation for industrial use and reuse of produced/flowback water in the North American Oil and Gas market. This report will show you the clear trends in the treatment technologies and the industry methods used.

Market Drivers and Challenges

Water scarcity & regional water resources - We explore how different climates and regions affect the adoption of desalination and reuse - such as how arid regions in the Middle East have come to rely on desalination and technology to provide municipal water, and how scarcity impacts uptake of alternative water sources in various regions.

Cost - We explore how local regulations, availability of water resources, procurement models, and political situation affect the costs of desalination and reuse projects. We pinpoint the regions where water reuse is considered a cheaper alternative, and where desalination projects are preferred despite the increased costs.

Regulations - There are numerous local regulations restricting where recycled water can be used. This report helps you to navigate the regulations surrounding recycled water in each country, including what applications are permitted, water quality requirements, and what regulations mean for treatment technologies.

Public Perceptions - Reclaimed water is considered safe when appropriately used, although there are still public concerns over using reclaimed water and government policies on treatment. In some regions, opinion remains a challenge but in other regions there is a drive towards changing public perceptions, promising indirect and direct reuse opportunities in the future. This report will tell you which reuse applications are viable in each country.

Market Forecasts

In each country chapter, the report will highlight the major trends in desalination and reuse activity, covering the main industrial and municipal users each region, paying attention to the biggest industries.

Depending on regional trends, industry coverage can include:
Oil & gas, Refining, Power, Mining, Food and Beverage

Forecast categories

(*) symbol means that this will not be available at a country level.

Countries and regions
Countries

  • Australia
  • Caribbean
  • Chile
  • China
  • Egypt
  • India
  • Iran
  • Israel
  • Japan
  • Kuwait
  • Mexico
  • Morocco
  • Oman
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Singapore
  • Spain
  • Taiwan
  • Tunisia
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United States

Regions

  • North America
  • Latin America/Caribbean
  • Europe/Central Asia
  • Asia Pacific
  • Middle East/Africa

Additional and cumulative capacity

Plant types
Desalination

  • Thermal
  • SWRO
  • BWRO

Wastewater reuse

  • Triple barrier (UF/RO/Disinfection)
  • Other secondary/tertiary reuse

Plant size

  • Extra-large (>50,000 m3/d)
  • Large (10-50,000 m3/d)
  • Medium (1-10,000 m3/d)
  • Small (<1,000 m3/d)

Capital expenditure

Plant types
Desalination

  • Thermal
  • SWRO
  • BWRO

Wastewater reuse (*)

  • Triple barrier (UF/RO/Disinfection) (*)
  • Other secondary/tertiary reuse (*)

By equipment category

  • Civil engineering
  • Design costs
  • Intakes/outfalls
  • Pretreatment
  • Pipes/High grade alloys
  • Pumps
  • Membranes
  • Pressure vessels
  • Thermal fabrication
  • Energy recovery devices
  • Equipment/materials
  • Installation/services
  • Legal/professional costs

Operating expenditure

By plant type
Desalination

  • Thermal
  • SWRO
  • BWRO

Wastewater reuse (*)
Triple barrier (UF/RO/Disinfection) (*)
Other secondary/tertiary reuse (*)

By category

  • Labour
  • Thermal energy
  • Electricity
  • Membranes
  • Chemicals
  • Parts and materials

Spending on technologies (CAPEX+OPEX)

By plant type (*)

  • Thermal desalination (*)
  • SWRO (*)
  • BWRO (*)
  • Triple barrier reuse (*)

By sector

  • Utility
  • Industrial

Who should read this report?

Developers - this report will help inform your bidding decisions in each region. It will help you to identify the most viable projects according to the economic climate and regulatory drivers in each market

Consulting engineers - understand emerging trends in the market and access in-depth analysis of new technologies, so you can pinpoint which technologies best meet the demands of your client

EPC contractors - this report will help you to stay ahead of the curve and monitor emerging areas of activity and projects, so you can get involved and bid at the earliest stage

Investors - In the desalination market, creating financing structures will be the main driver. Find out how desalination and reuse projects are financed, and which countries offer the best opportunities and conditions for investing in these projects. Discover the specific reuse trends worth investing in.

Technology providers - understand the types of technologies and applications, the needs and challenges and how these are driving demand- and identify the best regions for your solution.

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Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
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PUBLICATION INFORMATION

  • Icons used in this publication
  • Icons representing projects
  • Icons representing industries
  • Exchange rates used in this publication

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Incremental contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 1990-2022
  • Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 1990-2022
  • Market drivers
  • Desalination and reuse trends
  • Applications for water reuse and desalination
  • Regional perspectives
  • Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity by region, 2017 and 2022

1. THE UNCONVENTIONAL WATER MARKET
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Water scarcity: the ultimate driving factor
Figure 1.1 Water scarcity circumstances and solutions
1.2.1 Unusually severe drought affecting all water users
1.2.1.1 Conservation and conventional solutions
1.2.1.2 Reuse solutions
1.2.1.3 Desalination solutions
1.2.2 Rising urban demand and limited conventional supplies
1.2.2.1 Conservation and conventional solutions
1.2.2.2 Reuse solutions
1.2.2.3 Desalination solutions
1.2.3 Rising agricultural demand and limited conventional supplies
1.2.3.1 Conservation and conventional solutions
1.2.3.2 Desalination solutions
1.2.3.3 Reuse solutions
1.2.4 Increased seasonal shortages on islands from increasing demand
1.2.4.1 Conservation and conventional solutions
1.2.4.2 Desalination solutions
1.2.4.3 Reuse solutions
1.2.5 Extraction industries in water-scarce regions
1.2.5.1 Conservation and conventional solutions
1.2.5.2 Desalination solutions
1.2.5.3 Reuse solutions
1.2.6 Increased aquifer salinisation
1.3 Forecast methodology
1.3.1 The capacity forecast
1.3.1.1 Tracked projects
Figure 1.2 Capacity of projects tracked by the author’s Desalination and Reuse Trackers, 2017-2022
1.3.1.2 Anticipated capacity
1.3.1.3 Project delays
1.3.1.4 The current forecast
Figure 1.3 Global forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size, 2013-2022 (m³/d)
Figure 1.4 Global contracted desalination and reuse capacity by plant type, 2006-2022
1.3.2 The financial forecast
1.3.2.1 Capital expenditure
Figure 1.5 Forecast of global desalination and reuse capital expenditure by plant type, 2013-2022
Figure 1.6 Seawater and brackish water desalination: Capital expenditure breakdown, 2017
Figure 1.7 Seawater and brackish water total: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.8 XL MSF: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.9 XL MED: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.10 Other thermal: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.11 SWRO: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.12 BWRO: Capital expenditure forecast by category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.13 Wastewater reuse total: Capital expenditure by plant type, 2013-2022
1.3.2.2 Operating expenditure
Figure 1.14 Estimated installed desalination and reuse capacity by plant type, 2013-2022
Figure 1.15 Estimated installed desalination capacity by region, 2013-2022
Figure 1.16 Estimated installed reuse capacity by region, 2013-2022
Figure 1.17 Estimated online desalination capacity by plant type, 2013-2022
Figure 1.18 Forecast of operating expenditure in desalination by technology, 2013-2022
Figure 1.19 Operating expenditure breakdown, 2017
Figure 1.20 Forecast of operating expenditure by spending category, 2013-2022
Figure 1.21 Forecast of global desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure, 2013-2022
Figure 1.22 Breakdown of global expenditure on desalination activities, 2018-2022
Figure 1.23 Global online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity by technology, 2017
Figure 1.24 Global forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size, 2013-2022 (m³/d)
Figure 1.25 Forecast of global capital expenditure, 2013-2022
Figure 1.26 Forecast of global installed capacity and operating expenditure, 2013-2022

2. GLOBAL OUTLOOK
2.1 Defining desalination and reuse
2.2 Status of desalination and reuse markets
Figure 2.1 Incremental contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 1990-2022
Figure 2.2 Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 1990-2022
2.3 Regional trends
Figure 2.3 Annual contracted seawater & brackish water desalination capacity by region, 2006-2022
Figure 2.4 Annual contracted reuse capacity by region, 2006-2022
Figure 2.5 Top 10 countries by cumulative installed desalination capacity, 2017 and 2022
Figure 2.6 Top 10 countries by cumulative installed reuse capacity, 2017 and 2022
2.3.1 Middle East and Africa
Figure 2.7 Annual contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.8 Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.9 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017 and 2022
2.3.2 Asia Pacific
Figure 2.10 Annual contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.11 Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.12 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017 and 2022
2.3.3 Americas
Figure 2.13 Annual contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.14 Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.15 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017 and 2022
2.3.4 Europe/Central Asia
Figure 2.16 Annual contracted desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.17 Cumulative installed desalination and reuse capacity, 2006-2022
Figure 2.18 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017 and 2022
2.4 Feedwater
Figure 2.19 Global cumulative contracted desalination capacity by feedwater, 2017
Figure 2.20 Global annual contracted desalination capacity by feedwater, 1990-2022
Figure 2.21 Regional cumulative contracted desalination capacity by feedwater type, 2017
2.5 Offtaker
Figure 2.22 Cumulative contracted desalination capacity by sector, 2017
Figure 2.23 Annual contracted desalination capacity by sector, 1990-2022
Figure 2.24 Regional cumulative contracted desalination capacity by sector, 2017
Figure 2.25 Cumulative contracted water desalination capacity by industry, 2017
Figure 2.26 Main wastewater reuse applications
Figure 2.27 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017
Figure 2.28 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 1990-2022
2.6 Technology
Figure 2.29 Key desalination and wastewater reuse technologies
2.6.1 Desalination technologies
2.6.1.1 Thermal technologies
Figure 2.30 Features of MSF vs MED
Figure 2.31 Typical electrical and thermal consumption for thermal technologies
2.6.1.2 Ion exchange (IX)
Figure 2.32 Ion exchange: Advantages and disadvantages
2.6.1.3 Electrodialysis (ED)/Electrodialysis reversal (EDR)
Figure 2.33 ED/EDR: Advantages and disadvantages
2.6.1.4 Electrodeionisation (EDI)
Figure 2.34 EDI: Advantages and disadvantages
2.6.2 Key suppliers
Figure 2.35 Key players in the dissolved solids treatment market
2.6.2.1 Reverse osmosis
2.6.3 Wastewater treatment/reuse technologies
Figure 2.36 Classification of stages used for wastewater treatment
Figure 2.37 Treatment levels required for the main wastewater reuse applications
2.6.3.1 Secondary treatment: Biological treatment
Figure 2.38 Biological treatment technologies
Figure 2.39 Main suppliers
2.6.3.2 Tertiary treatment: Disinfection
Figure 2.40 Disinfection methods: Advantages and disadvantages
2.6.3.3 Tertiary treatment: Filtration
Figure 2.41 Advantages and disadvantages of MF/UF versus other filtration
Figure 2.42 Technology by effluent particle size and some of the key suppliers
2.6.3.4 Tertiary treatment: Membrane bioreactors (MBR)
Figure 2.43 Membrane bioreactor configurations
Figure 2.44 Features of MBR for reuse
Regional trends
Costs
Main MBR suppliers
Figure 2.45 Main players in the MBR market
2.6.3.5 Tertiary treatment: Adsorption
Suitability for reuse
2.6.3.6 Triple barrier/advanced water treatment systems
2.6.3.7 Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) technique
Figure 2.46 Soil aquifer treatment system
Figure 2.47 Soil aquifer treatment: Advantages and disadvantages
2.6.3.8 Wastewater treatment costs
Figure 2.48 Distribution of unit EPC costs for select secondary and tertiary-level reuse treatment plants
Figure 2.49 Secondary and tertiary wastewater unit EPC cost trends, 1990-present
2.6.4 Overlapping desalination and reuse treatment technologies
2.6.4.1 Reverse osmosis
Figure 2.50 RO: Advantages and disadvantages
Key suppliers
Figure 2.51 Top 20 RO plant suppliers by awarded capacity, 2006-2016
Energy consumption
Figure 2.52 Energy consumption in SWRO
Figure 2.53 Average specific energy consumption of selected RO plants, 1990-2016
Figure 2.54 Specific energy consumption of selected RO plants, 1990-2016
Figure 2.55 Average specific energy consumption of SWRO and BWRO
Figure 2.56 Specific energy consumption of SWRO and BWRO versus capacity
Figure 2.57 Energy consumption of different technologies
Figure 2.58 Comparative energy consumption from various sources
Costs
Figure 2.59 Trends of unit capital costs of selected RO desalination plants, 2006-2015
Figure 2.60 Distribution of EPC costs of RO desalination plants
Figure 2.61 EPC unit cost by feedwater
Figure 2.62 Water price from select desalination plants since 2000
Figure 2.63 Average water price from select RO desalination plants since 2000
Figure 2.64 Water price versus unit capital cost of select desalination plants
Figure 2.65 EPC unit costs by feedwater
Figure 2.66 Comparative costs of potable reuse and alternative supply options
Figure 2.67 Detailed costs of potable reuse and alternative supply options
Figure 2.68 Costs of IPR in Orange County (excluding transmission)
Figure 2.69 Case studies of costs for potable reuse projects
2.6.5 Market forecast
Figure 2.70 Global cumulative contracted desalination capacity by technology, 2017
Figure 2.71 Annual contracted desalination capacity by technology, 1990-2022
Figure 2.72 Regional cumulative contracted desalination capacity by technology, 2017
Figure 2.73 Recent thermal desalination awards by region
Figure 2.74 Cumulative installed reuse capacity by sector, 2017
Figure 2.75 Cumulative regional installed reuse capacity by level of treatment, 2017
Figure 2.76 Annual contracted reuse capacity by technology, 1990-2022

3. AUSTRALIA
3.1 Top market opportunities
3.2 General indicators
Figure 3.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 3.2 Economic indicators
3.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 3.3 Origin of water supplied through distribution networks, 2014-2015
Figure 3.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
3.4 Sector structure
Figure 3.5 Water sector structure
Figure 3.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
3.5 Desalination profile
Figure 3.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Australia, 1990-2016
Figure 3.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Australia, 2017
3.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 3.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
3.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 3.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
3.6 Reuse profile
Figure 3.11 Water reuse rates across major capital cities
Figure 3.12 National restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
3.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 3.13 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
3.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
3.6.2.1 Mining
3.6.2.2 Oil & gas
Figure 3.14 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
3.7 Key clients and offtakers
3.7.1 Main desalination clients
3.7.2 Main reuse clients
3.7.3 Industrial clients and offtakers
3.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 3.15 Tracked desalination projects in Australia
Figure 3.16 Tracked reuse projects in Australia
3.9 Market forecast
3.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 3.17 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Australia, 2013-2022
Figure 3.18 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Australia, 2018-2022
Figure 3.19 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Australia by technology, 2017
Figure 3.20 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Australia, 2013-2022
Figure 3.21 Forecast of capital expenditure in Australia, 2013-2022
Figure 3.22 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Australia, 2013-2022

4. CARIBBEAN
4.1 Top market opportunities
4.2 General indicators
Figure 4.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 4.2 Economic indicators
4.3 Water availability and demand
4.4 Sector structure
Figure 4.3 Water sector structure
Figure 4.4 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
4.5 Desalination profile
Figure 4.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desal capacity in the Caribbean, 1990-2016
Figure 4.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in the Caribbean, 2017
4.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 4.7 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
4.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 4.8 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
4.6 Reuse profile
Figure 4.9 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications, Jamaica
Figure 4.10 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications, Trinidad and Tobago
4.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 4.11 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
4.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
4.7 Key clients and offtakers
4.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 4.12 Tracked desalination projects in the Caribbean
Figure 4.13 Tracked reuse projects in the Caribbean
4.9 Market forecast
4.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 4.14 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in the Caribbean, 2013-2022
Figure 4.15 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in the Caribbean, 2018-2022
Figure 4.16 Online desal capacity and installed reuse capacity in the Caribbean by technology, 2017
Figure 4.17 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, & size in the Caribbean, 2013-2022
Figure 4.18 Forecast of capital expenditure in the Caribbean, 2013-2022
Figure 4.19 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in the Caribbean, 2013-2022

5. CHILE
5.1 Top market opportunities
5.2 General indicators
Figure 5.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 5.2 Economic indicators
5.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 5.3 Water withdrawals by sector, 2011
5.4 Sector structure
Figure 5.4 Water sector structure
Figure 5.5 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
5.5 Desalination profile
Figure 5.6 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Chile, 1990-2016
Figure 5.7 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Chile, 2017
5.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 5.8 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
5.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 5.9 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
5.6 Reuse profile
Figure 5.10 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
5.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 5.11 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
5.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 5.12 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
5.7 Key clients and offtakers
5.7.1 Utility clients
5.7.2 Industrial clients
Figure 5.13 Top mining companies in Chile
5.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 5.14 Tracked desalination projects in Chile
5.9 Market forecast
5.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 5.15 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Chile, 2013-2022
Figure 5.16 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Chile, 2018-2022
Figure 5.17 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Chile by technology, 2017
Figure 5.18 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Chile, 2013-2022
Figure 5.19 Forecast of capital expenditure in Chile, 2013-2022
Figure 5.20 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Chile, 2013-2022

6. CHINA
6.1 Top market opportunities
6.2 General indicators
Figure 6.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 6.2 Economic indicators
6.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 6.3 Freshwater resources & water withdrawal quota in provinces/province-level municipalities
Figure 6.4 Projected change in water stress in China by 2020
Figure 6.5 South-North Water Transfer project
Figure 6.6 Water withdrawals by sector, 2007-2015
Figure 6.7 Key targets to be met by 2020, as outlined in the 13th FYP published in late 2016
6.4 Sector structure
Figure 6.8 Water sector structure
Figure 6.9 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
6.5 Desalination profile
Figure 6.10 Technologies employed in China’s seawater desalination plants
Figure 6.11 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in China, 1990-2016
Figure 6.12 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in China, 2017
6.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 6.13 Membrane-filtered drinking water plant supplied by Beijing Origin Water
Figure 6.14 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
6.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 6.15 Use of desalinated seawater by industry, 2015
Figure 6.16 Seawater desalination projects for industrial parks (planned and contracted)
Figure 6.17 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
6.6 Reuse profile
Figure 6.18 Urban recycled water production capacity & volume of wastewater recycled, 2006-2015
Figure 6.19 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
6.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 6.20 Utility reuse capacity in each province in 2010, 2015 and targeted in 2020
Figure 6.21 Examples of the technical routes of utility reuse plants
Figure 6.22 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
6.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 6.23 Freshwater withdrawal quota for selected industries
Figure 6.24 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
6.7 Key clients and offtakers
6.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 6.25 Tracked desalination projects in China
Figure 6.26 Tracked reuse projects in China
6.9 Market forecast
6.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 6.27 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in China, 2013-2022
Figure 6.28 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in China, 2018-2022
Figure 6.29 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in China by technology, 2017
Figure 6.30 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in China, 2013-2022

7. EGYPT
7.1 Top market opportunities
7.2 General indicators
Figure 7.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 7.2 Economic indicators
7.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 7.3 Water resources
Figure 7.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
7.4 Sector structure
Figure 7.5 Water sector structure
Figure 7.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
7.5 Desalination profile
Figure 7.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Egypt, 1990-2016
Figure 7.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Egypt, 2017
7.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 7.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
7.5.2 Industrial desalination
7.5.2.1 Power
7.5.2.2 Refining and petrochemicals
7.5.2.3 General/Manufacturing
Figure 7.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
7.6 Reuse profile
Figure 7.11 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
7.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 7.12 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
7.6.1.1 Reuse for irrigation
Figure 7.13 Egyptian Wastewater Reuse Code Standards
Figure 7.14 Plants & crops permitted for irrigation by treated wastewater as per the Egyptian Reuse Code
7.6.1.2 Reuse for land reclamation
Figure 7.15 Top timber forests implemented with treated wastewater irrigation
7.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 7.16 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
7.7 Key clients and offtakers
7.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 7.17 Tracked desalination projects in Egypt
7.9 Market forecast
7.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 7.18 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Egypt, 2013-2022
Figure 7.19 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Egypt, 2018-2022
Figure 7.20 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Egypt by technology, 2017
Figure 7.21 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Egypt, 2013-2022
Figure 7.22 Forecast of capital expenditure in Egypt, 2013-2022
Figure 7.23 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Egypt, 2013-2022

8. INDIA
8.1 Top market opportunities
8.2 General indicators
Figure 8.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 8.2 Economic indicators
8.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 8.3 Water resources in India
Figure 8.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
8.4 Sector structure
Figure 8.5 Water sector structure
Figure 8.6 Desalination research institutions
Figure 8.7 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
8.5 Desalination profile
Figure 8.8 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in India, 1990-2016
Figure 8.9 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in India, 2017
8.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 8.10 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
8.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 8.11 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
8.6 Reuse profile
Figure 8.12 Standards for treated wastewater of sewage treatment plants (2015 draft)
8.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 8.13 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
8.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
8.6.2.1 Industrial parks
Figure 8.14 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
8.7 Key clients and offtakers
8.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 8.15 Tracked desalination projects in India
Figure 8.16 Tracked reuse projects in India
8.9 Market forecast
8.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 8.17 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in India, 2013-2022
Figure 8.18 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in India, 2018-2022
Figure 8.19 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in India by technology, 2017
Figure 8.20 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in India, 2013-2022
Figure 8.21 Forecast of capital expenditure in India, 2013-2022
Figure 8.22 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in India, 2013-2022

9. IRAN
9.1 Top market opportunities
9.2 General indicators
Figure 9.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 9.2 Economic indicators
9.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 9.3 Water resources
Figure 9.4 Water withdrawals by sector in Iran, 2010-2030
9.4 Sector structure
Figure 9.5 Water sector structure
Figure 9.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
9.5 Desalination profile
Figure 9.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Iran, 1990-2016
Figure 9.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Iran, 2017
9.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 9.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
9.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 9.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
9.6 Reuse profile
Figure 9.11 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
9.6.1 Utility reuse
9.6.1.1 Buyback contracts
9.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
9.7 Key clients and offtakers
9.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 9.12 Tracked desalination projects in Iran
Figure 9.13 Tracked reuse projects in Iran
9.9 Market forecast
9.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 9.14 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Iran, 2013-2022
Figure 9.15 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Iran, 2018-2022
Figure 9.16 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Iran by technology, 2017
Figure 9.17 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Iran, 2013-2022 (m³/d)
Figure 9.18 Forecast of capital expenditure in Iran, 2013-2022
Figure 9.19 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Iran, 2013-2022

10. ISRAEL
10.1 Top market opportunities
10.2 General indicators
Figure 10.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 10.2 Economic indicators
10.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 10.3 Israel’s water demand in 2010, and projected demand to 2050
Figure 10.4 Water consumption in Israel by sector
Figure 10.5 Reuse profile in Israel by percentage
10.4 Sector structure
Figure 10.6 Water sector structure
Figure 10.7 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
10.5 Desalination profile
Figure 10.8 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Israel, 1990-2016
Figure 10.9 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Israel, 2017
Figure 10.10 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
10.6 Reuse profile
Figure 10.11 Maximum monthly averages for dissolved and suspended elements and compounds
Figure 10.12 Volumes of wastewater generated, treated and reused in agriculture in Israel, 1963-2014
Figure 10.13 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
10.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 10.14 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
10.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 10.15 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
10.7 Key clients and offtakers
10.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 10.16 Investment for the period 2020-2050 as outlined by the Israeli Water Authority
Figure 10.17 Tracked desalination projects in Israel
Figure 10.18 Tracked reuse projects in Israel
10.9 Market forecast
10.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 10.19 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Israel, 2013-2022
Figure 10.20 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Israel, 2018-2022
Figure 10.21 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Israel by technology, 2017
Figure 10.22 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Israel, 2013-2022
Figure 10.23 Forecast of capital expenditure in Israel, 2013-2022
Figure 10.24 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Israel, 2013-2022

11. JAPAN
11.1 Top market opportunities
11.2 General indicators
Figure 11.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 11.2 Economic indicators
11.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 11.3 Water sector structure
Figure 11.4 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
11.4 Desalination profile
Figure 11.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Japan, 1990-2016
Figure 11.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Japan, 2017
11.4.1 Utility desalination
Figure 11.7 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
11.4.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 11.8 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
11.5 Reuse profile
Figure 11.9 Volume of recycled water by primary reuse sector, 2012
Figure 11.10 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
11.5.1 Utility reuse
Figure 11.11 Selected reuse plants using utility wastewater
11.5.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 11.12 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
11.6 Key clients and offtakers
11.6.1 Key desalination clients
11.6.2 Utility reuse clients and offtakers
11.6.3 Industrial reuse offtakers
11.7 Proposed plants and opportunities
11.8 Market forecast
11.8.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 11.13 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Japan, 2013-2022
Figure 11.14 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Japan, 2018-2022
Figure 11.15 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Japan by technology, 2017
Figure 11.16 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Japan, 2013-2022
Figure 11.17 Forecast of capital expenditure in Japan, 2013-2022
Figure 11.18 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Japan, 2013-2022

12. KUWAIT
12.1 Top market opportunities
12.2 General indicators
Figure 12.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 12.2 Economic indicators
12.3 Water availability and demand
12.4 Sector structure
Figure 12.3 Water sector structure
Figure 12.4 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
12.5 Desalination profile
Figure 12.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Kuwait, 1990-2016
Figure 12.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Kuwait, 2017
12.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 12.7 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
12.5.2 Industrial desalination
12.6 Reuse profile
Figure 12.8 Annual cumulative and additional contracted reuse capacity in Kuwait, 1990-2016
Figure 12.9 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Kuwait, 2017
Figure 12.10 Treatment standards for irrigation
12.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 12.11 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
12.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
12.7 Key clients and offtakers
12.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 12.12 Tracked desalination projects in Kuwait
12.9 Market forecast
12.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 12.13 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Kuwait, 2013-2022
Figure 12.14 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Kuwait, 2018-2022
Figure 12.15 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Kuwait by technology, 2017
Figure 12.16 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Kuwait, 2013-2022
Figure 12.17 Forecast of capital expenditure in Kuwait, 2013-2022
Figure 12.18 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Kuwait, 2013-2022

13. MEXICO
13.1 Top market opportunities
13.2 General indicators
Figure 13.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 13.2 Economic indicators
13.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 13.3 Water resources
Figure 13.4 Water withdrawals by sector
13.4 Sector structure
Figure 13.5 Water sector structure
Figure 13.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
13.5 Desalination profile
Figure 13.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Mexico, 1990-2016
Figure 13.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Mexico, 2017
13.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 13.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
13.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 13.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
13.6 Reuse profile
Figure 13.11 Reuse of municipal and industrial wastewater, 2014
Figure 13.12 Total water reuse volumes in Mexico, 2007-2015
Figure 13.13 Volume of wastewater reused compared to total wastewater collected, 2007-2015
Figure 13.14 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Mexico, 2017
Figure 13.15 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
13.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 13.16 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
13.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 13.17 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
13.7 Key clients and offtakers
13.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 13.18 Tracked desalination projects in Mexico
13.9 Market forecast
13.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 13.19 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Mexico, 2013-2022
Figure 13.20 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Mexico, 2018-2022
Figure 13.21 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Mexico by technology, 2017
Figure 13.22 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Mexico, 2013-2022
Figure 13.23 Forecast of capital expenditure in Mexico, 2013-2022
Figure 13.24 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Mexico, 2013-2022

14. MOROCCO
14.1 Top market opportunities
14.2 General indicators
Figure 14.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 14.2 Economic indicators
14.3 Water availability and demand
14.4 Sector structure
Figure 14.3 Water sector structure
Figure 14.4 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
14.5 Desalination profile
Figure 14.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Morocco, 1990-2016
Figure 14.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Morocco, 2017
14.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 14.7 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
14.5.2 Industrial desalination
14.5.2.1 Phosphate production
14.5.2.2 Agriculture
Figure 14.8 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
14.6 Reuse profile
Figure 14.9 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
14.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 14.10 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
14.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
14.7 Key clients and offtakers
14.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 14.11 Tracked desalination projects in Morocco
14.9 Market forecast
14.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 14.12 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Morocco, 2013-2022
Figure 14.13 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Morocco, 2018-2022
Figure 14.14 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Morocco by technology, 2017
Figure 14.15 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Morocco, 2013-2022
Figure 14.16 Forecast of capital expenditure in Morocco, 2013-2022
Figure 14.17 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Morocco, 2013-2022

15. OMAN
15.1 Top market opportunities
15.2 General indicators
Figure 15.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 15.2 Economic indicators
15.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 15.3 Estimated water resources, 2014
Figure 15.4 Demand for desalinated water vs projected desalination capacity, 2016-2022
15.4 Sector structure
Figure 15.5 Water sector structure
Figure 15.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
15.4.1 Future changes in the water sector
15.5 Desalination profile
Figure 15.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Oman, 1990-2016
Figure 15.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Oman, 2017
15.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 15.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
15.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 15.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
15.6 Reuse profile
Figure 15.11 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Oman, 2017
15.6.1 Water reuse technologies
15.6.2 Standards for wastewater reuse
Figure 15.12 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
15.6.3 Utility reuse
Figure 15.13 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
15.6.4 Industrial wastewater reuse
15.7 Key clients and offtakers
15.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 15.14 Tracked desalination projects in Oman
Figure 15.15 Tracked reuse projects in Oman
15.9 Market forecast
15.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 15.16 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Oman, 2013-2022
Figure 15.17 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Oman, 2018-2022
Figure 15.18 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Oman by technology, 2017
Figure 15.19 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Oman, 2013-2022
Figure 15.20 Forecast of capital expenditure in Oman, 2013-2022
Figure 15.21 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Oman, 2013-2022

16. QATAR
16.1 Top market opportunities
16.2 General indicators
Figure 16.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 16.2 Economic indicators
16.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 16.3 Water resources
Figure 16.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
16.4 Sector structure
Figure 16.5 Water sector structure
Figure 16.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
16.5 Desalination profile
Figure 16.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Qatar, 1990-2016
Figure 16.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Qatar, 2017
16.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 16.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
16.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 16.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
16.6 Reuse profile
Figure 16.11 Annual cumulative and additional contracted reuse capacity in Qatar, 1990-2016
Figure 16.12 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Qatar, 2017
Figure 16.13 Proposed standards for treated sewage effluent reuse
16.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 16.14 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
16.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 16.15 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
16.7 Key clients and offtakers
16.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 16.16 Tracked desalination projects in Qatar
Figure 16.17 Tracked reuse projects in Qatar
16.9 Market forecast
16.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 16.18 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Qatar, 2013-2022
Figure 16.19 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Qatar, 2018-2022
Figure 16.20 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Qatar by technology, 2017
Figure 16.21 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Qatar, 2013-2022
Figure 16.22 Forecast of capital expenditure in Qatar, 2013-2022
Figure 16.23 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Qatar, 2013-2022

17. SAUDI ARABIA
17.1 Top market opportunities
17.2 General indicators
Figure 17.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 17.2 Economic indicators
17.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 17.3 Estimated water resources in Saudi Arabia, 2010
Figure 17.4 Estimated sectoral water demand in Saudi Arabia, 2010-2060
Figure 17.5 Municipal and industrial water supply by source, 2015-2020
17.4 Sector structure
Figure 17.6 Water sector structure
17.4.1 Future sectoral changes
Figure 17.7 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
17.5 Desalination profile
Figure 17.8 Annual cumulative & additional contracted desalination capacity in Saudi Arabia, 1990-2016
Figure 17.9 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Saudi Arabia, 2017
17.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 17.10 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
17.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 17.11 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
17.6 Reuse profile
Figure 17.12 MOWE wastewater reuse quality regulations, 2009
Figure 17.13 Current and projected TSE demand by user in Jeddah, Mecca and Riyadh, 2010-2030
Figure 17.14 Projected commercial demand for district cooling water in four key cities, 2015-2030
Figure 17.15 NWC TSE quality compared to district cooling requirements
Figure 17.16 Annual cumulative and additional contracted reuse capacity in Saudi Arabia, 1990-2016
Figure 17.17 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Saudi Arabia, 2017
17.6.1 Water reuse technologies
17.6.2 Utility reuse
Figure 17.18 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
17.6.3 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 17.19 Wastewater treatment and reuse at Marafiq’s major facilities
17.7 Key clients and offtakers
17.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 17.20 Tracked desalination projects in Saudi Arabia
Figure 17.21 Tracked reuse projects in Saudi Arabia
17.9 Market forecast
17.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 17.22 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2013-2022
Figure 17.23 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Saudi Arabia, 2018-2022
Figure 17.24 Online desal capacity and installed reuse capacity in Saudi Arabia by technology, 2017
Figure 17.25 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, & size in Saudi Arabia, 2013-2022
Figure 17.26 Forecast of capital expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2013-2022
Figure 17.27 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Saudi Arabia, 2013-2022

18. SINGAPORE
18.1 Top market opportunities
18.2 General indicators
Figure 18.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 18.2 Economic indicators
18.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 18.3 Water resources in Singapore
Figure 18.4 Scheme of Four National Taps in Singapore
Figure 18.5 Water supply by each National tap, 2017
Figure 18.6 Sales of water by sector, 2009-2015
Figure 18.7 Water sales by source, 2015
Figure 18.8 Tariffs of different types of water in Singapore
18.4 Sector structure
Figure 18.9 Water sector structure
Figure 18.10 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
18.5 Desalination profile
Figure 18.11 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desal capacity in Singapore, 1990-2016
Figure 18.12 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Singapore, 2017
18.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 18.13 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
Figure 18.14 Details of the Tuas III and Marina East desalination plants
18.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 18.15 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
18.6 Reuse profile
Figure 18.16 The NEWater process
Figure 18.17 Annual cumulative and additional contracted reuse capacity in Singapore, 1990-2016
Figure 18.18 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in Singapore, 2017
Figure 18.19 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
18.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 18.20 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
18.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
18.7 Key clients and offtakers
18.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 18.21 Current figures and PUB’s targets for water supply by source in 2030 and 2060
Figure 18.22 Water demand by sector, 2016-2060
Figure 18.23 Tracked desalination projects in Singapore
Figure 18.24 Tracked reuse projects in Singapore
18.9 Market forecast
18.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 18.25 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Singapore, 2013-2022
Figure 18.26 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Singapore, 2018-2022
Figure 18.27 Online desalination capacity & installed reuse capacity in Singapore by technology, 2017
Figure 18.28 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, & size in Singapore, 2013-2022
Figure 18.29 Forecast of capital expenditure in Singapore, 2013-2022
Figure 18.30 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Singapore, 2013-2022

19. SPAIN
19.1 Top market opportunities
19.2 General indicators
Figure 19.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 19.2 Economic indicators
19.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 19.3 Water resources in Spain, 2014
Figure 19.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2012
Figure 19.5 Breakdown of municipal water supply, 2012-2014
19.4 Sector structure
Figure 19.6 Water sector structure
Figure 19.7 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
19.5 Desalination profile
Figure 19.8 Acuamed’s unutilised desalination capacity, 2015
Figure 19.9 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Spain, 1990-2016
Figure 19.10 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Spain, 2017
19.5.1 Main desalination users
19.5.1.1 Utility desalination
Figure 19.11 Sources for drinking water supply in Spain, 2012-2014
Figure 19.12 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
19.5.2 Agricultural irrigation
Figure 19.13 Water availability for agricultural irrigation by source, 2012-2014
Figure 19.14 Top desalination plants for irrigation purposes
19.5.2.1 Other desalination users
19.6 Reuse profile
Figure 19.15 Use of treated wastewater by destination, 2014
Figure 19.16 Total volume of reused wastewater, 2004-2014
Figure 19.17 Volume of treated wastewater for reuse by region, 2014
Figure 19.18 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
19.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 19.19 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
19.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
19.7 Key clients and offtakers
19.7.1 Main desalination clients
19.7.2 Water reuse clients
Figure 19.20 Major water reuse clients
19.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 19.21 Tracked reuse projects in Spain
19.9 Market forecast
19.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 19.22 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Spain, 2013-2022
Figure 19.23 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Spain, 2018-2022
Figure 19.24 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Spain by technology, 2017
Figure 19.25 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Spain, 2013-2022
Figure 19.26 Forecast of capital expenditure in Spain, 2013-2022
Figure 19.27 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Spain, 2013-2022

20. TAIWAN
20.1 Top market opportunities
20.2 General indicators
Figure 20.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 20.2 Economic indicators
20.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 20.3 Water resources in Taiwan, 2005-2014
Figure 20.4 Water demand in Taiwan by sector, 2005-2014
20.4 Sector structure
Figure 20.5 Water sector structure
Figure 20.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
20.5 Desalination profile
Figure 20.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Taiwan, 1990-2016
Figure 20.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Taiwan, 2017
20.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 20.9 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
20.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 20.10 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
20.6 Reuse profile
Figure 20.11 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
20.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 20.12 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
20.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
20.7 Key clients and offtakers
20.7.1 Desalination
20.7.2 Reuse
20.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 20.13 Tracked desalination projects in Taiwan
Figure 20.14 Tracked reuse projects in Taiwan
20.9 Market forecast
20.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 20.15 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Taiwan, 2013-2022
Figure 20.16 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Taiwan, 2018-2022
Figure 20.17 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Taiwan by technology, 2017
Figure 20.18 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Taiwan, 2013-2022
Figure 20.19 Forecast of capital expenditure in Taiwan, 2013-2022
Figure 20.20 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Taiwan, 2013-2022

21. TUNISIA
21.1 Top market opportunities
21.2 General indicators
Figure 21.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 21.2 Economic indicators
21.3 Water availability and demand
21.4 Sector structure
Figure 21.3 Water sector structure
Figure 21.4 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
21.5 Desalination profile
Figure 21.5 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in Tunisia, 1990-2016
Figure 21.6 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in Tunisia, 2017
21.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 21.7 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
21.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 21.8 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
21.6 Reuse profile
21.6.1 Regulatory framework
Figure 21.9 Reuse application by volume in 2015
Figure 21.10 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
21.6.2 Utility reuse
21.6.2.1 Financing
21.6.2.2 Municipal reuse for industrial application
Figure 21.11 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
21.6.3 Industrial wastewater reuse
21.7 Key clients and offtakers
21.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
21.8.1 Desalination
21.8.2 Reuse
Figure 21.12 Tracked desalination projects in Tunisia
Figure 21.13 Tracked reuse projects in Tunisia
21.9 Market forecast
21.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 21.14 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in Tunisia, 2013-2022
Figure 21.15 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in Tunisia, 2018-2022
Figure 21.16 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in Tunisia by technology, 2017
Figure 21.17 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in Tunisia, 2013-2022
Figure 21.18 Forecast of capital expenditure in Tunisia, 2013-2022
Figure 21.19 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in Tunisia, 2013-2022

22. UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
22.1 Top market opportunities
22.2 General indicators
Figure 22.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 22.2 Economic indicators
22.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 22.3 Water resources
Figure 22.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 2010-2030
Figure 22.5 Supply of desalinated water by authority, 2015
Figure 22.6 Water consumption in Abu Dhabi by source and end-user, 2015
Figure 22.7 Projected desalinated water demand in Abu Dhabi, 2016-2026
22.4 Sector structure
Figure 22.8 Water sector structure
Figure 22.9 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
22.5 Desalination profile
Figure 22.10 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in the UAE, 1990-2016
Figure 22.11 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in the UAE, 2017
22.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 22.12 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
22.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 22.13 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
22.6 Reuse profile
Figure 22.14 Annual cumulative and additional contracted reuse capacity in the UAE, 1990-2016
Figure 22.15 Profile of cumulative installed reuse capacity in the UAE, 2017
Figure 22.16 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications
22.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 22.17 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
22.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 22.18 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
22.7 Key clients and offtakers
Figure 22.19 Installed capacity of desalination plants by authority, 2015
Figure 22.20 Treated wastewater by emirate, 2015
22.7.1 Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority and Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company
Figure 22.21 Public-private companies generating desalinated water & electricity in Abu Dhabi Emirate
22.7.2 Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company (ADSSC)
22.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 22.22 Tracked desalination projects in the United Arab Emirates
22.9 Market forecast
22.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 22.23 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in the UAE, 2013-2022
Figure 22.24 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in the UAE, 2018-2022
Figure 22.25 Online desalination capacity and installed reuse capacity in the UAE by technology, 2017
Figure 22.26 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in the UAE, 2013-2022
Figure 22.27 Forecast of capital expenditure in the UAE, 2013-2022
Figure 22.28 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in the UAE, 2013-2022

23. UNITED STATES
23.1 Top market opportunities
23.2 General indicators
Figure 23.1 Population projections, 2017-2027
Figure 23.2 Economic indicators
23.3 Water availability and demand
Figure 23.3 Water resources in the United States
Figure 23.4 Water withdrawals by sector, 1980-2010
23.4 Sector structure
Figure 23.5 Water sector structure
Figure 23.6 Regulations applicable to desalination or reuse projects
23.5 Desalination profile
Figure 23.7 Annual cumulative and additional contracted desalination capacity in the US, 1990-2016
Figure 23.8 Profile of cumulative installed desalination capacity in the United States, 2017
23.5.1 Utility desalination
Figure 23.9 Installed brackish desalination capacity in Texas, 1999-2012
Figure 23.10 Map of Calleguas pipeline
23.5.1.1 Funding and procurement
Figure 23.11 Top desalination plants for utility and public sector clients
23.5.2 Industrial desalination
Figure 23.12 Top desalination plants for industrial clients
23.6 Reuse profile
Figure 23.13 Total reuse capacity by primary reuse sector in the United States, 2012
Figure 23.14 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications in California
Figure 23.15 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications in Florida
Figure 23.16 Restrictions imposed on wastewater reuse applications in Texas
23.6.1 Utility reuse
Figure 23.17 Strategies to meet ocean outfall legislation reuse requirements in Florida
Figure 23.18 Map of wastewater reuse and treatment capacity in Florida, 2015
Figure 23.19 Map of West Basin Municipal Water District’s existing and proposed reuse network
23.6.1.1 Potable reuse
23.6.1.2 Funding and procurement
Figure 23.20 Summary of reclaimed water rates in Florida for residential & non-residential customers
Figure 23.21 Top reuse plants using utility wastewater
23.6.2 Industrial wastewater reuse
Figure 23.22 Selected major projects for industrial wastewater reuse
23.7 Key clients and offtakers
23.8 Proposed plants and opportunities
Figure 23.23 Tracked desalination projects in the United States
Figure 23.24 Tracked reuse projects in the United States
23.9 Market forecast
23.9.1 Notes on the market forecast
Figure 23.25 Forecast of desalination and reuse capacity and expenditure in the US, 2013-2022
Figure 23.26 Breakdown of expenditure on desalination activities in the United States, 2018-2022
Figure 23.27 Online desal capacity & installed reuse capacity in the United States by technology, 2017
Figure 23.28 Forecast capacity assumptions by plant type, technology, and size in the US, 2013-2022
Figure 23.29 Forecast of capital expenditure in the US, 2013-2022
Figure 23.30 Forecast of installed capacity and operating expenditure in the US, 2013-2022

24. INDUSTRIAL DESALINATION & REUSE
24.1 Overview of the industrial sector
24.2 Water efficiency in industrial corporations
Figure 24.1 Select companies by proportion of water withdrawals from process water/wastewater
24.3 Oil & gas
24.3.1 Top market opportunities
24.3.2 Industry overview
Figure 24.2 Trends in oil and gas prices, 2000-2016
24.3.2.1 Top water treatment challenges
Figure 24.3 Primary, secondary and tertiary oil recovery
24.3.2.2 Regional markets
24.3.3 Desalination
24.3.3.1 IOR and sulphate removal
Figure 24.4 Top 10 global offshore desalination plants for NF/sulphate removal
24.3.3.2 Enhanced oil recovery and low salinity water
24.3.4 Produced water management and reuse
24.3.4.1 Shale gas/tight oil
24.3.4.2 Heavy oil and oil sands
24.3.4.3 Coalbed methane/Coal seam gas
24.3.4.4 Surface water discharge and beneficial reuse
24.3.5 Future opportunities
Figure 24.5 Upcoming desalination projects for the oil & gas industry
Figure 24.6 Upcoming reuse projects for the oil & gas industry
24.3.6 Market forecast
Figure 24.7 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure by application
Figure 24.8 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure by technology
Figure 24.9 Upstream oil & gas: Capital expenditure by region
24.4 Refining & petrochemicals
24.4.1 Top opportunities
24.4.2 Industry overview
Figure 24.10 Water applications in a typical refinery
Figure 24.11 Top countries by refining capacity, 2016
24.4.3 Drivers
24.4.4 Market opportunities: Desalination
Figure 24.12 Top 10 worldwide desalination plants for refineries
Figure 24.13 Featured upcoming major desalination projects
24.4.5 Market opportunities: Water reuse
Figure 24.14 Sources and uses of reused water
24.4.5.1 Growth in Asia
24.4.5.2 Opportunities for advanced technologies
Figure 24.15 Options for advanced and tertiary wastewater treatment
24.4.6 Market forecast
Figure 24.16 Refining & petrochemicals: Capital expenditure by application
Figure 24.17 Refining & petrochemicals: Capital expenditure by technology
Figure 24.18 Refining & petrochemicals: Capital expenditure by region
24.5 Power generation
24.5.1 Top opportunities
24.5.2 Industry overview
24.5.2.1 Top regional markets
Figure 24.19 Top 10 countries by annual electricity generated (TWh), 2014
24.5.2.2 Water demand and water treatment needs
Figure 24.20 Water systems in power plants
24.5.3 Market drivers
24.5.4 Market opportunities: Desalination
24.5.4.1 Seawater and brackish water desalination
24.5.4.2 Co-located desalination and power plants
Figure 24.21 Installed generating capacity of co-located desalination & power plants by country, 2012
24.5.4.3 Future desalination opportunities
Figure 24.22 Examples of major upcoming desalination projects
24.5.5 Market opportunities: Water reuse
24.5.5.1 Reuse of treated utility wastewater
24.5.5.2 Onsite water reuse
Figure 24.23 Total installed generating capacity of thermal power plants by cooling system type
24.5.5.3 Opportunities for ZLD technologies in FGD wastewater treatment
24.5.6 Market forecast
Figure 24.24 Power generation: Capital expenditure by application
Figure 24.25 Power generation: Capital expenditure by technology
Figure 24.26 Power generation: Capital expenditure by region
24.6 Mining
24.6.1 Top opportunities
24.6.2 Industry overview
24.6.2.1 Top regional markets
Figure 24.27 Top mining countries by production (all commodities), 2015
24.6.3 Drivers
Figure 24.28 Selected metal prices, January 2000-February 2017
24.6.4 Market opportunities: Desalination
Figure 24.29 Cumulative contracted desalination capacity in the mining sector, 1996-2016
24.6.4.1 Future desalination opportunities
Figure 24.30 Examples of major upcoming desalination projects
24.6.5 Market opportunities: Water reuse
24.6.5.1 Onsite reuse
Figure 24.31 Top producing companies, 2015
24.6.5.2 Treated municipal wastewater
24.6.5.3 Future reuse opportunities
Figure 24.32 Examples of major upcoming reuse projects
24.6.6 Market forecast
Figure 24.33 Mining: Capital expenditure by application
Figure 24.34 Mining: Capital expenditure by technology
Figure 24.35 Mining: Capital expenditure by region

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