Telecom Network Report Edition 4 2017 - A Network Revolution: 1G to 5G

  • ID: 4331328
  • Report
  • Region: Global
  • 253 Pages
  • StatPlan Energy Ltd
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The report covers six broad fields of information:

Today’s networks: 
1. The existing and traditional infrastructure of the networks and operators, base stations and backhaul, and limitations for today’s volume of data traffic and QoS.
2. The development of the generations of wireless technology from 1G to 5G is charted and analysed
3. The state of the telecoms market is quantified and forecast to 2021 for all countries.
4. The explosion of data traffic as data overtakes voice is drowning the networks capacity, revealing  shortfalls and inflating costs in a market with declining earnings.   

The future is already with us:

1. The HetNet solutions for increasing network capacity and quality of service are outlined.

2. Virtualisation is already well established in IT and industry. It is now being introduced and refined for the telecoms sector, bringing greater agility and flexibility, and reducing costs.  The reports explains what network virtualisation is and reviews its current status.

We are in the midst of a telecoms revolution. The technology has moved so fast that it is always approaching obsolescence, and never more so than now as the innovation cycles accelerate. 3G increased the demands on the systems and 4G escalated the volume of data traffic beyond anyone’s expectations, changing usage patterns. 5G will drive demand even further, and will require new e xpanded  capabilities. At the same time, earnings are under pressure as ARPU declines.  The operators have to grow capabilities and do it more cheaply.

The first solution is the HetNet, densifying the networks and providing greater capacity for data traffic, with better Quality of Service for users inside buildings. To deliver this from the core to the Modern telecoms networks contain an ever-increasing variety of proprietary hardware. The second solution is the key enabling technology of Network Virtualisation (NV). NV  can deliver network functionality via software running on industry-standard commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. Virtual networks are decoupled from the underlying network hardware. This is already happening in production networks across the world. It is enabling 4G and making the5G revolution possible.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • Evolution of the technology generationsG to 5G
  • Spectrum refarming
  • Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
  • Network virtualisation
  • MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator and Sub-Brands
  • Backhaul and Fronthaul
  • Development of the market
  • Macro cell sites and base stations
  • Tower ownership
  • The HetNet, Densification and small cells

1. TELECOMS NETWORK TECHNOLOGY AND DEPLOYMENTS

  • Network technology
  • HetNet/Heterogeneous Network
  • Virtualisation
  • Cells
  • Types of base station
  • Macro cells
  • Small cells
  • Microcells
  • Metrocells
  • Picocells
  • Femtocells
  • DAS
  • Small cells or DAS?
  • Wi-Fi

2. RISING VOLUME OF DATA TRAFFIC

3. TECHNOLOGY PENETRATION -G to 5G

  • Timeline of mobile development
  • Unique mobile subscribers
  • 2G
  • 3G
  • Smartphones - 3G & 4G
  • 4G LTE
  • 5G
  • 5G trials
  • 5G network deployments
  • Coverage
  • Spectrum refarming

4. MIGRATION TO 4G IN CHINA, INDIA AND PAKISTAN

  • China
  • India
  • Pakistan

5. TRADITIONAL NETWORK ARCHITECTURE, BACKHAUL AND FRONTHAUL

  • Backhaul
  • Macro and micro backhaul
  • Front haul

6. VIRTUALISATION

  • Introduction to virtualisation in all industries
  • Types of virtualisation
  • The development of virtualisation
  • The benefits of virtualisation
  • The virtualisation market
  • Server virtualisation
  • Desktop virtualisation
  • Application virtualisation

7. NETWORK VIRTUALISATION

  • NV Network Function Virtualisation
  • SDN Software-defined Networking
  • The OSI model of data communications
  • V-RAN
  • Service providers and enterprise networks
  • MNOs and the virtual network
  • The NV market
  • MVNO Mobile Virtual Network Operator
  • MVNO Business models
  • MVNE - Mobile Virtual Network Enabler
  • MVNA Mobile Virtual Network Aggregator
  • Sub-brands
  • MVNO and sub-brand segments

8. CENTRALISED AND DISTRIBUTED BASEBAND

9. MOBILE MARKET REVIEW

  • The development of mobile telephony in the United States
  • The emergence of new telecommunications players
  • Cable
  • The Internet
  • Cellular and Wireless
  • Europe
  • The development of mobile telephony in Europe
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • CIS
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • The development of mobile telephony in the CIS
  • MENA
  • Saudi Arabia
  • North Africa
  • Egypt
  • Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • EAC - East African Community
  • Ethiopia
  • Kenya
  • Uganda
  • ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
  • DR Congo
  • ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
  • Cote d’Ivoire
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • SADC Southern African Development Community
  • South Africa
  • Mozambique
  • Tanzania
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • The development of mobile telephony in Japan
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Central and South America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Argentina

10. NETWORK DISTRIBUTION OF GROUND BASED TOWERS, ROOFTOP TOWERS, DAS AND STREET POLES

11. INSTALLED BASE OF MACRO CELL SITES

12. EXPENDITURE ON MACRO CELL SITES

  • Prices of tower base stations
  • NORTH AMERICA
  • EUROPE
  • France
  • Germany
  • Italy
  • Poland
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • Revenue of tower construction
  • CIS
  • Russia
  • Ukraine
  • MENA
  • Saudi Arabia
  • North Africa
  • Egypt
  • Algeria
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Tower sharing
  • EAC - East African Community
  • Kenya
  • Uganda
  • ECCAS, Economic Community of Central African States
  • DR Congo
  • ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States
  • Cote d’Ivoire
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • SADC Southern African Development Community
  • South Africa
  • Mozambique
  • Tanzania
  • Asia Pacific
  • China
  • India
  • Japan
  • Indonesia
  • Malaysia
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Central and South America
  • Brazil
  • Mexico
  • Argentina

13. THE HETNET, DENSIFICATION AND SMALL CELLS - DEVELOPMENTS AND INSTALLED BASE

  • Densification
  • Why we need to densify
  • Types of base station
  • Introduction
  • The early developments of small cells
  • Why were these early micro/picocellular 2G base stations not successful?
  • The penetration of small cell base stations
  • Market segments
  • Small cell shipments to 2015
  • Cost of deployment of small cells

14. BASE TRANSCEIVER STATIONS (BTS) FOR MACRO CELLS AND SMALL CELLS

15. EXPENDITURES ON SMALL CELL SITES

16. MANUFACTURERS OF LATTICE TOWERS AND MONOPOLES

  • Chinese manufacturers
  • Other Asian manufacturers
  • North American manufacturers
  • Brazil
  • Turkey

17. BACKHAUL VENDORS

18. INFRASTRUCTURE SHARING

  • Tower infrastructure companies
  • The economics of telcos and towercos
  • Reduced time-to-market
  • The towerco business model

19. ENERGY COSTS AND SOURCES

20. THE TOWERCO MARKET

  • Tower infrastructure companies
  • United States
  • Europe
  • CIS
  • Asia Pacific
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • China
  • Japan
  • MENA
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • South America

20. CRITERIA FOR MARKET EVALUATION

  • Criteria for MNO market evaluation - numbers of subscribers, ARPU, ARPA

21. NETWORK GLOSSARY, DEFINITIONS AND EXPLANATIONS

  • GBT Ground based tower
  • SMB Small and Midsize Business
  • Standards
  • NV Network Virtualisation
  • METHODOLOGY

Figures
Figure: HetNets
Figure 2: Types of macro cell ground based towers (GBT)
Figure 3: Street poles
Figure 4: Macro cell rooftop towers (RTT)
Figure 5: Microcell base station
Figure 6: Metrocell base station
Figure 7: Picocell base station
Figure 8: Some examples of femtocells offered by member companies of the Femto Form
Figure 9: Mobile network coverage and evolving technologies
Figure0: 4G LTE penetration, top 20 countries, Q4 2015
Figure1: US total data consumption by device type in petabytes/month, 2014 to 2020
Figure2: Data traffic from wireless and mobile devices 2010 to 2020
Figure3: 2G o 4G download rates
Figure4: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
Figure5: Coverage of 4G in 2016,
Figure6: The difference in take-up of 3g and 4G in China
Figure7: The Backhaul Network in the MNO Architecture
Figure8: Traditional and virtual architecture
Figure9: Perceived attributes of NV solutions
Figure 20: NV Vendors considered among NV end users
Figure 21: Regional distribution of MVNOs, December 2015
Figure 22: The0 countries with the largest number of MVNOs as of June 2015, were:
Figure 23: Fully distributed and mixed centralised and distributed baseband deployments
Figure 24: The countries of the East Africa Community
Figure 25: The countries of the Economic Community of Central African States
Figure 26: The countries of the Economic Community of West African States
Figure 27: The countries of the Southern African Development Community
Figure 28: Global installed base of telecoms towers, 2016-2021
Figure 29: Global installed telecoms towers by region, 2016
Figure 30: Installed telecoms towers (active), USA and Canada, 2016-2021
Figure 31: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
Figure 32: Installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
Figure 33: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
Figure 34: Installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
Figure 35: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
Figure 36: Global installed telecoms towers, China and India, 2016-2021
Figure 37: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in Asia Pacific excluding China and India by country, 2016-2021
Figure 38: Global installed telecoms towers, selected countries in LAC, 2016-2021
Figure 39: The structure of tower ownership in Europe, 2016 and 2020
Figure 40: Illegal rooftop towers in India
Figure 41: Evolution of network design increased densification resulting from the move from voice services to data usage
Figure 42: The Gartner Hype Curve
Figure 43: Cumulative shipments of small cells, 2011 to 2016
Figure 44: Cumulative shipments of small cells by cell type, 2013 to 2016
Figure 45: Annual shipments of small cells by type, 2014 to 2017
Figure 46: Total cost of installation of small cells by cost component
Figure 47: Mobile traffic by cell site type by 2020
Figure 48: Demand for cellular base stations, macro and micro, 2016-21.
Figure 49: Structure of a mobile network
Figure 50: Breakdown of tower expenses, capex and opex, as a % of total cost in a typical site
Figure 51: Number of countries permitting sharing or co-location of passive infrastructure for telecoms operators
Figure 52: Example of infrastructure sharing of 2 tenants and 4 tenants, antennas and base stations
Figure 53: Number of bad-grid and off-grid towers, in 2014 and projected for 2020.
Figure 54: Number of towers owned by independent towercos and by MNOs in regions and selected countries
Figure 55: Analog vs digital signals
Figure 56: Containers vs. virtual machines
Figure 58: 2G o 4G download rates
Figure 59: Current Telecommunications Hierarchy Diagram.
Figure 60: High level NFV framework

Tables
Table: Prefixes for units of data speed
Table 2: Global mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 3: Global mobile connections by technology, 2010 to 2020
Table 4: Penetration of 2G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 5: Penetration of 3G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 6: Penetration of 3G & 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020
Table 7: 4G leaders at end 2016
Table 8: Penetration of 4G among mobile connections by region, 2010 to 2020.
Table 9: Coverage of 4G in 2016
Table0: Number of 4G base stations in China, 2017
Table1: Reasons to Use Virtualisation
Table2: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
Table3: The first MVNOs
Table4: Segments of the MVNO and Sub-brand market
Table5: Major Mobile Operators in the United States
Table6: MVNOs in the United States
Table7: The distribution of macro cell sites by type
Table8: Distribution of GBTs and urban cell sites; RTTs, DASs and street poles in 2016.
Table9: Global installed telecoms towers in thousands, by region, 2016-2021
Table 20: Installed telecoms towers, North America by country, 2016-2021
Table 21: Installed telecoms towers, Europe by country, 2016-2021
Table 22: Global installed telecoms towers, CIS by country, 2016-2021
Table 23: Installed telecoms towers, Middle East by country, 2016-2021
Table 24: Global installed telecoms towers, North Africa by country, 2016-2021
Table 25: Installed telecoms towers, Sub-Saharan Africa by country, 2016-2021
Table 26: Global installed telecoms towers, Asia by country, 2016-2021
Table 27: Global installed telecoms towers, Pacific by country, 2016-2021
Table 28: Installed telecoms towers, South America by country, 2016-2021
Table 29: Installed telecoms towers, Central America by country, 2016-2021
Table 30: Expenditure on telecoms towers by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 31: Costs of constructing a telecoms towers in selected countries and regions
Table 32: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, USA and Canada nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 33: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Europe, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 34: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, CIS, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 35:  Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Middle East nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 36: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, North Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 37: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Sub-Saharan Africa, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 38: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, China and India nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 39: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers, replacements and upgrades, Asia nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021 (including China and India)
Table 40: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Pacific, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 41: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, South America, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 42: Capital expenditure on new telecoms towers and replacements and upgrades, Central America, nominal $ million, 2016 - 2021
Table 43: Small cells expenditure at installed cost by region, 2015 to 2020
Table 44: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Europe by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 45: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in North America by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 46: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Middle East by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 47: Small cells expenditure at installed cost in Asia Pacific by country, 2015 to 2020
Table 48: Manufacturers of steel towers and poles, by share of production capacity
Table 49: Backhaul vendors, macro cell and small cell
Table 50: Share of towerco ownership of towers by region, 2016
Table 51: Incidence of sharing in regions and selected countries
Table 52: Number of independent towers in regions and selected countries, installed base, 2016
Table 53: Top telecom tower companies in the United States with number of towers installed, 2012, 2014 and 2016
Table 54: Tower portfolios of operator-promoted tower infrastructure companies/telecom operators and of third party tower companies in India, 2015
Table 55: Numbers of towers owned by Japanese telecoms operators
Table 56: OSI Open Source Interconnection, 7 Layer Model
Table 57: Small cell characteristics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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