Functional Polymers by Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation: Synthesis and Applications

  • ID: 4317640
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 390 Pages
  • Smithers Information Ltd
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This book describes the advances in the area of reversible deactivation radical polymerisation to prepare functional polymers for a wide range of applications.

Synthesis of tailor-made functional polymers with controlled architecture is very challenging. The functional groups present in the monomer often either prevent polymerisation or lead to several side reactions. In this regard, reversible deactivation radical polymerisation (RDRP) techniques are useful tools to prepare macromolecular architectures with controlled molecular weight, architecture, and narrow dispersity. This book delineates the advances in the area of RDRP to prepare functional polymers for a wide range of applications like in self-healing, oil- and water-resistant coatings, controlled drug delivery systems and so on.

The worthy contribution from renowned experts working in the area of RDRP makes this book invaluable to researchers in these important areas such as:

  • Introduction and historical development of RDRP.
  • Polymer-nanohybrid materials.
  • Telechelic polymers with controlled end functionality.
  • Functional polymers via a combination of RDRP and ‘click’ chemistry.
  • Fluorinated polymers.
  • Polymers for biomedical applications

The book will be of prime interest for polymer scientists as well as material scientists dealing with functional polymer synthesis for different applications. It will also be a good source of knowledge for researchers working on functional polymeric materials and their composites

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1 Introduction to Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Nitroxide-mediated Polymerisation
1.3 Transition Metal-mediated Radical Polymerisation
1.4 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer-mediated Polymerisation
1.5 Functional Polymers
1.6 Concluding Remarks

2 Tailor-made Polymer-Nanohybrid Materials via Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Nanoparticles
2.3 Synthesis of Nanoparticles
2.4 Application of Nanoparticles
2.4.1 Semiconductor Nanoparticles (Quantum Dots)
2.4.2 Nanoparticles in Catalysis
2.5 Agglomeration and Stabilisation of Nanoparticles
2.5.1 Electrostatic Stabilisation
2.5.2 Steric Stabilisation
2.5.3 Polymers as Steric Stabilising Agents
2.6 Synthesis of Polymer Layers
2.6.1 Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation
2.6.2 Iniferter
2.6.3 Nitroxide-mediated Polymerisation
2.6.4 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
2.6.5 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer
2.6.6 Single Electron Transfer Living Radical Polymerisation
2.6.7 Single Electron Transfer-Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Process
2.7 Grafting of Polymer Brushes onto Various Nanoparticulate Surfaces
2.7.1 Immobilisation of Initiators/Crosslinkable Groups on the Surface of Nanoparticles
2.7.2 Silica Nanoparticles
2.7.3 Magnetite Nanoparticles
2.7.4 Titania Nanoparticles
2.7.5 Gold Nanoparticles
2.7.6 Silver Nanoparticles
2.7.7 Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles
2.8 Polymer-Clay Nanocomposites

3 Synthesis of Functionally Terminated Polymers by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation and their Applications
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
3.2.1 General Observations of the Initiator Structure in Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
3.2.2 Initiator Efficiency
3.3 Synthetic Approaches for Telechelic Polymers
3.3.1 Functional Initiator Approach
3.3.1.1 Functional Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation Initiators for the Synthesis of Hetero-telechelic Polymers
3.3.1.2 Difunctional Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation Initiators for the Synthesis of Homo-telechelic Polymers
3.3.1.3 Multifunctional Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation Initiators for the Synthesis of Star-telechelic Polymers
3.3.2 Use of a Functional Initiator followed by Postpolymerisation Transformation of a Terminal Halide
3.3.2.1 Nucleophilic Substitution
3.3.2.2 Electrophilic Addition
3.3.3 Chemical Modification of a Functional Group Incorporated via a Functional Initiator
3.3.4 Radical-Radical Coupling Reactions
3.4 Advantages of Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation over other Controlled Radical Polymerisation Methods
3.5 Applications of Functionally Terminated Polymers
3.5.1 Synthesis of Block/Star-block Copolymer Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers
3.5.2 Synthesis of Cyclic Polymers - Catenanes and Rotaxanes
3.5.3 Synthesis of Block and Core Crosslinked Star Polymers for Emulsion Stabilisation
3.5.4 Synthesis of Polymers for Rheology Modification of Lubricating Greases/Oils, Viscosity Modifications and Compatibilisation of Blends
3.5.5 Macromonomers for Thermoplastics, Crosslinked Polymers and Gel Formation
3.5.6 Synthesis of Graft Copolymers and Surface-modifying Agents
3.5.7 Synthesis of Fluorescent Polymers for Sensing and Detection Applications
3.6 Summary and Outlook

4 Functional (Co)Polymers via a Combination of Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation Techniques and Thiol-based ‘Click’/Conjugation Chemistries
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 The ‘Click’ Concept of Synthesis and Modification
4.1.2 Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation
4.2 The Thiol-X Toolbox
4.2.1 The Thiol-ene Reaction
4.2.1.1 Side Chain Modification of Preformed (Co)Polymers
4.2.1.2 End-group Modification of Preformed (Co)Polymers
4.2.2 The Thiol-yne Reaction
4.2.3 The Thiol-Isocyanate Reaction
4.2.4 The Thiol-Halo Reaction
4.2.5 The Thiol-Epoxide Reaction
4.2.6 Thiol-Methanethiosulfonate Substitution Reactions
4.3 Summary and Outlook

5 Designing Macromolecular Architecture via Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation and the Diels-Alder Reaction
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Diels-Alder Reaction in Homopolymers
5.2.1 Block Copolymers
5.2.2 Diels-Alder Reaction in Graft Copolymers
5.2.3 Telechelic Polymers
5.3 Complex Macromolecular Architectures
5.3.1 Dendrimer and Dendronised Polymers
5.3.2 Crosslinked and Self-Healing Polymers
5.4 Hybrid Materials via Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation and Diels-Alder Chemistry

6 Recent Advances in the Reversible Deactivation Radical (Co)Polymerisation of Fluorinated Alkenes/Acrylates/Methacrylates/Styrenes
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Fundamentals and Developments of Controlled Radical (Co)Polymerisation
6.3 Controlled Radical Polymerisation of Fluoroalkenes
6.3.1 Iodine Transfer Polymerisation of Fluoroalkenes
6.3.1.1 History and Production of Copolymers Produced by Iodine Transfer Polymerisation
6.3.1.2 Iodine Transfer Copolymerisation of Vinylidene Fluoride and Perfluoroalkyl Vinyl Ethers
6.3.2 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer/Macromolecular Design via the Interchange of Xanthates Polymerisation of Fluoroalkenes
6.3.2.1 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer/Macromolecular Design via the Interchange of Xanthates Homopolymerisation of Fluoromonomers
6.3.2.2 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer/Macromolecular Design via the Interchange of Xanthates Copolymerisation of Fluoromonomers
6.3.2.3 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (Co)Polymerisation of Fluoromonomers Controlled by Trithiocarbonates
6.3.3 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation of Fluoroalkenes
6.4 Controlled Radical Polymerisation of Fluorinated Acrylates/Methacrylates/Styrenes
6.4.1 Nitroxide-mediated Polymerisation of Fluorinated Acrylates/Methacrylates
6.4.2 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation of Fluorinated Acrylates/Methacrylates
6.4.2.1 Fluorinated Homo and Random Copolymers via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
6.4.2.2 Fluorinated Block Copolymers via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
6.4.2.3 Hybrid Fluoropolymers and Brushes via Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
6.4.3 Activators Generated by Electron Transfer-Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation of Fluoromonomers
6.4.4 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerisation of Fluoromonomers
6.4.4.1 Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerisation in Emulsion
6.4.4.2 Fluoropolymer Nanocomposites via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerisation
6.4.5 Reverse Iodine Transfer Polymerisation of Fluorinated Acrylates/Fluorinated Methacrylates
6.4.6 Single Electron Transfer-Living Radical Polymerisation of Fluorinated Acrylates/Fluorinated Methacrylates
6.4.7 Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation of Fluorinated Styrenes
6.5 Conclusions and Future Outlook

7 Polymers Prepared via Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation for Biomedical Applications
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Types of Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisations
7.3 Nitroxide-mediated Polymerisation
7.3.1 Biomedical Applications of Nitroxide-mediated Polymerisation-based Polymers
7.3.1.1 Glycopolymers
7.3.1.2 Peptide/Protein-Polymer Conjugates
7.3.1.3 Drug Delivery
7.4 Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisation
7.4.1 Synthesis of Polymer Bioconjugates
7.4.1.1 ‘Grafting From’ Approach
7.4.1.2 ‘Grafting To’ Approach
7.4.1.3 PEGylation
7.4.2 Drug Delivery Devices
7.4.2.1 Polymeric Nanostructures
7.4.2.2 Glycopolymer-based Nanostructures
7.4.2.3 Polyester-based Nanostructures
7.4.2.4 Micro-/Nanogels
7.4.3 Bioactive Scaffold and Bioactive Surfaces for Tissue Engineering
7.4.4 Polymers for Bioimaging and Photodynamic Therapy
7.4.5 Biodegradable Polymers
7.5 Bioapplication of Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer
7.5.1 Bioconjugates
7.5.1.1 Polymer Bioconjugates via a ‘Grafting From’ Approach
7.5.1.2 Bioconjugation via the ‘Grafting To’ Approach . 2
7.5.1.3 Deoxyribonucleic Acid/Ribonucleic Acid Conjugation
7.5.2 Glycopolymers
7.5.3 Drug Delivery
7.5.3.1 Amphiphilic Nanostructures
7.5.3.2 Stimuli-responsive Nanostructures
7.5.3.3 Functionalised Nanostructures with a Targeting Moiety
7.5.3.4 Polymer Drug Conjugates
7.5.3.5 Micro-/Nanogel Particles and Hydrogels
7.5.2 Nanostructures for Imaging and Therapy
7.6 Conclusions

Abbreviations
Index

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